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[Edited by Ira G. Hoitt, Superintendent of Public Instruction.]

DEAB SIR: Does Section Seven (7) of Article IX of the Constitution, commonly known as the Perry Amendment, abolish City Boards of Examination, or deprive them of the right and power to examine teachers and grant teachers' certificates in their respective cities, and lodge that power in the County Superintendents and County Boards of Education ?

In my opinion there is but one city in the State wherein a City Board of Examiners can act with any show of legality, and that is the city of San Francisco, and there only because San Francisco is a city and county government combined in one. In all other cities in the State the power to examine candidates for teachers and issue to them certificates rests with the County Superintendents and County Boards of Education. The City Boards of Examivation are not abolished, but their functions are taken away by the Perry Amendment. Iappend the opinion of the Attorney General on this subject:

SACRAMENTO, January 21, 1887. Hon. la G. Hoitt, Superintendent of Public l«struction-DEAR SIR: Yours of the 19th inst, inquiring as to the effect of what is commonly known as the Perry Amendment, in respect to the powers of City Boards of Examiners to examine teachers and issue certificates, is at hand; and in reply I have to state that in my opinion such City Boards have no such power, and that under the Perry Amendment the power is lodged entirely with the County Superintendents and County Boards of Education, whose jurisdiction in this matter is co-extensive with their respective counties. But in the event the County Superintendent and County Board of Education of any county approve and ratify the action of such City Boards of Examiners in examining teachers and grauting teacher's certificates within the jarisdiction of such county, the action of such City Board is thus vitalized, and becomes the action of the County Superintendent and County Board, the latter thus controlling the whole subject matter. Very respectfully yours,

G. A. Johnson, Attorney General. I have prepared an amendment to Section 7 of Article IX of the Constitution, placing the power to examine teachers and grant certificates again in the bands of City Boards of Education in their respective cities. Senator Gesford, a wide-awake school man, and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Education, has introduced it and will urge its passage.

A GROWING interest in the new State series of text-books bas been mani. fested during the month of January by a large increase in the number of orders received by the State Superintendent. Twenty one counties have sent in orders, altogether calling for 2,560 books; value, $674 90, exclusive of freight and postage. Thus far San Diego has sent in the largest order, and Modoc the second in value.





President Holden's Annual Report to the Governor of the State, issued a short time ago, contains much valuable and interesting information, espe. cially so to those who are deeply concerned for the progress of higher education on this coast. It contains many important facts and figures relating to the University, shows its strength and progress, and points out what remains to be created or more fully developed in its financial and educational organizatiov. The report should be carefully read by every progressive teacher in California. But the object of this article is more particularly to write of the recommendation in the report that the various religious denom. inations shall establish in Berkeley their several theological and other schools, and while giving their own preferred secular and religious instruction to the youth of their denominations, also avail themselves of the advanced courses of literary and scientific study which are offered free to all by our State University. Sach opportunities, so good and so generously held out to the people are rarely found the world over, and if they are not accepted, let us place the blame and indifference where it rightly belongs, with some of the leaders of the denominations, but not with the University, its Regents, Faculties, students or material. When it has been shown as clearly as daylight, as it often has, that the University, with a Board of Regents composed of men who are noted for their practical wisdom and ability in the management of financial affairs; with an hundred professors and assistants in the faculties of its academic and professional courses, some baving world-wide reputations for learning and ability; with a corps of students whose character and conduct have been completely vindicated and commended; with a property, material and revenue which place it in the rank of the best among Eastern Universities; is beyond and above comparison with any other of our colleges at home, and still encounters indifference, dislike, enmity and positive opposition, we must write plainly, and point to the true motives which engender such narrow ideas and unwise action; such bitter and uncharitable feelings and statements concerning their own free State University, of which in reality they should be proud, 44


and of which their children will be proud, in days to come. Denominational pride, exclusiveness and groundless apprehension, together with personal selfishness and ambition, on the part of a few interested leaders, are at the bottom of the whole of it, and not until a broad Christian charity of sentiment, a love of truth wherever found for tłuth's sake, a moral fearlessness in well doing, and a generosity of spirit which grants to others that freedom of thought and action which is demanded by right for themselves is possessed by such leaders, will secular education be given “a fair field and no favor.” The University stands ready to receive all who may come from the new denominational colleges which may be established in Berkeley. How long must she wait? And who is to blame if she wait in vain forever?

The University is, and has often been, declared the crown of the public school system. Such being the case, the supporters and patrons of the latter should be as warmly the supporters and patrons of the former, and the enemies of one are just as surely the secret or open enemies of the other.


The semi-annual examinations at Berkeley began on Monday, January 31st, and will last one week. The second term will commence three days later.

If the University “one cent tax bill ” becomes a law, the success of our State institution will be fully assured; for its Board of Regents will know definitely from year to year its exact revenue, and can lay their plans for the future accordingly. The departments already established may then be developed to their full efficiency, and new ones, demanded by the progress of education and the desires of the people, may as fast as required be endowed. A stable condition of finances and of proper growth will thus be brought about and maintained.

