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garrison duty at two posts. Infantry engaged in active work in Cuba during the hot and rainy months, and even during the winter, will suffer severely from malaria, heat, and exhaustion, whereas mounted troops can perform hard service without bad results. The work required in Cuba is of such a character that the troops require to have a high degree of mobility. The climatic conditions are such that this mobility must be obtained with as little effort as possible on the part of the troops. My own experience has been that mounted men can do continuous and hard service in Cuba and retain their efficiency and that foot troops can not for any length of time perform duties calling for hard marching and exposure without suffering severely from malaria and the depressing effects of exposure to the sun. This is largely borne out by the experience of the Cubans. It is believed that the same general conditions pertain to Porto Rico and the Philippines, and, if we are to judge from the experience of the past two years and desire to have a thoroughly efficient, highly mobile force in the tropics, we must largely increase the present strength of the cavalry arm.
The work of the Army in connection with civil affairs will be taken up in detail in the civil report.
I desire to express my appreciation of the service of the following officers, especially of Brig. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, chief of staff, whose faithful and arduous services at these headquarters contributed largely to the reestablishment of the civil government:
Col. W. V. Richards, adjutant-general, whose able, devoted, and unremitting attention to duty rendered his services of the greatest value and finally resulted in a breakdown in health and necessitated his relief from duty in the division.
Col. H. L. Scott, for most able and efficient services as adjutantgeneral of the division.
Maj. J. B. Hickey, for faithful and efficient services rendered in charge of the department of civil orders and proclamations.
Maj. E. St. John Greble, for the marked ability and energy with which he has conducted the reorganization of the charities and hospitals of the island.
Col. George H. Burton, for energetic, efficient, and thorough performance of the duties of inspector-general.
Maj. Edgar S. Dudley, for highly valuable and efficient services as judge-advocate, which involved a deep and thorough study of Spanish law and procedure.
Col. C. F. Humphrey, for efficient and able conduct of the duties of chief quartermaster.
Maj. 0. E. Wood, for able and efficient services as chief commissary of subsistence.
Maj. Valery Havard, for able and efficient services as chief surgeon.
Maj. Francis S. Dodge, for efficient performance of the uties of chief paymaster.
Maj. William M. Black, for exceedingly able and efficient services in connection with his duties as chief engineer, city of Habana and later of the division.
Capt. Ormond M. Lissak, for efficient services as chief ordnance officer.
Col. H. H. C. Dunwoody, for painstaking, intelligent, and, as chief signal officer, efficient services in the maintenance and establishment of telegraphic lines of the island.
To Maj. Tasker H. Bliss, for the most excellent and able manner in which he has conducted the customs service, rendering it efficient in the highest degree.
Maj. Eugene F. Ladd, for efficient conduct of the office of treasurer of the island.
Lieut. Edward C. Brooks, for able and efficient services as aid-decamp and later as auditor for the island.
Maj. R. H. Rolfe, for efficient services as assistant inspector-general.
Maj. D. T. Lainé, for faithful and efficient services as attending surgeon.
Maj. Marlborough C. Wyeth, for efficient services as medical supply officer.
Maj. W. C. Gorgas, for arduous and valuable services as chief sanitary officer, city of Habana.
Maj. William L. Pitcher, for extremely valuable and efficient services in charge of the police court, city of Habana, and supervisor of police.
Capt. Fred M. Page, attached, for faithful and able services in the department of civil orders and proclamations.
Capt. Edward B. Ives, for efficient services as disbursing officer and acting assistant quartermaster, volunteer signal corps.
Lieut. Matthew E. Hanna, aid-de-camp, for valuable and efficient services as engineer in charge of road construction, Department of Santiago; ordnance officer of the department and later for efficient and valuable services in the reorganization of schools of the island.
To Lieuts. Frank R. McCoy and Edward Carpenter, aids-de-camp, for faithful, efficient, and intelligent services in connection with civil affairs, in addition to their duties as aids.
