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of question in finding a successor. For instance, this service, were absolutely free from any display of Administration has seen fit to remove Mr. Henry “offensive partisanship,” and ought by every rule of White from the position of First Secretary of Lega- good business sense, of fair play and of public and tion at London. Mr. White has held the office a long private morality, to have been retained. To some of time and has filled it most faithfully and admirably. them the recall was a pathetic hardship. The situaIf Mr. Bayard, who has succeeded Mr. Lincoln as our tion was not different in the year just ended. Many Ambassador, preferred to have Mr. Roosevelt Roose difficult investigations had been committed to our velt try his hand at the desk of the First Secretary, consuls, having to du with trade and commerce, with it was entirely right that the change should be made agriculture, with public improvements, with municiin the London office. But if Mr. White had been pal government, with emigration, with pauperism, connected with the diplomatic service of any other with the public health, and with various other topics. government on earth except ours, he would have been A fine morale had been developed, for the most part, transferred and promoted. Why should he not have and the service had begun in the last year of the Harbeen sent to Rome as Ambassador ? His dismissal rison Administration to show signs of a commendable from the public service is a disgrace and an outrage. average efficiency. But a majority of the voters of The emphasis has been put at the wrong place by the the United States were opposed to the McKinley critics of Mr. Van Alen's appointment. It is in the tariff ; and therefore hundreds of our agents in all exercise of the removing power, rather than in that foreign countries must be discharged, and the whole of the appointing power, that the offense chiefly lies. service must be reduced to the kindergarten stage In the removal of Henry White, the Administration once more, to the serious detriment of every permavirtually serves notice on every young American of nent interest that is served by a regular, experienced talent, industry and ambition, to the effect that body of foreign representatives. It is a state of affairs trained ability is not wanted in our diplomatic serv that calls for righteous wrath. It would not appear ice, and that the idea of finding a career in this advisable to put the diplomatic and consular service branch of public employment is not to be entertained upon the same basis as the army and navy ; but there for an instant.
ought to be promotions within the ranks, and every
presumption ought to be against the dismissal of a Nothing would be easier, with the men Need of
distinctly valuable officer who wishes to remain in an Expert now available, than the speedy develop the service. Service.
ment of an American consular and diplomatic service, wholly removed from politics and per
The report of the Civil Service Commis
Civil Service sonal favoritism, that would be at once a source of Reform, sion shows that in some respects, at credit and of great benefit to the country. There is its Progress. least, the country is making progress in so much of importance for our consuls, especially, the direction of a businesslike management of its afto do at the principal foreign posts, that it is nothing fairs. Under the last Administration, the railway less than a fraud upon our commercial interests and mail clerks were exempted from the domain of the our whole people for the recurring administrations at spoilsman's axe. All vacancies must now be filled Washington to use these places as personal and party on the examination and merit system. Moreover, spoils. If the people really understood the enormity this system has been extended throughout the free of this wrong they would not endure it. President delivery post-offices of the country. Heretofore it Cleveland's course, it should be said, in dealing with applied only to those offices which employed as many the foreign service, is not essentially worse than that as fifty clerks. There is a crying need for its appliof President Harrison. Neither of these Presidents cation in several other departments. For example, has had any personal liking for the spoils system. It we have within a few days received a letter from the is fair to assert that both of them would have been Superintendent of an Indian Training School in the delighted to let the diplomatic and consular service far West, informing us of his discharge to make alone, making changes only for good reasons. But place for a man from the Southeastern State of they were not able to resist the office-seeking pressure, The discharged official was a successful and honand the foreign posts afford a comparatively easy ored city Superintendent of Schools in the West opportunity to reward friends and satisfy the im before he accepted the charge of an Indian school. perious demands of party henchmen. The writer His qualifications were admirable. He was in no made the round of various European and Asiatic con sense a politician, but was a practical educator. He sulates at the time when in 1889 Mr. Harrison and is thrown out of employment at a time of the year Mr. Blaine were “cutting off the heads” of the Demo when an educational man cannot hope to obtain a cratic incumbents who had succeeded the men that position ; and the sole reason would seem to be that Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Bayard decapitated in 1885. It the Hon. Hoke Smith, Secretary of the Interior, happens that again in 1893 he visited a number of Euro wishes to find a job for a friend of his, or for a friend's pean consulates and witnessed the effects of another friend. It would be far better,-if the Secretary's « clean sweep.” Almost invariably he found that four friends have to be cared for at public expense,-to years of service had given an official enough training make several hundreds of nominal offices, to be ento make him useful. Many of the consuls rudely dis titled, for example, Commissionerships to the Planets placed by Mr. Harrison were rendering splendid and Other Heavenly Bodies, allowing each Cabinet
Secretary a hundred such appointinents, and each Bureau Chief twenty-five. The country could afford all these extra salaries, if thereby it could protect the Indian schools, the consulates, and other purely business or professional services from demoralization by the spoilsmen.
