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but the sturdier men. At Annapolis and West Point physical training is an essential part of the course, and it should be so in every college. It will be so when we have wholly escaped the influence of the false doctrine that the body is the instrument of Satan, and must be bound in fetters as a preliminary to intellectual and spiritual development."

of the Abby-Lang exploitation of Shakespeare's comedies and the artist's beautiful interpretations of the “Two Gentlemen of Verona" dramatis persona are rather the most attractive in all this series.


HARPER'S. E have reviewed elsewhere at length Mr. T. P.

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Mr Thomas Nelson Page, who is always charming, and who is especially so in his native and appropriate subject of Virginia, writes this month on the “Old Dominion” in a paper which Mr. Reinhart's illustrations make exceedingly attractive. Of course we can leave Mr. Page alone to find the romance, which, to be sure, is anything but hard to find in “Ole Virginny.” As to the material reconstruction of the State, he bears witness to the great change which has come from the terrible period of reaction just after the war. He concludes that the boom which carried values and hopes in Virginia to inflated proportions really never stopped the steady advance on lines of commercial prosperity which the State has made for the last ten years. He contends that the time has fairly come when the Old Dominion is a good place to go to instead of being a good place to come from. The Southwest is furnishing great foundries and furnaces with iron and cual, and hundreds of saw mills with fine lumber, and in the east, where some of the poorer sections are to be found, a new industry has grown up in the trucking which furnishes fruits and vegetables for the markets of the Northern cities.

In his “Editor's Chair” Mr. Charles Du:lley Warner takes a conservative step in his advocacy of criticism as a concomitant to our literature. He thinks that it is time our strong spontaneous literary growth should be, if not checked, at least qualified by criticism, and he talks very plainly in his statement of opinion that we are quite an arrogant young nation in our disavowal of the need of any such criticism.

** We are growing in the habit of being sufficient unto ourselves. We have not Philistinism, but we have something else. There has been no name for it yet invented. Some say it is satisfaction in superficiality, and they point to the common school and to Chautauqua ; the French say that it is satisfaction in mediocrity. At any rate, it is a satisfaction that has a large element of boastfulness in it, and boastfulness based upon a lack of enlightenment, in literature especially a want of discrimination, of fine discernment of quality. It is a habit of looking at literature as we look at other things ; literature in national life stands alone ; if we condone crookedness in politics and in business under the name of smartness; we apply the same sort of test—that is, the test of success—to literature. It is the test of the late Mr. Barnum. There is in it a disregard of moral as well as of artistic values and standards. You see it in the press, in sermons even–the effort to attract attention, the lack of moderation, the striving to be sensational in poetry, in the novel to shock, to advertise the performance. Everything is on a strain. No, this is not Philistinism. It is sure, also, that it is not the final expression of the American spirit-that which will represent its life or its literature. We trust it is a transient disease, which we may perhaps call by a transient nameBarnumism"

The Christmas Harper's is a very beautiful magazine in its gold, white and green binding and in the exceptional array of contents. The artistic feature centers in the last

CRIBNER'S” naturally numbers itself among the

special Christmas numbers, but it is comparatively modest in putting on a holiday dress, for the original cover is retained and two conventional trees with real green leaves are printed thereon in sign of the Christmas time.

There are several treats for special scholars in the number, notably a very valuable archæological article by Professor Allan Marquand, in which he tells of the search for the Della Robbia monuments in Italy. For the very “practical” man who may be inclined to cavil at such special labor there is a good answer in Professor Marquand's closing paragraph, in which he speaks of the value which these resurrected monuments have for our modern sculptors and decorators in suggesting the variety of uses to which terra cotta may be applied. Few people, probably, know that terra cotta, while far more economical as a material than marble, is exceedingly durable, standing the onslaughts of time and rain, and does not fade in the sunshine.

Even in this age of realism there will be plenty of fol. lowers of Andrew Lang and lovers of tbe Waverly novels who will appreciate the hitherto unpublished letters by Sir Walter Scott which appear in this number, prefaced by Mr. Lang's introduction. These letters were so unsuspected by antiquarian lovers of Sir Walter Scott that even Mr. Lang himself was fooled at first by the rare archaic spelling and general improbability of such a find.

