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THE NEW TARIFF LAW-Continued. spirits on which the internal revenue tax has not | except under the immediate supervision of an officer been paid, otherwise than within the limitations set of internal revenue, who shall make returns describforth in Sec. 55 of this act, and in accordance with ing the kinds and quantities of wine so fortified, the regulations made pirsuant to tris act, shall be and shall attix such stamps and seals to the packliable to a penalty of double the amount of the tax age containing such wines as may be prescribed by on the wine spirits or other spirits so unlawfully tae Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the used. Whenever it is impracticable in any case to approval of the Secretary of Treasury. Whenever ascertain the quantity of wine spirits or other such wine spirits are withdrawn as provided herein spirits that have been used in violation of this act in for the cortification or wines intended for exportation mixtures with any wines, all alcohol contained in by sea they shall be introduced into such wines only such unlawful mixtures of wine with wine spirits or after removal from storage and arrival alongside of other spirits in excess of 10% shall be held to be the vessel which is to transport the same; and whenunlawfully used: Provided, however, That if water ever transportation of such wines is to be effected bas been added to such unlawful mixtures, either by land carriage the Commissioner of internal Revbefore, at the time of, or after such unlawful use of enue, with the approval of the Secretary of Treaswine spirits or other spirits, all the alcohol contained ury, shall prescribe such regulations as to sealing therein shall be considered to have been unlawfully packages and vehicles containing the same, and as used. In reference to alcoholic strength of wines to the supervision of transportation from the point and mixtures of wines with spirits in this act, the ot departure, which point shall be determined as meas irement is intended to be according to volume the place where such wine spirits may be introduced and not according to weight.

into such wines, to the point of destination as may SEC. 45. That under such regulations and official be necessary to insure the due exportation of such supervision, and upon the execution of such entries fortified wines. and the giving of such bonds, bills of lading, and SEC. 47. That all provisions of law relating to the other security as the Commissioner of Internal re-importation of any goods of domestic growth or Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of manufacture which were originally liable to an inTreasury, shall prescribe, any producer of pure ternal revenue tax shall be, as far as applicable, ensweet wines as defined by this act may withdraw forced against any domestic wines sought to be rewine spirits from any special bonded warehouse free imported; and duty shall be levied and collected of tax, in original packages, in any quantity not less upon the same wben re-imported, as an original than 80 wine galls, and may use so much of the importation. same as may be required by him, under such regula SEC. 48. That any person using wine spirits or tions, and after the filing of such notices and bonds, other spirits which have not been tax-paid in fortiand the keeping of such records, and the rendition fying wine otherwise than as provided for shall be of such reports as to materials and products and the guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction disposition of the same as the Commissioner of In thereof, be punished for each offense by a fine of ternal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary not more than $2,000, and for every offense other of the Treasury, shall prescribe, in fortifying the than the first also by imprisonment for not more pure sweet wines made by him, and for no other than 1 yr. Durpose, in accordance with the limitations and pro SEC. 49. That wine spirits used in fortifying visions as to uses, amount to be used, and period for wines may be recovered from such wine only on the using the same set forth in Sec. 53 of this act; and premises of a duly authorized grape brandy distillthe Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the er; and for the purpose of such recovery wines so approval of the Secretary of Treasury, is author. fortified may be received as material on the ized, whenever he shall deem it to be necessary for premises of such a distiller, on the special permit of the prevention of violations of this law, to prescribe the collector of internal revenue in whose district that wine spirits withdrawn under this section shall the distillery is located; and the distiller will be not be used to fortify wines except at a certain dis held to pay the tax on a product from such wines as cance prescribed by him from any distillery, rectify. will include both the alcoholic strength therein ing hose, winery, or other establishment used for produced by the fermentation of the grape-juice producing or storing distilled spirits, or for making and that obtained from the added distilled spirits. or storing wines other than wines which are so for SEC. 50. That on and after the day when this act tified, and that in the building in which such forti shall go into effect all goods, wares, and merchandfication of wines is practiced no wines or spirits ise previously imported, for which no entry has other than those permitted by his regulation shall been made, and all goods, wares, and merchandiso be stored. The use of wine spirits free of tax for the previously entered without payment of duty and fortification of sweet wines under this act shall be under bond for warehousing, transportation, or begun and coinpleted at the vineyard of the wine any other purpose, for which no permit of delivery grower where the grapes are crushed and the grape to the importer or his agent has been issued, shall juice is expressed and fermented, such use to be be subjected to no other duty upon the entry or the under the immediate supervision of an officer of in withdrawal thereof than if the same were imported ternal revenue, who shall make returns describing respectively after that day: Provided, That any imthe kinds and quantities of wine so fortified, and ported merchandise deposited in bond in any pubshall affix such stamps and seals to the packages lic or private bonded warehouse having been so de. containing such wines as may be prescribed by the posited prior to the 1st day of October, 1890, may Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the ap be withdrawn for consumption at any time prior to proval of the Secretary of Treasury; and the Com February 1, 1891, upon the payment of duties at missioner of Internal Revenue shall provide by the rates in force prior to the passage of this act: regulations the time within which wines so fortified Provided further, That when duties are based upon with the wine spirits so withdrawn may be subject the weight of merchandise deposited in any public to inspection, and for final accounting for the use or private bonded warehouse said duties shall be of such wine spirits and for re-warehousing or for levied and collected upon the weight of such merpayment of the tax on any portion of such wine chandise at the time of its withdrawal. spirits which remain not used in fortifying pure SEC, 51. That all goods, wares, articles, and mersweet wines.

