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sary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person designated by any such chairman or member.

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28. (a) In order to assist the House in

(1) its analysis, appraisal, and evaluation of the application, administration, and execution of the laws enacted by the Congress, and

(2) its formulation, consideration, and enactment of such modifications of or changes in those laws, and of such additional legislation, as may be neces

sary or appropriate, each standing committee shall review and study, on a continuing basis, the application, administration, and execution of those laws, or parts of laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of that committee.

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COMMUNISM

Part 1

(People's Republic of China)

TUESDAY, JULY 10, 1973

U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON INTERNAL SECURITY,

Washington, D.C.
PUBLIC HEARING

The Committee on Internal Security met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 311, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Richardson Preyer presiding.

Committee members present: Representatives Preyer, of North Carolina, Roger H. Zion, of Indiana, and Tennyson Guyer, of Ohio.

Staff members present: Robert M. Horner, staff director; Richard Schultz, counsel; Robert Crandall, counsel; DeWitt White, minority legal counsel; Herbert Romerstein, minority chief investigator; George Armstrong, minority investigator.

Mr. PREYER. The hearing will come to order.

Pursuant to the mandate from the House of Representatives which authorized the Committee on Internal Security to investigate the extent, character, objectives, and activities of groups or organizations which seek to establish a totalitarian dictatorship in the United States or to overthrow our form of government by force, violence, or other unlawful means, the committee meets this morning to receive the testimony of Mr. Wu Shu-jen, a native and recent resident of mainland China.

Under a separate resolution, this committee has been investigating a number of domestic communist organizations of the Maoist persuasion whose goals are to establish in the United States the form of government and life style which presently exists in the People's Republic of China, more popularly known as Red China.

This hearing, therefore, will not only serve the purpose of updating our information under our resolution dealing with the theory and practice of communism but will also have particular pertinence to our interest in domestic Maoist groups whose sympathies lie with Red China rather than the United States.

Mr. Wu Shu-jen, a former member of the Communist Party of China, can provide first-hand information concerning his life under communist-dominated China and the effects of such communist domination on the lives and human dignity of the Chinese people. Mr. Wu will speak through his interpreter, Mr. C. K. Liu.

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I direct the reporter at this time to insert into the record a copy of the committee resolution authorizing these hearings.

RESOLUTION RESOLVED, That the Committee on Internal Security or any subcommittee thereof appointed for such purpose, conduct investigation and hearings, at such time and places as the Chairman may determine, to receive testimony and evidence illustrative of the communist ideology, its character and objectives, as applied by communist organizations, their agents, members, and affiliates.

Mr. PREYER. We are happy to welcome Mr. Wu Shu-jen and Mr. Liu with us this morning.

I would like to ask, first, Mr. Wu Shu-jen if he would stand and be sworn, and then we will ask you, Mr. Liu, to be sworn as interpreter.

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?

Mr. WU SHU-JEN. I do.
Mr. PREYER. Mr. Liu, if you will stand.

Mr. Liu, do you solemnly swear that the translation of the testimony of Mr. Wu will be an accurate translation and true, to the best of your knowledge and information?

Mr. Liu. I do.

TESTIMONY OF WU SHU-JEN, ACCOMPANIED BY CHUNG-KAI LIU,

INTERPRETER

Mr. PREYER. I would like to recognize Mr. Zion, a member of our committee.

Mr. Zion. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Welcome to the committee, Mr. Wu. We are pleased to have you here.

I understand you attended schools in Shanghai and Hong Kong and Canton. I have been in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.

Mr. ZION. I understand you are an engineering graduate from Tsinghua University in Peking.

Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.

Mr. Zion. You were a member of the communist Chinese water polo team, is that correct?

Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.
Mr. Zion. You were a Communist Party member for 10 years?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Eleven years.

Mr. Zion. And during the Cultural Revolution in 1967, you joined the Red Guard faction in Canton?

Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Not exactly Red Guard, because all the Red Guards were young students; but at that time, I was already a worker and engineer, so the faction I joined was called Rebels, which was similar in nature to Red Guards.

Mr. Zion. And in 1969, you swam for 8 hours to Hong Kong in order to gain your freedom, is that correct?

Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, sir; in July 1969.

Mr. Zion. You are certainly welcome here. We are anxious to hear your testimony.

Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Thank you.

Mr. PREYER. Thank you, Mr. Zion.

Mr. Wu Shu-jen, however he wishes to present his testimony, we are ready to receive it.

Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, from 1954 to 1969, I lived in mainland China, for 15 years. I escaped on July 12, 1969, to Hong Kong, by swimming for 8 long hours.

During the first 6 years on the mainland, I was a student at Tsinghua University of Peking, both in the university and in the postgraduate studies.

After my graduation in 1961, I became an engineer, first in an arsenal, making tanks. There I stayed for 3 years, from 1961 to 1964. Then, upon the outbreak of the Vietnam war, I was transferred to a tractor factory in Canton.

Mr. PREYER. Let me ask counsel. Mr. Wu Shu-jen is giving us some general background. Would you prefer we would proceed by allowing him to talk freely?

Mr. Schultz. "Yes, he had planned to make a general opening statement, and then we will proceed with questions.

Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. From 1955 to 1960, I was a member of Red China's national water polo team. The team went to play in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Soviet Union. Because I was a member of the water polo team and a good swimmer, when Chairman Mao Tse-tung made his first swim across the Yangtze River in 1956, I was chosen as one of his bodyguards.

I joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1958 when I was a student at Tsinghua. Just before my departure from the mainland in 1969, I was a member of the party committee in the Canton Tractor Factory.

There were several reasons why I chose to leave mainland China:

First, because the regime killed my father. My father was a graduate of Oxford University of Great Britain and served for more than 40 years under the National Government as a high official in the Chinese customs office. He retired in 1946, and the family moved to live in Hong Kong.

After the Chinese communists took over power in China in 1949, they needed all kinds of talents in their so-called reconstruction of the socialist motherland, so in 1954, they sent people six times to Hong Kong to persuade my father to go back and serve the new regime.

So my father took the whole family and moved back to Canton and became a consultant to the Trade Office of the Canton City.

Upon the outbreak of the so-called great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966, the communists came up with the slogan, “We must smash the 'four olds.?” That means the old culture, old thinking, old customs and old habits.

They also said, “We must overthrow all bourgeois academic authorities;" and I suppose my father fell into that category. So the party authority in Canton accused my father of being a member of the Kuomintang, although they knew fairly well that my father was never a member of the KMT nor a member of any other political party. They knew that when they invited my father back to serve, but now they charged my father with being a member of the KMT and also one of the “bourgeois academic authorities."

Then some Red Guards incited by the party committee of Canton, broke into my house one night and subjected my father to three types of physical torture.

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