appointed in his place Mr. John R. Proctor, of Kentucky. This gentleman was formerly State Geologist, and his record shows him to be sufficiently free from the spoils view of public office to make an impartial commissioner, while having the requisite force and firmness. The commission as at present constituted deserves the respect and confidence of the country. Mr. Lyman may be said to be a specialist in the organization and working of a merit system of appointinent to office, rather than a representative of any political body, while Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Proctor respectively belong to the best element of the Republican and Democratic parties.
The moment is auspicious for a people's
the spoils system. Every man in the country, rich or poor, is to some extent defrauded and swindled by the system which uses public offices, whether local or national, as rewards for party services and as spoils to be distributed by professional politicians. The spoils system is no necessary appendage of strong party organization or of effective political activity. Political life is just as intense in England, France, and other countries as in the United States, but the success of one party or the other in those countries does not involve any change in the office-holding ranks. In order to consolidate American sentiment in favor of this righteous cause, there is just now forming a new National League for the complete abolition of the spoils system. The following is a reduced fac-simile of the card issued by the new organization :
WILLIAM POTTS, Secretary.
SILAS W. BURT, Tranver
THE ANTI-SPOILS LEAGUE.
CARL SCHURZ, President
OFFICE, 54 WILLIAM ST., New York,
We hereby declare ourselves in favor of the complete abolition of the The Civil Service The Civil Service act, which brings Spoils System from the public service, -—believing that system to be unjust
, unAct and its
democratic, injurious to political parties, fruitful of corruption, a burden to under the merit system some ten legislative and executive Officers, and in every way opposed to the principles Administrators. thousand clerks in public offices at of good government.
We call upon all in authority to extend to the utmost the operation, Washington and also protects the employees of the of the present reform laws; and by additional legislation, to carry the benefits principal post-offices and custom houses of the coun- of the 'Merit System to the farthest possible limits under our national, state.
and municipal governments. try, was adopted by Congress soon after the spoils
Name system had, indirectly, led to the assassination of President Garfield. It ought by this time to have
Address been extended, by successive amendments, to the protection of scores of thousands of public servants whose places are still at the mercy of the spoilsmen. It is desired to obtain as large a number of adherents But at least its worth is now fully realized, its ex as possible for the above declaration and demand. perimental stages have been outlived, and it has given The signer of this statement becomes a member of birth to a reform system that will grow in spite of all the League. Membership involves no payment of opposition. Its administration is in the hands of a dues, although contributions for the promotion of the commission of three members representing both great cause will be welcomed. It should be stated that the parties. Messrs. Lyman and Theodore Roosevelt
movement is under the general auspices of the continue to hold their positions. They have served National Civil Service Reform League. It ought to for years with eminent fairness, and with zeal for a find hearty support in every community in the land. public service conducted on business principles, rather than with party bias. Until very recently Mr.
In the midst of much agitation and of Geo. D. Johnston has been associated with them, but Kindergartens various useful activities for the imhis views have been different enough to interfere with
provement of the social condition of harmonious action, and President Cleveland has now the frightfully congested population of New York
in New York.