A very charming feature is the prettily illustrated paper in which Mr. F. S. Church tells of “An Artist Among Animals"-of all men the best to write on such a theme. Mr. Church's strong contrasts of lovely girls and fierce wild asts, and the fetching verisimilitude of his smaller birds and beasts, make these reminiscences of especial interest. Of his famous lions and tigers, he says :

“I paint the lioness much more than I do the lion. Probably few notice the difference, but I use the tigress in all my pictures in preference to the male. There is something in the female of the cat species particularly that appeals to me much more than the male. She has certain lines, movements, alertness and quickness of perception, with a sort of you-had-better-look-out expression, which I don't see in the male. I often think of that tigress I read of in a report of the London Zoo, who, accompanied by her two cubs, stealthily approached in the middle of the night a small temporary board shanty, where some native East Indian railroad workmen were sleeping. Leaving her cubs at the door, she stole in, grabbed one of the sleeping men and made off with him before the horrified occupants could realize the situation. Just think of the peculiar intelligence shown not only in her successful raid, but in her instructions to her cubs, whom she made wait outside for her while she did her terrible work !”

It certainly seems that there should be a field for a first-class gazine devoted especially to university matters, and an enthusiastic Princetonian, Dr. M. M. Miller, is aiming with much earnestness to occupy this field with the University Review, the third number of which comes to us dated December. The new monthly aims to cover both the more active serious discussions which come

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up in the college world and also to give full attention to the The working hours of a very different celebrity are deintercollegiate sports of the day and to a qualifying strain scribed by E. J. Edwards in his article on “Governor of fiction and verse. The December number is largely taken William McKinley.” “If McKinley had been seen by the up with the recent Cornell celebration, of which it gives American people when he was engaged in acquiring and the histor together with pictures of the Cornell authori applying knowledge, he would have been discovered at ties and some pretty half-tones of Ithacan scenery. his committee rooms sometimes eight or ten hours a day,

or in consultation with his committee at his private

rooms often until long past midnight. He would have THE COSMOPOLITAN.

been seen exploring the mysteries of chemistry ; reading HIS number of the Cosmopolitan exploits fully

the reports of trade associations ; sometimes with great the magazine's reputation for beautiful, clear, half

volumes massed up before him, through which he searched tone pictures, scores of which are devoted to World's Fair

with the penetrating industry of one who compiles hissubjects. On the theme “ After the World's Fair,” the

tory ; and in addition to these duties was his occupation pens of such men as Paul Bourget, John J. Ingalls, F.

upon the floor of the House." Hopkinson Smith, Robert Grant, Arthur Sherburne Hardy

The wonderful adventures of the detective Sherlock and Walter Besant are enlisted, while even Mr. Howells'

Holmes are brought to a close in this number by Dr. Altrurian traveler is lured into the prolix beauties and

Conan Doyle, who kills off his hero after one of the most wonders of the White City.

stirring of his experiences. Prof. Charles A. Young, of Princeton, tells in the department “The Progress of Science,” of the very latest

THE CHAUTAUQUAN. determination of the sun's distance from the earth.

“ The work was very thoroughgoing, involving the co ILLAGE Life in Ireland,” by Prof. J. P. Mahaffy, operation of no less than twenty-one different observa

of Trinity College, Dublin, forms the subject of tories in determining with their meridian circles the places the opening paper of the December issue. Beginning by of the stars which were used as reference points along the asking if such a thing really exists in the Emerald Isle, planet's track. Then all through the summer the position the author goes on to consider the reasons for this condiof the planet itself, with reference to these stars, was as tion, which he finds in the perfect safety of the country, siduously observed by Gill and Auwers at the Cape of and the almost infinitesimal division of the land among Good Hope ; by Elkin and Hall at New Haven, and in tenants. Untidiness and squalor, with their attendant Germany by Hartwig at Göttingen, and by Schur at misery and sadness, are habits of the people, but poverty Bamberg. The instruments employed in their observa is by no means always the cause. Social talent and tact, tions were heliometers of the most perfect construction, everywhere present, are the more remarkable for the enand the measurements made with them rank among the vironment. The shebeen or pot house is the curse of the most accurate and refined known in astronomy. Alto land, and the controlling influence, too often misused by together, between June 15 and August 27, while the priest and landlord, is all that stands between the Irish planet was near its opposition and for a time at a dis peasantry and the loss of their virtues and social charın. tance from the earth less than four-fifths the distance of “The Study of Crime and Criminals,” by Mr. J. B. the sun, over eight hundred complete sets of measures Macdonald, is perhaps the most interesting in the “Rewere secured, and only six nights were wholly missed. quired Reading." Since criminology has become a science,