chandise manufactured wholly or in part in any forSEC. 46 That wine spirits may he withdrawn from eign country by convict labor shall not be entitled special bonded warehouses at the instance of any to entry at any of the ports of the U.S., and the impersun desiring to use the same to fortify any wines, portation thereof is hereby prohibited, and the Secin accordance with commercial demands of foreign retary of Treasury is authorized to prescribe such markets, when such wines are intended for exporta regulations as may be necessary for the enforcetion, without the payment of tax on the amount of ment of this provision, wine spirits used in such fortification, under such SEC. 52. That the value of foreign coin as exregulations, and after making such entries, and ex pressed in the money of account of the U. S. shall ecuting and filing with the collector of the district be that or the pure metal of such coin of standard from which the removal is to be made such tonds value; and the values of the standard coins in cirand bills of lading, and giving such other additional culation of the various nations of the world shall security to prevent the use of such wine spirits free be estimated quarterly by the Director of the Mint, of tax or otherwise than in the fortification of wine and be proclaimed by the Sectetary of Treasury im. intended for exportation, and for the due exporta mediately after the passage of this act, and theretion of the wine so fortified, as may be prescribed Efter quarterly on the 1st day of January, April, by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the valy and October in each year. approval of the Secretary of Treasury; and all of SEC. 53. That all special taxes shall become due the provisions of law governing the exportation of on the 1st day of July, 1891, and on the 1st day of distilled spirits free of tax, so far as applicable, July in each yr. thereafter, or on commencing any shall apply to the withdrawal and use of wine spir trade or business on which such tax is imposed. In its and the exportation of the same in accordance the former case the tax shall be reckoned for 1 yr.: with this section; and the Commissioner of Inter and in the latter case it shall be reckoned propornal Revenue is authorized, subject to approval by tionately from the first day of the month in which the Secretary of Treasury, to prescribe that wine the liability to a special tax commenced to the 1st spirits intended for the fortification of wines under day of July following. Special tax stamps may be this section shall not be introduced into such wines issued for the months of May and June, 1891, upon

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THE NEW TARIFF LAW-Continued. payment of the anount of tax reckoned proportion SEC. 55. That all laws and parts of laws incon. ately under the laws now in force, and such stamps sistent with this act are hereby repealed: Provided, which have been or may be issued for the period however, That the repeal of existing laws, or modifiending April 30, 1890, may, upon payment of one cations thereof, embraced in this act shall pot affect sixth of the amount required to be paid for such any act done or any right accruing or accrued, or stamps for 1 yr., be extended until July 1, 1891, any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any under such regulations as may be prescribed by the civil cause beiore the said repeal or modifications, Commissioner of Internal Revenue. And it shall be but all rights and liabilities under said laws shall the duty of special tax payers to render their re continue and may be enforced in the same manner turns to the deputy collector at such times within as if said repeal or modification had not been the calendar month in which the special tax liability made. commenced as shall enable him to receive such re