City, there has gone quietly forward an educational cially the kindergarten system has been very generreform destined, in all probability, to effect more for ally adopted. For instance, the city of Toronto has the future well-being of the metropolis than any a kindergarten department in every one of its thirty other social agency whatsoever. We refer to the or forty public school buildings, and the system is movement for the establishment of free kindergartens. well supervised and firmly planted in that enterprisThe president of the New York Kindergarten Asso ing community. Hamilton, also, is especially enciation is Mr. Richard Watson Gilder. In his recent titled to feel pride in the thoroughness with which address at the annual meeting of the society he made the kindergarten has been established throughout its the following statement : “ The association has had public schools. It has some seventeen kindergarten four years of active existence. In the report of 1891 classes, and one-tenth of the total membership of the two kindergartens are recorded as under its charge: public school system is found in the kindergarten in 1892, three; in the report for 1893, eleven; and now grade. The town of London has eight kindergartens there are fourteen in all; while the Board of Educa connected with its public schools, and proposes to tion of the city of New York, acting in sympathy with extend the system still further. We have received a our movement, has incorporated the kindergarten into the system of municipal instruction.” The real object, as Mr. Gilder has more than once explained, of the New York Kindergarten Association has been to show concretely that the kindergarten should be come an inherent and universal part of the publie school system not only of New York but of every other city and town in the country. In 1892 the New York School Board, by a vote of eighteen to one, decided to make a beginning with the kindergarten system, and thus far the kindergartens have been established in seven of the city's schools. President Sanger states that an increased appropriation may be confidently expected for next year, so that at its close there will be in successful operation free kindergartens in fifteen of the primary schools. This is a very small number, but it means unquestionably that New York is now committed to the system and will rapidly extend it in the future. There have been and are, it is needless to say, many excellent kindergarten classes under the auspices of churches and charitable organizations in addition to those provided by the New York Kindergarten Association and the public schools. The founder of this association was Mr. Daniel S. Remsen, whose unremitting and unselfish efforts in behalf of the work are worthy of the highest praise, and who holds the office of corresponding secretary. Mr. Gilder has for several years served
MR. DANIEL S. REMSEN, with enthusiasm and energy as president of the
Secretary N. Y. Kindergarten Association. society, and Mrs. Grover Cleveland, Mrs. Kate Doug very satisfactory account of the system in that comlas Wiggin, and Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie are vice munity. The kindergarten department of the public presidents. The board of managers and the various schools of Ottawa is of comparatively recent estabcommittees are composed of ladies and gentlemen to lishment, but there are now five kindergartens under whom also much credit is due. Other cities began the care of the public school board, and the system earlier than New York to create a widespread public will doubtless have very early extension. It should sentiment in favor of kindergartens for the children be remembered that these Canadian towns are neither of the people ; but it is gratifying to note that New
large nor rich when compared with a long list of York is likely a few years hence to have removed
American places. In many things the municipalities much of the reproach under which it has heretofore
of Ontario are decidedly in advance of those of the stood for its neglect of the little ones.
United States ; and the same observation would ap
ply to a number of Canadian towns in other provCanada's AdopMeanwhile, it should stimulate Amer
inces. tion of
ican cities to renewed efforts to learn of Kindergartens. the comparatively great zeal and suc
It is gratifying to note the growing cess with which the Canadian cities have been en Municipal strength of the demand for improved, grafting the kindergarten work upon their public
businesslike administration in our cities. schools. Throughout the province of Ontario espe Mr. Schieren, the newly chosen Mayor of Brooklyn, is
Tamiany Hall as the persistent and terrific onslaughts of the Rev. Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst, who, in his capacity as President of the Society for the Prevention of Crime, has undertaken to demonstrate and to break up the long-existing system of paid police protection, under which all kinds of vice, disorder and criminal immorality have abnormally flourished in New York. No one can predict what permanent gains for private morality may result from Dr. Parkhurst's crusade" against the Tammany police organization; but almost every thoughtful citizen has reached the conclusion that the shaking-up can but contribute handsomely to the causes of good government and public decency. Such sustained energy, such high courage, and, upon the whole, such discretion and tact as Dr. Parkhurst has shown, are not
MAYOR SCHIEREN, OF BROOKLYN.
winning universal cominendation,-among all whose good opinion is worth having,-by disregarding politics altogether in his appointments. The Brooklyn charter makes the Mayor an autocrat. He chooses the heads of the principal executive departments ; and, accordingly as he chooses well or badly, the city of Brooklyn will have good or bad government. When the Hon. Seth Low, now president of Columbia College, was Mayor, Brooklyn enjoyed a model government. Under Mr. Boody, the retiring Mayor, it has been shamefully misgoverned. For the period of Mayor Schieren's term it is to have a good administration, because the responsible heads of departments are known to be high-minded, public-spirited citizens, and as capable as they are well disposed. The people of Brooklyn arose in their might and defeated a corrupt ring of local bosses. The citizens of New York may now have the instructive object lesson, near at hand, of a great city administered on civil-service-reform principles.