“The reduction of this mass of material has occupied attention and study have been diverted from the crime to nearly three years, and the result has only just been pub the criminal. Like other sciences, it has its divisions into lished. Dr. Gill, who originated the campaign and has general, special and practical departments, and it holds reduced the observations, finds for the parallax of the sun seven cardinal principles, which he enumerates. In re8".809, corresponding to a distance of 92,800,000 miles ; and lation to sociology, the criminal himself, not law books, he further finds that the hitherto accepted mass of the must be minutely studied ; his brain, where we are now moon must be reduced somewhat more than one per cent. almost completely at sea ; his sensibility, which seems to satisfy the observations : in other words, the earth’s obtuse, whether moral or physical ; his almost complete monthly swing due to her motion around the common moral insensibility, his stupendous vanity and his power centre of gravity of earth and moon was found to be of deceit even in the face of the scaffold. The author about one per cent. less than had bee i assumed.”

thinks that the danger from criminal hypnotism has been exaggerated, and in conclusion, speaking of the remedies

for crime, he takes an optimistic view. "The great maM'CLURE'S MAGAZINE.

jority are susceptible to reformation, or at least improve'CLURE'S comes out for December in the gayest of ment. The remedy consists in religious, moral, intelChristmas covers of very green background, with

lectual and industrial training of children and youth." very red trimmings. Arthur Warren interviews Arch M. Ferraris writes of "Italian Finances,” finding two deason Farrar, and is told by the famous prelate :

lasting and four occasional causes for the bankrupt con“Well, I am at work at half-past eight in the morn

dition of the country. The former consist in the sucing. I have large mail, as a rule, and when that is cessive economic crises since 1885 and the steady decline sifted and answered I work at one thing or another till of the money market ; the latter are found in the suspenten in the evening. I do a good part of my task at the sion of silver coinage in India and restrictive measures in Athenæum Club in the afternoon. But, of course, the

the United States, the hostilities between France and chief part of it is done in this study, and at this tall desk Siam, the demand for the dissolution of the Latin Union, by the window. You have probably noticed that I pre the new Italian banking laws. He attacks the policy of fer to stand while writing. An hour or two before bed the late ministry and declares that the raising of the rate time I devote to reading. Besides, of course, as Chaplain of discount, the control of the money market by the to the Speaker, I am bound to regular attendance at the Treausury, and agrarian laws on a broad basis are the House of Commons.”

remedies for the present condition.





N addition to M. Engerand's interesting account of


'HE Revue des Deux Mondes for the month of Novem

ber opens with an historic article from an historic pen : a chapter of the history of the Princes de Condé, by Henri d'Orleans, Duc d'Aurale, their successor at Chantilly. This palace, almost totally destroyed at the Revolution, has been rebuilt in all its splendor, enriched with priceless memorials of the history of the Condés of France, and will fall into the possession of the French Academy on the death of its aged possessor, by virtue of his irrevocable deed of gift. The chapter printed in the Revue refers to intricate negotiations between Mazarin, Minister of the young King, Louis XIV, and the Crown of Spain, with which Condé (M. le Prince), cousin and rival of Louis, was involved. The quarrel is matter of common history ; not, so the intention of King Louis to get hold of Chantilly by confiscation. He went there, found himself fort bien—“extremely comfortable”-and said to his courtiers that he should include the palace in the treaty. The Duchess de Châtillon writes to Condé that she “hopes not to lose him as a neighbor.” M. le Prince replies angrily that he should take the confiscation as an “awful affront.” “It is quite false,” says he, “that the King ever had a passion for the place. His Majesty never would halt there to see him, and if they made Louis go there it was purposely done to vex him,-Condé.” “It is the only spot where I can go while I am out of court favor, and as I see no early chance of being resorted to that, the least I can claim is a pleasant place in which to pass the time of waiting" Fortunately Chantilly escaped confiscation ; the young King contented himself with St. Germain and Versailles, then a hunting-box of Francis I. How Louis made it into the great palace he who runs can read ; but the Sun King and his descendants have vanished, while the Duc d'Aumale still is at Chantilly writing the history of his race and on the best of terms with the French Republic.

