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on the former commander of the Red Chinese troops during the Korean war, P’eng Te-huai.
One of the criticisms of him was that he complained, when he returned from Korea, of the poor logistical service of the Red Chinese Army; that the cloth for uniforms was poor quality; the soldiers suffered from diarrhea after eating_rice given to them. He was accused of saying to Premier Chou En-lai, “Are the volunteers on the forefront not human beings? Are they pigs ?” “Only you are patriotic!” “Those in the rear eat solid meals. Some of them should be executed.”
In other words, criticism and complaints that his troops were not being sufficiently supplied.
Mr. Wu, I show you exhibit No. 5 and ask if you are familiar with a publication called the January 25 Combat Bulletin ? 5
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes. Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, do you also know the individual, Tseng Sheng, a man named Tseng Sheng, former mayor of Canton?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes. Exhibit 5 is a translation of the April 3, 1967, issue of the January 25 Combat Bulletin which attacks the former mayor of Canton, and one of the criticisms of him was that he was still taking care of the grave of his mother and father and he was worshipping his ancestors, which, as I testified earlier, is now considered a terrible thing in Red China, to have respect for one's ancestors.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, do you know a publication in Canton, a Red Guard publication called Hung-se Pao-tung?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, I do. Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Chairman, this publication for August 22, 1967, translated in exhibit No. 6,6 carries a report of an incident on August 20, 1967, in which a group of Red Guards were massacred by another group of Red Guards.
It says: “Many revolutionary comrades fell into the blood pool; many revolutionary pathfinders were kidnaped and thrown into the cells of the district headquarters where they were savagely tortured * * * " and so on.
Mr. Wu, are you familiar with incidents of kidnapings and murders and tortures by one Red Guard unit against another?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes. It was a frequent happening during the height of the Cultural Revolution, which I witnessed.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, are you familiar with a publication in Canton called Red Flag Workers?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes. As a matter of fact, I was a member of that faction which put out that publication.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Here is exhibit No. 7,? which is a translation of an article from that publication of July 11, 1967. It reports the beating and killing of a number of Red Guards by a rival faction of the Red Guard.
Are you familiar with—let me hand you exhibit No. 8, because I cannot pronounce this at all.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, I am. This is a publication, the Chingkangshan and Kwangtung Literary Combat Bulletin of August 26, 1967,8
5 See appendix, pp. 899-901. 8 See appendix, pp. 902-907. ? See appendix, pp. 908-911. 8 See appendix, pp. 912-916.
and it contains an account of murders of one group of Red Guards by another group.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, are you familiar with a publication, Red Banner of South China Normal College?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Here, again, in exhibit No. 9,9 there is a translation of two articles from the August 29, 1967, issue, both of which contain reports of the massacres by one group of Red Guards of another group.
Mr. Wu, do you remember an incident in August of 1967 where rival factions of Red Guards were brought to Peking to meet with Chou En-lai?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes. That group included leaders of both factions.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Were instructions given to them by Chou En-lai?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Chou asked them to stop the fighting and hand over their
eir weapons, but they did not obey. Mr. ROMERSTEIN. I show you exhibit No. 10 10, which is an article from the same magazine that was exhibit No. 8. In the issue of September 5, 1967, it reports the meeting with Chou En-lai in which he asked them to stop seizing arms and supplies from the communist army and to return the weapons that they had. This confirms the testimony of Mr. Wu.
Are you familiar with a publication called Special Reference Material Supplement, Mr. Wu?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. It was a reprinting by the Kwangtung Red Guards of a publication originally put out by Peking Red Guards.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Was this a publication for general dissemination ? Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, within the movement.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. The copy in the hands of the U.S. Government is marked "Internal material, not for external circulation.”
Does this mean they did not want copies of this particular publication to get out of China ?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. It was only for the Red Guard factions. They are not supposed to be circulated outside of the Red Guard organization.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Exhibits Nos. 11,11 12,12 and 13 13 are translations of this publication which carry material relating to a November 14 speech of Chou En-lai and speeches of other communist leaders to Red Guards who had been brought to Peking.
Prior to the hearing, I showed the witness a copy of the issue of November 17, 1967, earlier which discussed a group of people who had run away from another country and had come back to China. That is, Chinese communist cadres who had come back to China from another country because they were afraid of U.S. bombings that were taking place in the other country.
Could you tell us what country that was that these people had fled from?
9 See appendix, pp. 917-921.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. It is either Vietnam, North Vietnam, or Laos, because, as far as I know, the Chinese communist government has sent thousands of people to work there, to help the local communists.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, you testified that you went back to China in 1954. Are you familiar with a law promulgated by the Chinese communist government in 1951 relating to the so-called counterrevolutionaries?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, it is in effect up to this date.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. The text of the law in English was printed in July 1951, in an official communist magazine in China called China Monthly Review. This is exhibit No. 14.14
Mr. Wu, what would be expected of a student in Red China who had a parent that was accused of being a counterrevolutionary?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. If he is already in school, I don't think anything would happen to him; but after his graduation, it would be very hard for him to find a good job. He can take up only those hard or lowpaying jobs.
If he is in what is considered a very good school, like at Tsinghua or Peking University, he would be transferred to another less wellknown school.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. What would he be expected to do in regard to his parents ? Could he support and defend his parents?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. To defend a counterrevolutionary, even if he is your own parent, is considered a very serious crime, and the student should know better than to do that.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Mr. Wu, are you familiar with the publications, Middle School Student and Youth of China?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. Exhibits 15 15 and 16 16 are translations by the U.S. Consulate General of articles in 1955 and 1956 explaining to young people how they must denounce their parents or denounce their relatives or denounce their husbands or wives if they are socalled counterrevolutionaries.