The meteorology of Berkeley is published from the Students' Observatory each month, and copies may be obtained by addressing the Recorder of the Faculties.

The number of Professors and assistants in the University is now one hundred. The number of students is between five and six hundred, and constantly increasivg.

About fifty young ladies are in attendance at the University, and their average class rank is very high.

On overhauling the almanac for 1887 we find that Washington's birthday falls on Tuesday, St. Valentine's day on Monday, April-Fool day on Friday, Memorial day on Monday, Christmas on Sunday; Easter Sunday will be on the 10th of April; Lent begins March 2d; Fourth of July on Monday. There will be four eclipses, two of the sun and two of the moon, on February 8th, visible as a partial eclipse in the United States.


SALUTATORY. As our title page bears the imprint of Volume I, Number 1, a word or two of introduction may not be altogether amiss.

It is no newcomer that we introduce, with this issue, to the educational public of the country. In this new dress, scarcely disguised by the unfamiliar garb, comes an old and true friend, on a mission long approved, and for ends which merit the aid of every lover of free republican government.

The most experienced—the best teachers—find an educational journal a helper and a friend. What must it be to the young, the untried ? Just what the JOURNAL is for, what it promises to be and what to do, is so generally understood, that it appears almost needless to go over the well-trodden ground of explanation. Yet that no charge of omission may be laid thus early at our doors, we lay out the plan of our labors.

To make teaching truly a profession, by raising and keeping up the standard for admission to its ranks, by fostering a professional spirit among its members, and by inculcating a feeling of professional ethics still so often lacking in our body-these are a few of our aimns.

To accomplish this, we invite to our aid all those friends of old, who have been the leaders in the educational progress of the coast. We hope to see once again the words of Swett and Campbell, and Allen and More, of Denman and Drake, and Anderson and Mann, instructing their younger brethren-inspiring them with a more ardent love for their work, and instilling in them a more abiding faith in its possibilities for eternal good. In every issue we expect to have one or more of these experienced guides pointing out to the beginners the How, as well as the Why of the art of teaching.

Moreover, the JOURNAL will voice the educational sentiment of the Coast, and it will speak on all occasions and on all appropriate subjects in no uncertain tones. It will serve as the medium of communication between teachers far apart, and will introduce one to another all those who labor in the one grand work of education.

Of practical, every-day schoolroom work, examination material, hints for object work, there will always be a sufficiency, both original and selected. Nor does the JOURNAL intend to slight or ignore the higher ground of the profession—the exposition of those great principles which underlie all real teaching and without a comprehension of which the individual can never be a true teacher.

The JOURNAL represents, in this issue, the consolidated educational periodicals of California. We believe the union will prove of the greatest value to the educational interests of the coast, and that teachers will find, at last, a



friend strong enough, intelligent enough and willing enough to help them in their daily work against foes without the profession, and no less dangerous foes within.

STATE TEXT-BOOKS. From an exchange we copy the following brief review of such of the State text books as have thus far been completed:

The compilation of the California State series of text-books has been completed by the State Board of Education, and the books have been formally adopted in accordance with the law upon the subject.

The prices of the books are as follows: First Reader, at Sacramento 15 cts., by mail 20 cents; Second Reader, at Sacramento 30 cents, by mail 38 cents; Third Reader, at Sacramento 40 cents, by mail 52 cents; Speller, at Sacramento 20 cents, by mail 26 cents.

The mechanical appearance of the books, as to typography, press work, illustration, paper and binding, is all that can be desired, and reflects credit upon the State Printing Office. The clear-cut pages, the bright illustrations, the superior paper and the cloth binding will find favor alike with teachers, pupils and parents. The books are pleasing to the eye, and at the same tiine serviceable.

The Speller contains 192 pages. It is designed to replace the speller or word-book ordinarily used and the word-analysis. In a word, it is two books in one.

The work has been prepared upon the theory that the greatest improvement in spelling can be attained by uniting oral and written exercises with practice in word-using, thus ennabling the pupil to gain not only practical knowledge of correct spelling, but also to acquire a generous vocabulary, and render it available in the ready and proper expression of ideas. Classification of words with reference to the elementary vowel sounds and their equivalents used in spelling them is a leading feature. Difficult combinations representing similar sounds have been grouped together. An effort has been made to grade the work in accordance with the progress of the pupils. Synonyms have received especial attention. Much care has evidently been bestowed on the treatment of synonyms, word-analysis and derivations. Quotations from our best authors have been introduced to illustrate the use of words found in the spelling lists.

The First Reader shows much originality. The illustrations are excellent. The claim on the part of some that the spellers and readers are too large will apply with less force to the First Reader than any of the series.

The plan of the book is for the pupil to learn the words first; second, to learn to write them in script; third, to learn the sounds of the letters used; fourth, to learn the letter forms.

The Second Reader has not yet been received in this city, and therefore no criticism of its contents can be made.

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