To Mr. F. Steinhart, chief clerk, division headquarters, for his most able, faithful, and unremitting devotion to the duties of his office, thereby contributing much to the prompt and efficient conduct of official and civil business; also to the clerks of the office for faithful services and devotion to duty, the performance of which has necessitated throughout the year much overtime work and work on Sundays and holidays.
In conclusion I invite attention to the accompanying reports of the staff officers on duty at these headquarters and to the recommendations contained therein, which meet with my approval. Very respectfully,
LEONARD WOOD, Major-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding.
FINAL REPORT OF BRIG. GEN. JAMES H. WILSON, U. S. VOLUN
TEERS, COMMANDING THE DEPARTMENT OF MATANZAS AND SANTA CLARA.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF
MATANZAS AND SANTA CLARA,
Matanzas, Cuba, July 22, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D. C. (Through military channels.) Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of affairs, both civil and military, for the Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900.
Of the United States forces serving in this department, the organizations have remained the same as at the close of the fiscal year 1899. There have been but a few gains and losses as to officers and men, as shown by the following table:
These troops have remained in the same quarters throughout the year, part of these quarters being repaired Spanish barracks, and part cheap frame buildings, with corrugated iron roofs. The necessary repairs and slight improvements have been made at the various posts. The most comfortable and satisfactory posts in the department are Rowell Barracks, at Pasa Caballos, and Hamilton Barracks, at Matanzas, but it is doubtful whether this additional comfort can be attributed to the new buildings erected at these two posts in accordance with American models. It is believed for the average location, away from the seacoast, that the Spanish barracks are preferable. The main disadvantage of these barracks is that they do not conform to the American system of having officers live in the immediate vicinity of the troops. In some instances we have been compelled to quarter officers some distance from their commands, and out of sight of them. In the cities some of the officers have lived at hotels, some in private houses, and all of them more scattered from the troops and from each other than is customary in our service. In other cases where they have been required to live in the immediate vicinity of their barracks, it has resulted in their being forced to live in quarters hardly suitable to officers of the American forces.
The number of officers absent from the troops and performing various civil and quasi civil duties, thereby affecting the instruction and efficiency of their regiments, has remained about the same throughout the year, In this connection attention is invited to my recommendation of July 10, in an indorsement on annual report of inspectorgeneral of the department, which recommendation is herewith renewed, as follows:
I fully concur in all that he says in reference to the necessity for additional officers. My experience, extending over two wars, convinces me that the exigencies of service, both in peace and in war, are such, and will probably always remain such, as to require a much larger percentage of officers than is at present allowed. In my judgment there should be 1 major, 5 captains, and 5 first lieutenants, extra, to every regi
ment in the Army, to meet the multifarious details that are always necessary where commands are widely scattered and where the troops are serving in actual warfare, especially in foreign countries.
While the detachment of the officers from their troops has resulted in injury to the latter, it is gratifying to say that all civil duties which have been intrusted to the officers have been fully and faithfully performed. In this connection comparison might well be made between the services rendered by military and civil officials. The accounts of all army officers receiving and disbursing island funds have been regularly inspected by the various officers of the inspector-generals department, and have in every instance been found to be correctly and honestly kept.
Military instruction has received careful attention throughout the past year, and the improved appearance and increased efficiency of the troops show sufficiently well the effects of it. As the result, however, of another year's experience in the tropics, it has been found advisable to crowd all indoor instruction, theoretical and practical, into the summer months, reserving the five months, November to March, inclusive, for active outdoor drill, target practice, practice marches, reconnoissance, and scouting.
The relations of the troops and the inhabitants of the country, with few exceptions, have been all that could be desired. The conduct of the inhabitants has been cordial and friendly. Perfect quietude and mutual forbearance have prevailed throughout the entire year, and no disorders or disturbances whatever have arisen requiring the presence of troops outside of their posts.