'Spelling Reform," by M. Michel Breat, also of the Institute, touches on a very pretty quarrel in the French press, wherein the arguments pro and con seem to have been tossed about like shuttlecocks. Neither foreign students of French, brought up upon the older literature, nor the natives of conquered Tonquin, can be appealed to in favor of phonetic spelling. The cultivated student buys and treasures up old editions of the French classics, and enjoys the antique appearance of roy and foy. “What Venerable editions do we not see cherished across our frontiers," remarks M. Michel Breat ; and the aged Latin language survives in churches and universities and courts of law, beside her own modern daughters. He opines that if France wrote phonetically, and with any great modifications of the old spelling, her enemies would take it as a proof that she was crumbling to pieces. The complicated English language, which in orthography is, scientifically speaking, the worst of sinners, has been practically taught on all points of the globe to two hundred millions of men.

The last edition of the dictionary of the French Academy was revised in 1835, since when, “if we consider all the tributary themes which poetry, the drama, politics, science and popular slang have brought into the French language in sixty years, it is obvious that something more than a re-edited re: rint is required."

Nouvelle Revue contains other articles of note. M. Perrens, of the French Institute, describes eloquently the life of a sixteenth century apostle of tolerance. The man thus styled was none other than Sebastian Castellion, the author of the celebrated dialogues which, published in 1542, became one of the literary successes of the century. Castellion, a Swiss by nationality, has been styled by one of his critics.“ the Protestant Fénelon." When the black death, burst out in Geneva he remained in the town, although the pastors fled from the hospitals, an i did his best to help the people. But nutwithstanding the many proofs of moral and physical bravery which he gave to both his friends and enemies, M. Perrens' hero was publicly condemned by Calvin. With him, it seems, he only differed on two trifling points, of which the most important was as to what had been the precise spirit in which Solomon had written the Canticle of Canticles. Renan once declared that Castellion was the first to recognize the true character of these writings. Be that as it may, his quarrel with Calvin practically exiled him from Geneva, and he lived a quiet, retired life at Bâle with his wife and family, translating the Bible into Latin and French, and writing constantly in favor of tolerance and universal charity. But Calvin still continued to actively persecute “that infamous pest,” “that dog.” At last, worn out by the incessant struggle, Castellion was just preparing to go to take refuge in Poland when death surprised him on September 29, 1563, when he was only forty-eight years of age. Although none of his followers at Bâle had dared to defend him during his lifetime for fear of irritating Calvin, his death put the whole town, and especially the iniversity, into mourning.

In the same number M. de Lassus begins what promises to be a remarkable addition to the social history of France, namely, a series of articles on the famous Hôtel de Bourgogne, and the origin of the Comédie Française. The Hôtel de Bourgogne, we are told, went through some curious phases, having been built in the reign of St. Louis by the King's brother, the Comte d'Artois, and some centuries passed before the Hôtel de Bourgogne became in any way associated with the theatre. The first plays acted there were Passion plays, which were acted for the benefit of a troupe who styled themselves Brothers of the Passion ; but they soon had to make place for King Louis XIII's comedians, and it was there that ultimately the famous Italian company really taught the dramatic art to their French con frères.

M. Diamanti gives a delightful picture of Russian Turkestan and the Trans-Carpathian Railway, or rather that extension of it which penetrates into Turkestan. This Russian possession, by its geographical position, touches on China, Bokhara, and the north of Afghanistan and is in itself a land where will soon be established coal, tin, copper, gold, silver and lead mines, and should form an unexpected and much-needed addition to the wealth of Russia as a nation. If all that M. Diamanti says is true, Turkestan should form a valuable outlet for the Russian emigrant, for the land, he declares, could easily be made marvelously fertile by means of a system of canalization, and even now the cotton-growers of surkestan are amassing year by year enormous wealth.



ECONOMICS, POLITICS AND SOCIOLOGY. Essays on Questions of the Day. Political and Social. By

Goldwin Smith, D.C.L. 12mo, pp. 360. New York :
Macmillan & Co. $2.25.

Mr. Goldwin Smith is a writer whose discussion of every subject he touches

is marked by originality of view and fascination of style. Several volumes from his pen have quite recently appeared from the press of Messrs. Macmillan & Co., and the latest is a volume of essays on questions of the day. These essays are largely drawn from articles contributed by Mr. Smith to leading periodicals. They are, however, revised and extended. The volume includes the following essays: Social and Industrial Revolution ; The Question of Disestablishment; The Political Crisis in England : The Empire ; Woman Suffrage ; The Jewish Question ; The Irish Question ; Prohibition in Canada and the United States. As an appendix there is reprinted an article upon the Oneida Community and American Socialism, written by Mr. Smith some twenty years ago. Essays and Studies. By Emile de Laveleye. First series.