Any offenses committed, and all penalties or forturns, duly signed and verified, not later than the feitures or liabilities incurred under any statute last day of the month, except in cases of sickness embraced in, or changed, modified, or repealed by or absence, as provided for in Sec. 3,176 of the this act, may be prosecuted and punished in the Revisod Statutes.

same manner and with the same effect as if this SEC. 54. That Seo. 20 of the act entitled “An act had not been passed. All acts of limitation, act to simplify the laws in relation to the collection whether applicable to civil causes and proceedings of revenues," approved June 10, 1890, is hereby or to the prosecution of offenses, or for the recovery amended to read as follows:

of penalties or forfeitures, embraced in, or modified, "SEO. 20. That any merchandise deposited in changed, or repealed by this act, shall not be bond in any public or private bonded warehouse affected thereby, and all suits, proceedings, or prosmay be withdrawn for consumption within 3 yrs. eoutions, whether civil or criminal, for causes arisfrom the date of original importation, on payment ing or acts done or committed prior to the passage of the duties and charges to which it may be subject of this act, may be commenced and prosecuted withby law at the time of such withdrawal: Provided, in the same time and with the same effect as if this That nothing herein shall affect or impair existing act had not been passed. provisions of law in regard to the disposal of perish

Approved October 1, 1890. able or explosive articles."

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IMMIGRATION. Statement showing, by nationalities, the number of immigrants arrived in the United States at the ports named below during the month ending July 31, 1890, and the seven months ending the same, compared with the corresponding periods of 1889.

Months
Month end-
Countries.

1890. 1889. 1890. 1889.
Austria-Hungary:
Bohemia ........

707 178 3,997 1,614 Hungary ..... 1,688 1,204 14,286 7,486 Other Austria (ex

cept Poland) ..... 2,138 1,828 19,381 13,233 Total ....

4,533 3,210 37,664 22,333 Denmark...

597 470 6,849 5,974 France

403 346 3.263 2,739 Germany......

7,068 6.940 55,974 59,372 Great Britain and Ire

land: England and Wales 4,877 5,372 31,159 36,762 Scotland ...

813 1,229 6,841 10,168 Ireland............. 3,471 3,984 36,210 44,175

COMPOUND COLORS. The following list gives the colors used in producing the various tints named:

Straw color-White and chrome yellow, white and lemon yellow and a stain of raw umber.

Cream color_White, chrome or lemon yellow and red, or white and yellow ochre.

Light buff and deep buff are composed of white, yellow ochre and red. These colors are properly pale shades of pale orange.

Salmon color is composed of white, yellow and vermilion, Venetian or light red. Lake added imparts depth and richness.

Orange-Equal parts of yellow and red, as lemon, chrome and vermilion. Deeper hues may be made by using the darker yellows and reds.

Gold Color-White, chrome yellow, Indian red and raw umber.

Flesh color-White and Indian red; white, red and yellow.

Canary color-White and chrome or lemon yellow. Gray-White and black.

Colored grays-White, black and red, yellow or blue.

Pea green-White and chrome; white and milori green; white and emerald or verdigris green; white, blue and yellow.

Lead color-White, blue and a small proportion of black.

Pearl color-White, black and red.

Stone color-White, yellow and umber; black, umber and yellow.

Tan color--Burnt sienna, yellow and raw umber.
Citron-Green and orange.
Russet-Orange and purple.
Olive-Green and purple.
Chocolate, Black and Spanish brown.

London smoke-Burnt umber, yellow, white and red; Vandyke brown, yellow, white and lake.

Lilac - White, carmine and ultramarine blue.
Purple-Ultramarine blue, carmine and white.
Violet-Red and blue, equal parts.

Wine color-Purple, lake and ultramarine blue; lake, blue and black.

Rich browns-Burnt sienna, yellow and lake; Dutch pink, burnt umber and vermilion; Dutch pink. umber, yellow and vermilion or lake; Vandyke brown, burnt sienna and lake.

Bottle green-Prussian blue, yellow and black,

Sea green-Yellow, blue and raw umber; all other body greens are composed of blue and yellow or black and yellow, and they will be light, medium or dark, according to the proportions used.

