« PreviousContinue »
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. My trip here is sponsored by the Committee for a Free China. The chairman is Dr. Walter Judd.
Mr. GUYER. I understand Mr. Wu is going back today to Hong Kong
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, I am going back tomorrow morning by way of Hawaii.
Mr. GUYER. One question that probably is not too direct, but does the Chinese Government have a network of espionage in this country or do they use, for example, embassies for this purpose ?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. I am not familiar with this situation, whether they have an espionage network here in the United States or whether they are using diplomatic personnel in doing this kind of work, but, on the other hand, when I was a party member back in mainland China, the party officials repeatedly educated us with two sayings. One is that “to take an enemy stronghold, it is much easier to work from the inside than to attack from the outside."
They also said that “An outside factor can only function with the coordination of an inside factor.” I am sure you know what that means.
The party, the Chinese Communist Party's goal of liberating the whole world, including the United States, will
never change. Mr. GUYER. This is a question, perhaps, that is too general in scope, but I would like to get an opinion.
Is there a very real rivalry and maybe fear between the Chinese Government and the Soviet Union? Is this a real rivalry? We hear a great deal of rumors along this line.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. The split between the Soviet Communist Party and the Chinese Communist Party began in 1956 and deteriorated in 1961. In my opinion, that difference is not over the party line or party policy or their goal, which is to liberate the whole world, to communize the whole world. That struggle is over the leadership of the communist camp. Once this difference is solved, they will become friends again. Mr. GUYER. Is Red China actively helping in the Cambodian war?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Not only in Cambodia, but the Chinese communist regime has claimed they would help revolutionaries in any part of the world. I could give you many concrete examples.
Mr. GUYER. I think at this point, Mr. White might like to take a little turn here and introduce some documents for the record, as much as we have time for. I think this might serve a good purpose, since we don't know at what point we have to go back into session. I would like to have this for the record.
Mr. SCHULTZ. Could we identify our witnesses clearly for the record first?
Mr. Liu, give us your full name and address, please.
Mr. Liv. My name is Chung-kai Liu. My address is 36 Hamilton Avenue, Apartment 5H, Staten Island, New York City.
Mr. SCHULTZ. Mr. Wu, would you identify yourself, give your name and address for the record ?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. My name is Wu Shu-jen. My address at the present time is in one of the newer residential sections of Hong Kong:
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Chairman, the minority has 17 exhibits which it would like to offer for the record, subject to the understanding that
the subsequent testimony of the witness will connect with all of these 17 exhibits. If the testimony does not, we will, of course, withdraw them.
The first exhibit is a map which is a map of Canton, and the other exhibits are copies of the Survey of China Mainland Press, and we offer only selected pages from each of these 16 copies of the Survey of China Mainland Press.
Mr. GUYER. These have been identified?
Mr. WHITE. They are official Government documents, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. GUYER. Is the witness familiar with them?
Mr. WHITE. He is familiar with them, but we will have to connect them up with later testimony of the witness.
For the record, we will show that they have been introduced.
[The aforementioned documents were marked exhibits Nos. 1 through 17. They are reproduced in the appendix, pages 879–958.]
Mr. Schultz. Do you want to inquire now, Mr. White?
Mr. Schultz. I would like to ask one final question. This is a very frivolous question, but how do the young people in China fall in love and get married?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. If the young man or woman is not a party member of the Young Communist League, they are pretty much left alone. The party does not try to control them. But if the young man or woman is a party member or league member, he or she should submit the name of his or her lover or future spouse for approval to the party organization. Also, if he or she wants to get married, he should first get approval of the party. In general, the party discourages early marriage. Like they said that the man should not marry before 28 and the woman should not marry before 25.
Mr. SCHULTZ. I defer now to Mr. White. The minority staff has been making inquiry into the drug problem and use.
Mr. GUYER. We will have Mr. White's questions as long as we have time.
Mr. WHITE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. GUYER. I understand our guest is going to be on television at 2 o'clock.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. That is correct.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Wu, you have testified that you were an athlete in Red China. I wonder if you would tell the committee how athletes are selected and how they are compensated in the communist regime.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Each county holds at least two athletic meetings a year in which all the winners are sent to the special district. If they win in a special district athletic meeting, they would be sent to the provincial athletic meeting. If they win again there, they would be assigned to the so-called Provincial Academy of Physical Education, and if he is a student, he is told to quit his schooling and to engage in this physical education alone. If he is an office worker, he is told to leave his post and likewise to take up this physical education. He can receive the same salary which he received at his original post. In addition to that, all his living expenses are taken up by the provincial government, like medical, housing, and others. If he shows good poten
tial in those physical education academies, he would be selected as a state-level athlete, or reserve state-level athlete.
When I was a member of the national water polo team, there were 11 other members, and of the 12, I was the only one who was allowed to go back to my school to attend classes, because the party committee at Tsinghua University would not allow me to leave the school altogether. When I was a member, the team invited two coaches from Hungary, which has the best water polo team in the world, to train our team.
As you know, Red China is well-known for its ping-pong players, and I know a very interesting way how they train their ping-pong players. They would send people to various parts of the world to take films of all the famous foreign ping-pong players, and they come back and study those game films. They would select players who play approximately in similar style of those foreign players, and let their own players play with those players in order to familiarize them with the playing style of the foreign players.
So, when the actual competition comes, since the Chinese player already is familiar with the way his opponent is playing, his chance of winning is much greater.
Mr. GUYER. Are they subsidized as the Soviet Union is? Are they given special privileges like being on athletic teams?
