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Give the rules for the objective case; the rules for the infinitive.

9. What is a principal proposition ? a copula ? an adverbial element? What is apposition ? Give an example of each.

10. Write a composition on any one of the following subjects: The Life of David Livingstone. Audubon and Birds. Captain Cook's Voyages and Discoveries. Marquette and the Mississippi. La Salle and the Mississippi. The Founding of Marietta. National Cemeteries. Old-fashioned Ways of reaching the West. Story of Sir Francis Drake. Whittier's “Snow-Bound."

-B. A. HINSDALE, LL.D., in Common School Education,


In his inaugural address Governor Bartlett makes some remarks on the subject of industrial training in our common schools which we deem of sufficient importance to justify their reproduction in the JOURNAL. Says the Governor:

I desire to call your special attention to that part of the report of the State Superintendent of Schools which refers to work schools or industrial training. The subject is becoming one of absorbing interest to all good citizens. The success which has followed the establishment of such schools in St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Boston and New York proves that they are meeting a real want in the community.

It is admitted by the more thoughtful and philosophic educators that the present system of public schools is based too largely on the old scholastic systems of learning. Our most scholarly men, the educators of our country, from the


Presidents and faculties of our universities to the public school teachers, are, from the nature of their position, removed from the active pursuits of the great mass of the people, and cannot be expected to instruct their pupils in arts and trades of which they themselves have little knowledge or experience. Their education has made them love learning in the abstract more than the sciences as applied to daily life. Their influence tends to foster a love for books and literary or profėssional life, so that the majority of their students who are able to graduate aspire to the professions of law or medicine, or other scholarly pursuits.

The great mass of our public school children are obliged to assist their parents when they leave the grammar schools, so that the primary schools are really of the very greatest importance in their education.

It is generally conceded by those who have studied the subject most thoroughly that Froebel's method of training all the faculties of the child is the most perfect of any that has yet been devised.

Hence, it seems to me that the students at the State Normal Schools should be thoroughly instructed in this system, so that in due time all parts of the State could be supplied with primary teachers competent to lay the foundation for a thorough education, developing the mechanical and artistic faculties as well as the purely intellectual.

The efforts already being made by the people for establishing manual and technical schools should also be liberally encouraged. The technical departments of the University should be made as valuable as possible to the people throughout the State. It would be well to offer special inducements to public school students to arouse a greater interest in the industrial arts and sciences.


In the very early days of Oakland, when it was yet but a hamlet, long before the days of macadamized streets, planked sidewalks, gaslights and waterworks, when Seventh street was “up town,” and all beyond was a thick grove of liveoaks, through which, in the deep sand, the wagon-ways wound their desired course, there were few, if any, among its citizens why even dreamed of what the future had in store for Oakland. While most of them were absorbed in business, were straining every nerve to hasten the time when they could return "home" with the golden harvest, the hope to obtain which had brought them to this coast, there were yet •a few serious, thoughtful men, who, with an abiding faith in the future of California, saw, or thought they saw, in Oakland, a location possessing special advantages and attractions as a place in which to found institutions of higher education for the children of those who, in the future, should make their permanent homes on this Western coast. Prominent among these was Rev. Henry Durant, whose name should go down to posterity as the Pioneer, or Father of Higher Education on the Pacific Coast.

Filled with the enthusiasm of the idea, he opened, on the corner of Broadway and Fourth street, in what had once been a store or saloon, a school for boys; and this was the nucleus of what afterwards grew into the Oakland College School, which occupied the tract now forming the four blocks of land bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Franklin and Harrison, the largest boarding and day school before or since in California. From this came the College of California with its splendid possession of the 200 acres at Berkeeley, afterwards given by the College Trustees to the State as a site for its University; and finally this latter institution, of which Henry Durant was the first President--a magnificent realization of the dreams of his earlier days, a glad



fruition of his hopes, a full answer to the prayers of his earnest soul, a fitting reward for the labors, the struggles and the faith of years. The friends of education everywhere, and the people of Oakland in particular, should ever keep green the memory of Henry Durant.

Following the establishment of the College school, and the College of California, came other schools and seminaries, prominent among which were the Blake Seminary, the Pacific Female College and Doctor McClure's Academy, first opened on Ninth street, near Franklin; and to these various institutions of learning there came from the mines in the mountains, and the ranches on the plains, and in the valleys, as the year went on, hundreds-indeed thousands of boys and girls, young men and maidens, now themselves heads of families, many of them prominent in business and professional life, many of them having filled, and many of them now filling, high and responsible positions of public trust and public honor.

The number and excellence of these private institutions of learning operated to delay long the establishment of anything deserving the name of a system of PUBLIC EDUCATION in this city. I very well remember how John Swett, on one of his visits to Oakland as State Superintendent, bitterly complained to me of the neglect in this particular. Even as late as that year (1864) Oakland had but one public schoolhouse, the small building now on Grove street, between Eleventh and Twelfth, back of the Lafayette schoolhouse. It stood in the middle of the block then and contained but two rooms.

It is interesting to us who remember the election for a school officer less than a year ago, to note the following as showing the interest in public school matters in those other days. On the 4th of August, 1863, an election was held for School Trustee, at which thirty-two votes were cast, and Rev. George Mooar, Geo. H. Fogg and E. Janssen were elected, and thereafter held meetings "at Justice Fogg's Office.''

But when, by increase of population, the necessity was recognized for increased public school accommodations, the people of Oakland were of a mind to meet the demand fully and completely, and to be satisfied with nothing short of the best that could be provided. And this is the spirit which has governed and controlled in this matter of public education from that day to this, so that to-day, the crowning glory of Oakland, the boast and pride of the citizens, is her splendid system of free public education.

The first act creating a Board of Education, for the city of Oakland, was approved March 31, 1886. By it the Board of Education, consisted of eight members appointed by the City Council—the President of the Board to act as Superintendent of Schools.

At the meeting held September 2, 1867, a committee of two was appointed to consult the City Attorney as to the power of the Board to allow the Superintendent a salary. As no record can be found of a report from this committee, it is inferred that the interview with the City Attorney was not satisfactory.

That the school officers of those days were not disposed to stand any foolishness, is manifest from the record in the minutes of the meeting held Nov. 4, 1867, as follows: “ The Superintendent reported that he had been informed that school house No. 3 had been used for dancing purposes, and recommended that the Board take action in the matter.'

The feature of our school premises that first attracts the attention of strangers, visiting our city to-day, is the condition of the grounds in front of them, and the profusion of shrubs and flowering plants to be found therein. In the proceedings of the meeting held December 2, 1867, is a record of the first appropriation for this purpose—$25.

A bill “ An Act to establish and define the powers and duties of the Board of Education of the City of Oakland," passed the Legislature and was approved March 14, 1868. With some amendments made from time to time, this is the

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