Broken green-A green that has a tinge of red, burnt sienna or umber.

Maroon -Carmine, yellow and burnt umber; crimson-lake and burnt umber.

Plum color-Lake, blue and black.

Total............. 9,161 10,585 74,210 91,105 Italy ....

3,670 2,431 40,646 17,224 Netherlands....... 227 238 3,209 5,233 Poland ...............

2,103 449 10,771 2,910 Russia,except Poland 4,658 3,478 24,607 21,327 Sweden and Norway. 3,043 3,447) 27,967 29,895 Switzerland ....

320 321 4,047 4,392 All other countries... | 1,914 929 9,327 6.641 Total............. 37,697 32,844 298,534 269,145

Ports.
Baltimore, Md........ 1,881 1,799 17,639 18,714
Boston and Charles-

town, Mass........ 2,718 2,229 19,770 21,270
New Orleans, La..... 4 56 1,750 1,270
New York, N. Y...... 30,400 26,598|242, 111 209.769
Philadelphia, Pa..... 1,924 1,919 14,634 16,099
San Francisco, Cal... 770243 2,630 2,023

Total............. 37,697'32,844 298,534 269,145 Note.-Immigrants from the British North American Possessions and Mexico are not included in the statistics of immigration, owing to the absence of law providing for the collection of accurate data in regard thereto. The arrivals of immigrants in the customs districts above specified comprise about 99 per cent. of the entire immigration into the country.

RAPID TRANSIT IN CITIES. Showing miles operated by various kinds of motive power, single and double track, and increase for past decade, as shown by the Eleventh Census.

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From the above comparison it is seen to be a peculiarity of the Philadelphia roads, and to some extent of the Boston roads, that the tracks usually occupy different streets in going to and from a terminus instead of being laid upon the same street. The result of this is that roads in the cities named traverse a greater length of street in proportion to track length than in New York, Brooklyn and Chicago.

On December 31, 1889, 476 cities and towns in the United States possessed rapid transit facilities, and the total number of street railways in independent operation was 807.

455.5

Feet. 473 464 443.8 438 404.8 392 390.5 363 355.1 839.9 328 314.9 300 287.5

220

GREAT HEIGHTS.
CHIMNEYS.

Feet. St. Nicholas’, Hamburg ..........
Paisley, Scotland, over..........

500 Utrecht .....
Townsend's, Glasgow, Scotland ....... 488 St. Stephen's, Vienna.
Royul Smelting Works, Freiburg, Saxony. 460 Cathedral, Milan........
St. Rollox, Glasgow, Scotland.......

Cathedral, Antwerp .....
Musprat's, Liverpool, England ...

406 Cathedral, Cremona ...... Fall River Iron Co., Fall River, Mass.. 350 Cathedral, Florence ..... Gas Works, Edinburgh, Scotland...

341.5 Cathedral, St. Petersburg. Clarke Thread Works, Kearney, N.

335

St. Paul's, London . Steam Heating Co., New York .....

Cathedral, Magdeburg : ........

St. Mark's, Venice ....... ....
COLUMNS.

Votive Church, Vienna.....
Washington, Washington..........

555 Observatory, Coney Island Bartholdi Statue of Liberty ...

305.6

Capitol, Washington....... Bunker Hill, Mass .............

221 Brooklyn Bridge towers. City, London .....

202 Cathedral, Escurial.. :::: Alexander, St. Petersburg....

175 Leaning Tower, Pisa. Nelson's, London July, Paris........

157

SPIRES. Trajan, Rome ...

145

St. Peter's, Rome....... Place Vendome, Paris .

136

Cathedral, Strasburg ... Nelson's, Dublin ...

134

Salisbury .... Napoleon, Paris

132

Freiburg ..... Pompey's Pillar, Egypt .........

St. Mary's, Lubeck ... Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Brooklyn.. 72

Hotel des Invalides, Paris ...

Cathedral, New York........
TOWERS AND DOMES.

Trinity Church, New York .....
Eiffel Tower.........

Holy Trinity, Brooklyn........... Babel....