Mr. WHITE. Tell the committee how the athletes are paid, particularly the ping-pong players.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. They receive from 120 to 180 a month, in addition to 109 for their food. Also, their housing, their medical expenses are all free, all taken up by the State.
Mr. GUYER. How does that compare with the average income of a person over there who is not of a select group?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. The average income of a farmer, as I have said, was 42.50 a month.
Mr. WHITE. Are these the athletes that go out in international competition with amateurs from the Western world!
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. In my opinion, all the state-level athletes in mainland China are professionals, although the Government has never admitted that fact, because if the state-level athlete used to be an officeworker, he still goes back to his original unit for his salary, so you cannot find any proof that he is a professional.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Wu, we have two or three other questions before we get to the matter of the Red Chinese production of heroin and its exportation.
Recently, we have had five former American POW's in Vietnam testify before the committee, and this is a subject in which the committee is very much interested, that of POW's.
We recall that we did not receive back in the United States all of the prisoners of war from the Korean conflict.
I wonder, from your experience in mainland China, if you have any knowledge relating to prisoners of war, U.S. prisoners of war, particularly in regard to the Korean conflict.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. I can recall an episode in 1960, when I was a student at Tsinghua and went for a business trip--not business trip—a study trip to a factory in Tsing Tao, a city in Shantung Prov
ince. There I saw around 80 Westerners undergoing labor in that factory. I asked a Chinese worker in that factory, "Who are those foreigners?" He told me: "Some of them are former missionaries who served as foreign spies, and some of them are U.S. POW's from the Korean war." They are those stubborn elements that refuse to repent.
Mr. GUYER. How long ago was that? Mr. WU SHU-JEN. 1960. Mr. GUYER. These are still from the Korean war? Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, sir. Mr. WHITE. Are you familiar with the food situation in China now? The availability, particularly, of grains, we are interested in.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. The figures I just gave concerning the rations of food have been in effect since 1962. I left mainland China in 1969. I still write regularly to my family back in Canton. As far as I know from their letters, the situation has not improved at all.
Mr. GUYER. Mr. White, I wonder if Mr. Wu has any fear of his family's safety in light of his testimony over here.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Of course, I had this kind of worry about my mother and my 10-year-old son, but after further thinking, further consideration, I come to believe that the more fierce I struggle against communism in the United States, the lesser their danger would be, because the communists know if they would do anything to my family members, that would further prove what kind of persons they really are, and I can further expose their true face to the world's people.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Wu, what has been the effect of obtaining feed grains from outside of China, and what effect could reasonably be expected resulting from future sales of grain to communist China?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. It is obvious that mainland China is facing another serious food shortage; otherwise, they would not have come to the United States and other Western countries to buy food.
My feelings toward this are mixed, because by sending food to Red China, the United States and other Western countries are helping the regime to weather another serious crisis. On the other hand, all this food going to China has saved thousands or even millions of lives of my compatriots in mainland China.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Romerstein has a few questions to put to the witness in connection with exhibits Nos. 2 through 17.
Mr. GUYER. Did you touch on the narcotics situation ?
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, you have testified about the disruptive results of the Red Guard activities in China. Could you tell us what the effect on individuals was of the activities of the Red Guards? Were people arrested? Were people beaten? Were there suicides, et cetera ?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. The Red Guards were especially violent and cruel toward those high intellectuals, such as professors, especially those who had been educated in foreign countries. That included my late father. Also, they engaged in fights among themselves, among the different factions. The fighting was so violent that thousands of people were killed.
They fought with rifles and cannons, and even tanks, and they killed not only the members of rival Red Guard factions, but also
their family members, and they threw those dead bodies into the Pearl
[At this point, Mr. Guyer left the hearing room.]
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, if we may resume, were some of the victims of the Red Guards high-ranking and middle-ranking officials of the Communist Party and Young Communist League ?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes. The middle echelon and high echelon Government officials were the very targets of those Red Guards. They wanted to overthrow them and seize power from them.
For instance, the governor of Kwangtung Province by the name of Chou and the chief of the Public Security Bureau of Kwangtung Province a fell victims to Red Guard struggles.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, I show you exhibit No. 2. Are you familiar with a Red Guard publication called the Canton Daily Řed Flag?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Chairman, the U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong for a number of years now has been publishing collections of official Chinese documents that have come into the possession of the U.S. Government.
These are published in three serial publications: “Survey of China Mainland Press," "Current Background," and "Extracts from China Mainland Magazines."
All of the original documents are in the hands of the U.S. Government, and we have translations prepared by the U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong:
The Canton Daily Red Flag of July 11, 1967, an official Red Guard paper identified by the witness, carries an account of a suicide of a young member of the top governing body of the Communist Youth League, as well as information on the arrest of other Communist Party officials who were accused of either counterrevolutionary activities or not sufficiently following the policies of Mao Tse-tung.
Mr. Wu, I show you exhibit No. 3. Are you familiar with the publication called the Canton No. 3 Headquarters Combat Bulletin?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. The issue of that newspaper of November 3, 1967,
document, which is a typical example of how trials are conducted in Red China.
That is exhibit No. 3.3
Mr. Wu, I show you exhibit No. 4 and ask if you are familiar with a Red Guard publication called Mass Criticism and Repudiation Bulletin ?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. That, too, has been obtained by the U.S. Government and an issue of October 5, 1967,4 carried a report on the attack
2 See exhibit No. 2, appendix, pp. 881-883.