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scale or a little one, shall receive at our hands mercy as scant as if he committed crimes of violence or brutality. We are unalterably determined to prevent wrongdoing in the future; we have no intention of trying to wreak 5 such an indiscriminate vengeance for. wrongs done in the past as would confound the innocent with the guilty. Our purpose is to build up rather than to tear down. We show ourselves the truest friends of property when we

make it evident that we will not tolerate the abuses of 10 property. We are steadily bent on preserving the insti

tution of private property; we combat every tendency toward reducing the people to economic servitude; and we care not whether the tendency is due to a sinister agita

tion directed against all property, or whether it is due to 15 the actions of those members of the predatory classes

whose anti-social power is immeasurably increased be cause of the very fact that they possess wealth.

Above all, we insist that while facing changed conditions and new problems, we must face them in the spirit which 20 our forefathers showed when they founded and preserved

this Republic. The corner-stone of the Republic lies in our treating each man on his worth as a man, paying no heed to his creed, his birthplace, or his occupation, ask

ing not whether he is rich or poor, whether he labors with 25 head or hand; asking only whether he acts decently and

honorably in the various relations of his life, whether he behaves well to his family, to his neighbors, to the State. We base our regard for each man on the essentials and

not the accidents. We judge him not by his profession, 30 but by his deeds; by his conduct, not by what he has

acquired of this world's goods. Other republics have fallen, because the citizens gradually grew to consider the interests of a class before the interests of the whole; for when such was the case it mattered little whether it was the poor who plundered the rich or the rich who exploited the poor; in either event the end of the Republic was at hand. We are resolute in our purpose not to fall into 5 such a pit. This great Republic of ours shall never become the government of a plutocracy, and it shall never become the government of a mob. God willing, it shall remain what our fathers who founded it meant it to be a government in which each man stands on his worth as 10 a man, where each is given the largest personal liberty consistent with securing the well-being of the whole, and where, so far as in us lies, we strive continually to secure for each man such equality of opportunity that in the strife of life he may have a fair chance to show the stuff 15 that is in him. We are proud of our schools and of the trained intelligence they give our children the opportunity to acquire. But what we care for most is the character of the average man; for we believe that if the average of character in the individual citizen is sufficiently 20 high, if he possesses those qualities which make him worthy of respect in his family life and in his work outside, as well as the qualities which fit him for success in the hard struggle of actual existence—that if such is the character of our individual citzenship, there is literally no height 25 of triumph unattainable in this vast experiment of government by, of, and for a free people.


Governors of the Several States and Gentlemen;

I welcome you to this conference at the White House. You have come hither at my request so that we may join together to consider the question of the conservation and use of the great fundamental sources of wealth of this 5 nation. So vital is this question that for the first time in our history the chief executive officers of the states separately and of the states together forming the nation have met to consider it.

With the Governors come men from each state chosen 10 for their special acquaintance with the terms of the prob

lem that is before us. Among them are experts in natural resources and representatives of national organizations concerned in the development and use of these resources;

the Senators and Representatives in Congress; the Su15 preme Court, the Cabinet and the Inland Waterways

Commission have likewise been invited to the conference, which is therefore national in a peculiar sense.

This conference on the conservation of natural resources is in effect a meeting of the representatives of all 20 the people of the United States called to consider the

weightiest problem now before the nation, and the occasion for the meeting lies in the fact that the natural resources of our country are in danger of exhaustion if we

permit the old wasteful methods of exploiting them longer 25 to continue.

With the rise of peoples from savagery to civilization, and with the consequent growth in the extent and variety of the needs of the average man, there comes a steadily


increasing growth of the amount demanded by this average man from the actual resources of the country. Yet, rather curiously, at the same time the average man is likely to lose his realization of this dependence upon nature.

Savages, and very primitive peoples generally, concern 5 themselves only with superficial natural resources; with those which they obtain from the actual surface of the ground. As peoples become a little less primitive their industries, although in a rude manner, are extended to resources below the surface; then, with what we call civil- 10 ization and the extension of knowledge, more resources come into use, industries are multiplied and foresight begins to become a necessary and prominent factor in life. Crops are cultivated, animals are domesticated and metals are mastered.

Every step of the progress of mankind is marked by the discovery and use of natural resources previously unused. Without such progressive knowledge and utilization of natural resources population could not grow, nor industries multiply, nor the hidden wealth of the earth 20 be developed for the benefit of mankind.

From the first beginnings of civilization, on the banks of the Nile and the Euphrates, the industrial progress of the world has gone on slowly, with occasional setbacks, but on the whole steadily, through tens of centuries to 25 the present day. But of late the rapidity of the progress has increased at such a rate that more space has been actually covered during the century and a quarter occupied by our national life than during the preceding six thousand years that take us back to the earliest monuments of 30 Egypt, to the earliest cities of the Babylonian plain.

When the founders of this nation met at Independence

Hall in Philadelphia the conditions of commerce had not fundamentally changed from what they were when the Phænician keeks first furrowed the lonely waters of the Mediterranean. The differences were those of degree, 5 not of kind, and they were not in all cases even those of degree. Mining was carried on fundamentally as it had been carried on by the Pharaohs in the countries adjacent to the Red Sea.

The wares of the merchants of Boston, of Charleston, 10 like the wares of the merchants of Nineveh and Sidon, if

they went by water were carried by boats propelled by sails or oars; if they went by land were carried in wagons drawn by beasts of draft or in packs on the backs of beasts

of burden. The ships that crossed the high seas were bet15 ter than the ships that had once crossed the Ægean, but

they were of the same type, after all—they were wooden ships propelled by sails; and on land the roads were not as good as the roads of the Roman Empire, while the service of the posts was probably inferior.

In Washington's time anthracite coal was known only as a useless black stone, and the great fields of bituminous coal were undiscovered. As steam was unknown, the use of coal for power production was un dreamed of. Water

was practically the only source of power, save the labor of 25 men and animals; and this power was used only in the

most primitive fashion. But a few small iron deposits had been found in this country, and the use of iron by our countrymen was very small. Wood was practically the

only fuel, and what lumber was sawed was consumed 30 locally, while the forests were regarded chiefly as obstructions to settlement and cultivation.

Such was the degree of progress to which civilized man


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