Paper, 12mo, pp. 412. Paris : Félix Alcan.

Many admirers of the late Emile de Laveleye, scattered through all the countries o. the civilized world, will be glad to know that his very numerous miscellaneous writings are to be brought together in a series of volumes of essays and studies. The first series has now appeared and includes writings covering the period from 1861 to 1875. There are sixteen essays in the volume, and they deal with various educational, literary and political topics, with all of Professor Laveleye's characteristic ingenuity, scholarship and charm of style. Principles of Political Economy. By J. Shield Nichol

son, M.A. Octavo, pp. 465. New York: Macmillan & Co. $3.

An important contribution to the literature of political economy has appeared from the pen of Professor J. S. Nichol. son, who holds thchair of Political Economy in the University of Edinburgh. Volume I is now in the hands of the public. Professor Nicholson's work rests in the main upon the basis of Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill He gives particular attention to history and affairs as illustrative of economic principles. The work is clearly and attractively written. Principles of Economics : The Satisfaction of Human

Wants, In So Far as Their Satisfaction Depends on Material Resources. By Grover Pease Osborne. 12mo, pp. 454. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co. $2.

Mr. Grover P. Osborne, of Cincinnati, presents the principles of economic science under a somewhat original, and certainly a very striking and important grouping

of topics. He considers that economics should deal with the “ satisfaction of human wants in so far as their satisfaction depends on material resources.". His six main divisions or "books" treat of the following subjects : 1, The Resources for the Satisfaction of Wants; 2. Population-the Number of People Whose Wants are to be satisfied ; 3, Ownership and Control of the Resources for the Satisfaction of Wants ; 4, Economical Uses of the Resources ; 5, Exchange ; 6, Distribution of Produced Wealth. Economic students and intelligent general readers will find this book a safe guide to the main doctrines of economic science. The Distribution of Wealth. By John R. Commons.

12mo, pp. 258. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.25.

Professor John R. Commons, whose contributions to the REVIEW OF REVIEWs have familiarized the readers of this magazine with his insight, clearness and force as an economic writer, has made a positive and permanent addition to the theoretical literature of political economy in his new work, “The Distribution of Wealth." It is not a book for general readers, but it must give Dr. Commons a high standing among economic thinkers. An Introduction to the Study of Political Economy. By

Luigi Cossa. 12mo, pp. 597. New York : Macmillan & Co. $2.60.

Professor Cossa, the Italian economist, has for years been recognized as the most studious of all the compilers of economic bibliography and biography. He enjoys a high reputation for his work on the Principles of Taxation, and has made

a very exceptional and valuable addition to economic litera. ture in the present treatise. It supplies detailed information accessible in no other convenient form, and the English translation of it will be welcomed by all economic students in this country. It is very much fuller than the early editions of his introductory work. Essays in Political Economy. By Michael Corcoran.

Paper, 12mo, pp. 108. Omaha, Neb.: Published by the Author. 25 cents.

Mr. Michael Corcoran, of Omaha, Neb., has published in pamphlet form certain essays in economic science, which are dedicated to Cardinal Gibbons. The esteemed Cardinal, in accepting the dedication, commends Mr. Corcoran's efforts in behalf of the laboring classes. Politics in a Democracy. By Daniel Greenleaf Thompson.

12mo, pp. 176. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25.

Mr. Thompson is a well known member of the New York bar, an original thinker, and an author of some repute. This little volume, which upon its face would appear to be a theoretical dissertation upon the science of polítics, passes,--after an introductory essay or two upon monarchy, democracy and so on,-into an elaborate defense of Tammany Hall. Practically the entire body of the book is taken up with an argument for what the author calls the modern development of the governme t of cities " by syndicate.” He holds that all great modern cities are falling under a type of government of which Tammany is the best instance. Unfortunately he does not cite the other cities which are in this condition, and he has built a superstructure of political philosophy upon no basis whatever. The book contains much shrewd dissertation and much high sentiment, mingled with large proportions of sophistry. The Mark in Europe and America. By Enoch A. Br an,

A.M. 12mo, pp. 170. Boston: Ginn & Co. $1.10.