680 Towers of Notre Dame, Paris..... Cathedral, Cologne.................... ... 524.9 Balustrade of Notre Dame, Paris... Balbec .....

500 St. John's, New York...... Strasburg... 486 St. Paul's, New York...

......

278

200

188

171

469.5 465.9 450 410 404 344 325

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286 275

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MARTYRS OF THE PRISON SHIPS. After the battle of Brooklyn, Long Island, | Island. Season of blossoms. Year of the disAugust 17, 1776, the British prison ships anchor- | covery the 316th, of the institution the 19th, and ed in the Wallabout Bay were crowded with of American Independence the 32d. April 6, 1808." American naval prisoners, who underwent Ceremonies were completed by the interment experiences of a horrible nature, probably un of thirteen mammoth coffins, and orations by equaled in the history of modern warfare. The the most distinguished men of the day. names of these ships were: Whitby, Prince of The "Martyrs' Monumental Association" was Wales, Goodhope and Old Jersey. They all lay formed, and in 1873 an appropriate lot on Fort in the channel between what is now the Cob Greene was obtained and a brick vault 25 by 11 Dock and the inner shore of the bay, the Old feet was built in the side of the hill facing toJersey being at the west end nearly opposite ward the junction of Myrtle avenue and Canton what is now the west entrance to the Navy Yard. street. On the 17th of June all that remained of The prisoners were crowded together in these the mortal part of the martyrs was quietly redismantled ships or hulks, poorly fed and badly moved to the vault. treated, and they died by the thousands. It is February 28, 1888, the Legislature of the State estimated that between 11,000 and 12,000 prison of New York, at the request of the Society of ers perished on these vessels. For several years

Old Brooklynites, passed a resolution urging the after the war was over the bones of those who representatives of Congress to pass a bill prosuffered martyrdom in these ships were to be

for the erection of a monument to the seen on the banks of the Wallabout, or strewn

memory of the "martyrs of the prison ships." upon its shores. No formal movement was A petition signed by 25,000 citizens of the United made to give the bones proper interment until

States was also sent to Congress. The matter 1792, when the citizens of Brooklyn, at a regular

was reported upon tvorably by committee, but town meeting, resolved that the bones be removed failed to become a law. and buried in the graveyard of the Reformed Church. This was not carried out, but in 1808 the Tammany Society appointed a committee,

Revolutionary Forts. and proceeded to take steps toward the long The locations of Revolutionary forts in Brooktalked of sepulchre. The public took hold zealous lyn are as follows: Fort Stirling, about Pierrely, and showed so much interest that the corner pont and Hicks street; Fort Putnam, a wooded stone of the tomb was laid on the 13th of April, hill near the Wallabout (now Fort Greene); Fort 1808. An imposing military and civic procession Greene, near the intersection of Nevins and Dean formed at Fulton Ferry, under Major Aycrigg, streets, on the land of Debevoise and Van Brunt; grand marshal, and marched through Main, a small redoubt, a little eastward of Fort Put Sands, Bridge and Jackson (now Hudson streets, nam, near the Jamaica road; Fort Box, a small Brooklyn, to the vault on Jackson street adjoining redoubt of four guns, upon the slope of Bergen the Navy Yard. Benjamin Romaine, grand Hill (also called Boerum's Hill), west of Smith sachem of Tammany, assisted by the Wallabout street, not far from the termination of Hoyt and Committee, laid the corner-stone of the vault, Carroll streets; Cork Screw Fort was on a high, upon which was the inscription:

conical hill, called Poukiesberg and Cobble Hill, "In the name of the spirits of the departed occupying the space now bounded by Atlantic free, sacred to the memory of American sea avenue, Pacific, Court and Clinton streets: Fort men, soldiers and citizens who perished on board Defiance, at Red Hook, and the oblong redoubt the prison ships of the British at the Wallabout which extended from Fort Putnam to Fort during the Revolution.

Greene. In 1812 Fort Box was called Fort Fire“This is the corner-stone of the vault erected man; Fort Greene was called Fort Masonic: the by the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order, oblong redoubt was called Fort Cummings; which contains their remains, the ground for Fort Putnam was changed to Fort Greene, and which was bestowed by John Jackson, Nassau | Cork Screw Fort was called Fort Swift.

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