One other question, Mr. Wu: Do you know a Canton newspaper called Yang-ch'eng Wan Pao? 1
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes, sir.
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes. It has wide circulation in Canton. It is a local newspaper. It is comparatively popular because it contains a literary page which publishes several very interesting literary pieces, where other official papers do not. This issue of November 1, 1965 contains a typical attack on both the Catholic and Protestant religions.
Mr. ROMERSTEIN. That is all I have.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Wu, you testified you worked for sometime in a tractor factory in Canton. While there, did you gain any knowledge concerning the manufacture of heroin by Chinese authorities?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Right across the street from my office, there was an organization called the 09 Laboratory. It employed some 700 workers. One of my wife's friends worked there. Once she told me personally that that was a place manufacturing heroin.
14 See appendix, pp. 948, 949.
Mr. WHITE. Did she give any further explanation of this at that time?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. One day that girl was having a casual chat in my house with me and my wife. I mentioned to her that, “Your factory seems to be a very mysterious place with all the windows curtained and all that. What are you making, anyway?"
She said, “You have just to put your hands in our product and go home and scrape your hands, and you will become very rich.”
I was mystified. I asked her again, “What is it, anyway? Is it fuel for missiles ?”
She said, "No." She said, "Don't tell others. It is heroin."
Mr. WHITE. While you were there, did you have an opportunity to see any shipments go out of this factory?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Since my wife's friend told me that, my interest was aroused, and I began to pay close attention to the activities of that mysterious 09 Lab.
I discovered that every 2 months, they would ship some small boxes about 2 feet long, 11/2 feet wide, and 8 inches tall, 10 inches tall. They would load those boxes on a three-wheel truck and transfer it to a gunboat docked nearby at a navy pier. Then that gunboat would sail toward the south, that is toward the sea, in the Pearl River.
Mr. WHITE. Do you know who operated this factory, under what ministry?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. It is under the direct jurisdiction of the Public Security Department of the Kwangtung Province.
Mr. WHITE. Was the factory guarded, and if so, how?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. No uniformed guards and no fence nor walls, but I noticed than many, many guards in civilian clothes were guarding that factory.
Mr. WHITE. Did this factory sit in an open space with open area, free area around it?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes; that is correct. The building was six stories high. It stands alone in a large, empty lot.
Mr. WHITE. Did you have an opportunity to see any boxes similar to those taken out of the factory at some other place?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. Yes. As a matter of fact, I saw those similar boxes once in November of 1970 in Macao, a Portuguese colony, outside a communist-operated local product store called Nankuang Trad
Mr. WHITE. How were you able to recognize these boxes?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Because those boxes were made of very high quality wood, which is very rare in mainland China.
Also, one strange thing about those boxes, they were absolutely unmarked, no brand nor any word, any characters on those boxes, so it was very easy for me to recognize those boxes.
Mr. WHITE. Have you any basis for estimating the weight for each one of these boxes?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. I believe each box weighed less than 20 kilograms because I could see that one worker could carry three boxes at a time.
Mr. WHITE. How many boxes would this truck carry from the factory to the gunboat?
Mr. Wu-SHU-JEN. As a mechanical engineer, I know for a fact that the capacity of that truck is 1 ton each time it is fully loaded, so I would say 1 ton each time.
Mr. WHITE. Mr. Wu, I show you minority exhibit No. 1 18 and ask you what it is.
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. It is a map of Canton City.
Mr. WHITE. There appears on the map the figure 1 down in the southern part of the map. Can you tell us what that figure locates?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. That is the tractor factory in which I worked. Mr. WHITE. The figure No. 2, what does that locate!
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. It was the exact location of the 09 Lab which I mentioned.
Mr. WHITE. Can you tell us the name of the street there upon which the tractor factory and the 09 Lab are located ?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. The Second Paper-Making Factory Road.
Mr. WHITE. Did either your building, the tractor factory building, or the 09 Laboratory have a street number?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. The factories are not numbered.
Mr. WHITE. Directionally to the southwest of the figures 1 and 2, there appears to be a body of water. Is that the Pearl River?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. That is correct.
Mr. WHITE. And is it along that waterfront that the gunboat docked to pick up the cargo from the 09 Lab?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Less than 300 meters.
Mr. WHITE. Directing your attention to the central part of the map, you will notice there is a figure 3 and a figure 4. What do those figures indicate ?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. To the left of this figure 3 is the site of the socalled Canton Trade Fair.
To the south of the figure 4 was a building called the People's Building, which was a hotel especially for those businessmen from Hong Kong, and other Southeast Asian countries.
Mr. WHITE. What is indicated by the figure 5 ?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Five is the exact location of the so-called Canton Hostel, which was for the businessmen from Japan.
Mr. WHITE. At the northern part of the map there is a figure 6. What does that mark?
Mr. Wu SHU-JEN. It is called Yang Chen Hostel, which is especially for businessmen from the Western countries attending the trade fair.
Mr. WHITE. What is the approximate distance from the figure 1 to figure 6? Mr. WU SHU-JEN. A straight line, it is about 6 kilometers.
Mr. WHITE. Was it the policy of the Chinese Government at the time you were there to segregate foreigners that were attending the trade fair?
Mr. WU SHU-JEN. Yes, that is correct. It was a deliberate attempt to segregate, especially those Japanese businessmen who were closely watched by the authorities.
18 See appendix, p. 879. Exhibits Nos. 1 through 17 were submitted by the minority staff of the Committee on Internal Security.