President Bryan, of Vincennes University, while study. ing history and economics at Harvard, entered upon an examination of the so-called mark theory of the origin of Teutonic village life, and property in land.' He succeeds in throwing very considerable discredit upon a doctrine which has had great influence both in the study of early institutions and in the propaganda of land reform. Chances of Success : Episodes and Observations in the

Life of a Busy Man. By Erastus Wiman. 12mo, pp. 367. New York : The American News Company.

Mr. Erastus Wiman is a man whose energy and great capacity have made him one of the most influential men of affairs of this generation. His influence and personal force have been felt in every portion of the English-speaking world. So strong is his personality that it is wholly agreeable to find in this new book of his a half-veiled hint of autobiography from beginning to end. The sub-title is explanatory of the character of the book-" Episodes and Observations in the Life of a Busy Man." Each chapter is complete in itself, and most of them fill only a page or two. Mr. Wiman's knowl. edge of the business world is greater than that of any other man with whom we are acquainted, and his fund of human sympathy is broad and unfailing. The book is full of interesting

anecdotes, sound business maxims, broad and trenchant views upon economic and social questions, and the cheering optimism of a man who believes in his fellow-men and permits nothing to dishearten him. The Housing of the Poor in American Cities. By Marcus

T. Reynolds, Ph.D., M.A. Paper, 8vo, pp. 132. Baltimore : American Economic Association. $1.

Very timely in view of the pressing practical problems that concern all our largest towns, is an essay on the housing of the poor in American cities, by Marcus T. Reynolds. Mr. Reynolds won the prize offered by the American Economic Association for the best monograph on this

subject. His bibliographical references are valuable, and he has compiled much pertinent information. Women Wage-Earners: Their Past, Their Present and

Their Future. By Helen Campbell. 12mo, pp. 325.
Boston: Robert Brothers. $1.
Mrs. Helen Campbell is the most indefatigable and doubt-

less the best informed of all the American students of the question of woman as a factor in the modern industrial sys. tem. Her present contribution to this subject is a useful addition to economic literature and to the practical discussion of a topic of current moment. Public Assistance of the Poor in France. By Emily Greene

Balch, A.B. Paper, 8vo, pp. 179. Baltimore : American Economic Association. $1.

Another valuable publication issued by the American
Economic Association is entitled "Public Assistance of the
Poor in France." This monograph is practically historical.
It has, however, much information that gives it value to the
practical reformer.
Local Government in the South and the Southwest. By

Professor Edward Bemis, Ph.D. Paper, 8vo, pp. 118.
Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. $1.

An exceptionally valuable contribution to political sci. ence is the lateet publication in the Johns Hopkins University studies. It is entitled “Local Government in the South and the Southwest," and has been prepared by Professor Edward W. Bemis, lately of the Vanderbilt University, now of the University of Chicago, with the co-operation of his Vanderbilt University students. It informs us concerning the existing systems of local administration in twelve Southern States. The tendency, as pointed out by Professor Bemis, is decidedly towards the development of self-government. Bound up with the foregoing monograph is an interesting study upon the Popular Election of United States Senators, by M- John Haynes, a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University. A Colony of Mercy ; or, Social Christianity at Work. By

Julie Sutter. Octavo, pp. 364. New York: Dodd,
Mead & Co. $2.

The picture of “Social Christianity at Work," which we have presented in these pages, has a value for the student of social problems in ge eral, and a considerable, perhaps larger, value for those interested in philanthropy with a direct religious purpose. In a certain colony in Germany called "Bethel," which has been in existence for about a quarter of a century, the author found a "vision of a programme of Christianity realized.” She has related with great enthusiasm the work that is being done at this privately-managed in. stitution, or group of institutions, for the epileptic, the drunk. ard, the laborer out of employment and the needy of all classes who are willing to work. Under the direction of Pastor von Bodelschwingh's ability and zeal this institution in Westphalia has extended its usefulness even to Africa, and has had a large influence upon other labor colonies in Germany. Of these and of the provisions made in various ways for "Darkest Germany Tramping," our author has given us interesting though fragmentary information. It is a curious fact that by means of stations where a man is allowed to earn his living an unemployed laborer “can travel through the length and breadth of the Empire without having one penny in his pocket." The chapter upon - The Workman's Home is possibly the one of widest general i terest. With the text go twenty-two relevant illustrations and a plan of the colony in its various subdivisions. Resources and Development of Mexico. By Hubert Howe

Bancroft. Octavo, pp. 337. San Francisco: The
Bancroft Company.

Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft's new volume on Mexico is devoted principally to a question of the actual condition of the country as regards natural resources, mines, agriculture, stock raising, communication, manufactures, commerce, etc. The book is highly optimistic in tone, and is apparently written with a view to attracting attention to Mexico as a field for the investment of capital or a desirable home for enterprising emigrants. World's Congress of Bankers and Financiers. Octavo,

pp. 615. Chicago : Rand, McNally & Co.

Numerous volumes are making their appearance as a result of the World's Congresses at Chicago. A very useful one has been edited by the well-known Chicago banker, Mr. Lyman J. Gage, entitled the “World's Congress of Bankers and Financiers." It contains important addresses upon financial topics, and will preserve in permanent form much that will have value for purposes of reference. Addresses Delivered before the World's Railway Com

merce Congress. Official Report. Octavo, pp. 270. Chicago : The Railway Age. $3.

The Railway Age, of Chicago, has published in a valuable volume a report of the addresses delivered before the World's Railway Commerce Congress, held at Chicago in June, under the auspices of the World's Fair Auxiliary. This congres

commanded superior ability, and the volume will be in demand as a distinct addition to the literature of railway operation and economics. Conversations Between the Rabbi of the Boarding House

and a Company of Intelligent Ladies and Gentlemen. By Hon. H. H. Young. 12mo, pp. 371. St. Paul, Minn.: B. Ramaley & Son.

Mr. H. H. Young, a well-known citizen of St. Paul, and for a long time an official of the State of Minnesota, has under the above-named title prepared a series of papers discussing a great variety of current questions. His discussions take the form of dialogues in a boarding house family, somewhat after the fashion set by Oliver Wendell Holmes in his Breakfast Table books. A Cityless and Countryless World : An Outline of Prac

tical and Co-operative Individualism. By Henry Olerich. 12mo, pp. 447. Holstein, Iowa : Gilmore & Olerich.

Mr. Olerich's book is another contribution to the already very extensive library of Utopias. He pictures an ideal society in which development of mind and character has reached such a point as to make what he calls co-operative individualism suffice for everything, and in which all social and political institutions are done away with. Police and Prison Cyclopædia. By George W. Hale. Re

vised edition. Octovo, pp. 810. Boston: H. O. Houghton & Co.

The new edition of Mr. George W. Hale's Police and Prison Cyclopædia is worthy of commendation. It serves a variety of purposes. It concludes with an interesting biographical sketch of the author and compiler, who is now a member of the police department of Lawrence, Mass. There follows a treatise on police officers and their duties, including a definition of crimi. nal terms and other cognate information. The body of the book is devoted to lists of the prisons of the United States with a vast collection of prison statistics, and of the police departments of all towns having ten thousand people or more. Finally, there is an extensive report upon the prisons and police departments of foreign countries, with abundant statistics and a variety of miscellaneous material falling under the general head of criminology. The book will be gratefully welcomed by many who will have occasion to draw upon it for information otherwise almost absolutely inaccessible.

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the

Abolition of Slavery. By Bayard Tuckerman. Octavo, pp. 205. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. $2.50.

William Jay was the second son of the first Chief Justice of the United States, and was a distinguished philanthropist who bore a leading and influential part in the anti-slavery movement. He was also very prominent in behalf of the cause of international peace, and his career is worthy of a full biography. Meanwhile, Mr. Tuckerman's work, devoted chiefly, however, to William Jay's services in the constitutional movement for the aboltion of slavery, is a valuable contribution to American history and biography. History of Slavery in Connecticut. By Bernard C.

Stiner, Ph.D. Paper, 8vo, pp. 84. Baltimore : Johns
Hopkins Press. 75 cents.

Among the recent publications of the Johns Hopkins University there should be mentioned Dr. Bernard C. Stiner's “ History of Slavery in Connecticut, "a thorough and elaborate study from original sources. The Making of Virginia and the Middle Colonies, 1578–

1701. By Samuel Adams Drake. 12mo, pp. 238. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50.

“The Making of Virginia and the Middle Colonies" is a very attractive companion volume to Mr. Drake's " Making of New England" and "Making of the Great West.” It should find a place in the schools of New York, Pennsylvania Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. It has many pictures, and is a clear and accurate narrative. A First History of France. By Louise Creighton. 16mo,

pp. 321. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25.

Miss Louise Creighton, whose first history of England is so well known, has now successfully attempted to cover the whole course of French history in a small volume suitable for use in schools or for the reading of young people at home. It is to be heartily commended.

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