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NOTES

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

In 1913 Roosevelt published his autobiography under the title Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiography. “Naturally,” he wrote in the Preface, “ there are chapters in my autobiography which cannot now be written,” but incomplete though the book is, it covers the greater part of his career. Appearing as it did while he was still active in politics, the book is in large measure a defense of political acts and policies. Still there is a great deal that is purely personal, and it must be said that if one could read but one book of Roosevelt's, it would be the book to select for this purpose. The chapters represented in this book have been condensed without destroying their connected

ness.

BOYHOOD AND YOUTH 1:5. Curtis. George William Curtis (1824-92) was an American writer noted for his pleasing sketches and essays. Among these was the Potiphar Papers (1853), a series of satirical sketches of New York society.

2 : 13. moujik. A Russian peasant.

2:14. malachite. A green stone, the finest specimens of which come from Siberian mines.

2 : 28. Grant. Ulysses S. Grant (1822–85) was the commander-in-chief of the Union forces in the latter part of the Civil War.

3:21. Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt, Senior (18311878), was a glass importer in New York City, widely known for his philanthropy and activity in charitable and reform movements.

5:11. Martha Bulloch. On his mother's side, Roosevelt was descended from some of the best-known families of the South, combining in his veins the blood of both Scotch-Irish and Huguenot ancestors. His great-greatgrandfather, Archiba Bulloch, was a member of the Continental Congress, and the first State Governor of Georgia. One of his great-grandfathers, Daniel Stewart, was a brigadier-general in the Continental army. His mother, Martha Bulloch, married Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., at her father's home at Roswell, Cobb County, Georgia, in 1853. Mrs. Roosvelt's brother, James D. Bulloch, was an officer of the Confederate navy, and acted during the greater part of the war as a secret agent for the Confederacy in England, where he contracted for the purchase of the privateers Florida and Georgia.

5:13. “ Unreconstructed." The expression means that Roosevelt's mother never gave up her belief in the justness of the political ideals for which her section, the South, contended in the Civil War.

6:16. Boone and Crockett. The horses were named for Daniel Boone (1735–1820) and David Crockett (1786– 1836), both famous American backwoodsmen and pioneers.

6:18. Buena Vista. The battle of Buena Vista, fought February 22 and 23, 1847, resulted in a decisive victory for the Americans over the Mexicans.

6:20. “ Br'er Rabbit" stories. The animal stories popular among the negroes make the rabbit oftentimes the hero. Many of these stories were first collected by

Joel Chandler Harris and published in his “ Uncle Remus ” books. Roosevelt's aunt, however, had learned the stories first-hand from Georgia negroes.

6:23. Harper's." Harper's Monthly is one of the oldest and most distinguished of American literary periodicals.

6:24. genius. Joel Chandler Harris (1848–1908). The negro folk-tales which Harris collected and published were told by an imaginary negro named Uncle Remus. Hence the name was applied to the writer, although it was not in any wise the author's nom de plume.

7:11. interest in natural history. For a fuller account of Roosevelt's early interest in natural history, see the selection given in this book entitled “My Life as a Naturalist.”

7:19. Reid's Books. Mayne Reid (1818-83). An English writer of hunting romances and stories of adventure. He himself led a wandering and adventurous life, and his books often are based on his own experiences. Although born in England, he spent many years of his life in the United States, and his books oftentimes have that country as a background. In his later years he returned to England. Some of his best known books are The Rifle Rangers (1850), Scalp Hunters (1851), White Chief (1859), Asoat in the Forest (1865) and The Castaways (1870).

9:4. Audubon's. John James Audubon (1780–1851) was an American naturalist who especially devoted himself to the study of birds. He eventually gave up all business pursuits and spent his time roaming hither and thither in the forests making observation of bird and animal life. His greatest production, Birds of North America . (183139), consisted of five volumes of drawings and descriptions of American birds, the drawings, of which there were over four hundred, being life-size.

9:5. Mr. Venus's Shop. The description of the queer, cluttered-up shop of this taxidermist and articulator of human bones ” may be found in Chapter VII of Dickens's Our Mutual Friend.

9:32. Spencer Baird (1823–87). An American naturalist who was for many years connected with the Smithsonian Institution. Among the most important of his publications were Catalogue of North American Reptiles (1853), Birds of North America (1860), Mammals of North America (1859), and History of North American Birds (1874–84).

10 : 4. Europe. Roosevelt's first trip to Europe was a short one made when he was ten years old. The second one was four years later. His account of it, which is here omitted, shows that he devoted much of his time to bird collecting, especially while he was in Egypt.

10 : 16. Harvard. Harvard University at Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest as well as one of the most influential universities in the United States.

10 : 23. Mr. Cutler. Roosevelt completed his preparation for Harvard under Mr. Arthur Cutler, who afterwards founded the Cutler School in New York.

10 : 24. Hill. Adams Sherman Hill (1833–1910) was for many years professor of rhetoric in Harvard University. He was a remarkably stimulating teacher in this subject.

10 : 26. Eliot. Charles William Eliot (1834–), has been for many years one of the foremost gures in American education. During the larger part of his career he was president of Harvard University, a position which he filled with notable distinction until his retirement in 1909.

10 : 28. Forensics. College exercises in spoken or written discussion.

11 :9. Gracchi. Two Roman brothers who were upholders of the interests of the people.

The older one, Tiberius Sempronius, endeavored to restore to the peasant class their small holdings of land. The younger, Caius Sempronius, endeavored to establish in Rome more of a pure democracy than existed under the aristocratic republican form of government. Both brothers lost their lives in insurrections resulting from their political activities, the former in 133 B. C., the latter in 121 B. C.

12 : 19. Phi Beta Kappa. A Greek letter organization existing in many American colleges, admission to which is granted upper classmen who attain a superior average of scholarship.

12 : 22. Wilson. Alexander Wilson (1766–1813) was an American ornithologist. He emigrated from Scotland to the United States where for several years he worked as weaver, peddler, and school teacher. Finally his interest in birds led him to undertake to make a comprehensive collection of drawings of American birds. To collect material and gather subscriptions, the author travelled extensively in all parts of the country and endured many hardships. Seven volumes of his projected work were prepared by him during his lifetime, but his death left to other hands the completing of the work.

12 : 23. Coues. Eliot Coues (1842–99) was an American naturalist particularly known for his researches in ornithology.

12 : 23. Merriam. Clinton Hart Merriam (1855–). An American naturalist. From 1885–1910, he was chief of the United States Biological Survey. This position he

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