The multifarious duties devolving upon the adjutant-general's department have been promptly and faithfully performed. All the details, both of military and civil business, have been attended to by this department, and all orders for both military and civil business have emanated from this department, thus saying the expense of maintaining a separate office force. (For further details as to service performed see report of adjutant-general. Appendix A.)
The usual inspections of military posts have been made by the inspector-general of the department. In addition, much work has been done with reference to the condition of cities, and municipal affairs existing therein, and the inspector has been called upon many times for the investigation of particular questions arising. With reference to the latter questions, much of the work has been done by the inspector of police of this department. (Attention has been invited to reports of inspector-general and of inspector of police. Appendices B and I respectively.),
The work devolving upon the judge-advocate's office of this department has been thoroughly and satisfactorily performed. The amount of civil work thrown upon this office has greatly diminished, as the courts have become better organized and the people have learned to feel more confidence in the administration of the laws of the land. However, the civil business still requiring investigation and decision by this office consumes as much or more time than is required by the work arising in purely military administration. (For further details as to service performed see report of judge-advocate. Appendix C.)
The medical department has continued to discharge the various duties devolving upon it successfully and with credit to the officers concerned. The sanitary inspections of all the larger cities have fallen upon officers of this department, and the good conditions existing at present, by which these cities are freed from the yearly scourge of yellow fever and other tropical diseases, is in a large manner due to the efficient, intelligent, and earnest manner in which the work of sanitation has been performed. With the exception of the yellow fever now existing among the troops at Santa Clara, there have been no outbreaks of epidemics in the department, and in this instance the outbreak is one for which the troops themselves can not be blamed nor can the sanitary inspectors. It has been directly traced to houses which had been infected some years previous, by the occupation of Spanish troops, and the fact of this infection having been concealed by the inhabitants of the town, its existence could not be known to the sanitary inspectors, nor could it be successfully guarded against. So far as the troops are concerned the greatest loss of men from duty has been from venereal disease. This is partly owing to the fact that but little control is kept over the houses of prostitution by the civil authorities. Under my direction the houses bave been regularly inspected, and weekly and biweekly inspections have been held of the individual soldiers, under the personal charge of the surgeons, with most satisfactory results. (Special attention is called to the report of Chief Surgeon "Ives, in reference to this important matter. Appendix D.)
As in other administrative departments, the quartermaster's department has transacted a large share of the civil business. Disbursements from island funds for public works of all kinds have been made by army officers, and, wherever practicable, by the quartermasters. The chief quartermaster of the department has been the chief disbursing officer. At the same time the quartermaster's work with reference to the troops has been thoroughly performed. They have been well quartered, well clothed, and amply supplied with transportation, which is of excellent quality. (For further details as to service performed see reports of chief and disbursing quartermasters. Appendices E and F respectively.)
The work done by the subsistence department has been materially lessened by transferring the supply of food for the destitute to the different Alcaldes throughout the department. The ration furnished for the troops has been in the main satisfactory. Very few complaints or recommendations have been made, though all company and post commanders still insist that the profits of the post exchange are necessary for supplementing the ration furnished. In this connection I desire to renew my recommendation of July 10, that the ration of each soldier be increased by a daily allowance of 5 cents, to provide for the proper supply of fresh vegetables, and such articles as can be advantageously purchased where the troops may be serving, and to obviate the necessity of profits from the post exchange as an adjunct to the army ration. The supply of ice has not been as abundant nor as satisfactory as desired. A more liberal supply would be advantageous to the troops, and the supply for the civil population is entirely inadequate and too expensive. (For further details as to services performed see report of chief commissary. Appendix G.)
The duties of the signal service have been fully and satisfactorily performed. Some new telegraph lines have been built,
others repaired, and the service in every way improved and bettered. The work falling upon this department has at times been heavy, especially in the recent elections, but it has fully performed all services demanded of it. The