In New York City, although it was not New York City
From a copyrighted photograph by Sarony. the year for electing a Mayor, there were Its Politics. issues at the polls that presented some significant tests; and the evidences of reaction against often witnessed. His task has required the greater Tammany Hall and of an awakening in favor of good faith and courage because so very many of the best government are very gratifying. The City Club, people have all along been too doubtful both as to his with its affiliated Good Government clubs, is show- plan of operations and as to any valuable results to ing itself to be a permanent centre of municipal re accrue, to lend even their unqualified encouragement. form influence and activity that can but avail very Dr. Parkhurst's agitation has convinced New York much in the end. Its members belong to all parties, City that vice is regularly protected by Tammany and but are pledged to the non-partisan principle in munic the police, for a large share in the profits. To have ipal affairs. Its secretary and energizing spirit is Mr. aroused public opinion in this fashion is a great Edmond Kelly, and its president is the distinguished achievement. There remains a great work to be done lawyer, Mr. James C. Carter. Probably nothing else of along other lines ; but it now seems clear that this late has done so much to create a sentiment against preliminary upheaval was necessary.
As an outcome of the Fair, Chicago is to secure ascendency in the new State. In view of Chicago After the to have a magnificent permanent art
the unanimous action of the House it is safe to predict Fair.
museum, towards which that merchant that neither the President nor the Senate will offer prince and distinguished citizen, Mr. Marshall Field, any serious obstacle to Utah's early achievement of has contributed a million dollars, while other gifts Statehood. The fact that two United States Senators have been poured into the desired fund like water. from Utah are to be expected in the early future Chicago's men of wealth have set the world an im- gives interest to the statement that the Mormons as a
class are very conservative on the financial question, and that they have always been disposed to favor the doctrine of a protective tariff. As to the proposals to admit New Mexico and Arizona also at this time, the argument is not so convincing. New Mexico has a larger population than many existing States had at the time of their admission, but its people are largely of Mexican origin, unacquainted with the English language and unfit as yet for the intelligent exercise of the duties of American citizenship. It would seem, moreover, that Arizona is hardly mature enough to justify admission.
The reason why the news concerning the Struggle "in Brazele so-called revolutionary war in Brazil is so
vague and unsatisfactory can now be better explained than it could a few weeks ago. The simple fact is that the indefinite reports grow out of a wholly indefinite condition. Bishop Peterkin, of the Episcopal church, who has just returned from a tour of missionary inspection in Brazil, gives us a very considerable access of light upon the situation, when he asserts that there was absolutely no public sentiment one way or the other among the citizens of Rio Janeiro. There appeared to him to be a general
understanding that the city was not to be bombarded MR. MARSHALL FIELD.
or seriously molested. The contest lay chiefly be
tween the army on the one hand and the navy on the pressive example by their unprecedented public spirit.
other. The expulsion of the old emperor Dom Pedro The inevitable reaction after such an inflation of in and the overthrow of the monarchy was effected by habitants and employment as the Fair produced will
the leaders of the army. Bishop Peterkin states as a affect Chicago only temporarily. The municipal significant fact that to-day twenty of the twenty-one election of Tuesday, December 19, resulted in the
governorships of the States which compose the federal choice of Mr. John P. Hopkins as successor to Carter
republic of Brazil are held by officers of the regular Harrison.
Brazilian army. Nominally the people of the prov
inces elect their own governors freely. But as a Utah's One of the most noteworthy events of
matter of actual fact, the federal army exercises so Approaching December was the passage through the Statehood.
undue an influence as to succeed, against the probaHouse of Representatives, without a
ble wishes of the people, in keeping in its own hands single dissenting vote, of the bill for the admission of
the administration of all the constituent States of the territory of Utah as a State. Utah had long ago
Brazil. Peixoto, the President, it should be rememreached the point in population and wealth which has
bered, is himself a leading general of the Brazilian generally been regarded as sufficient to entitle a terri
army. The whole country, therefore, has since the tory to full-fledged membership in the Union. But
expulsion of the Emperor been taken possession of Mormonism and its objectionable peculiarities have
by the military. The long-standing revolution in heretofore been regarded as so serious a disqualification
the great Southern State of Rio Grande do Sul is said that Utah's demand for admission has never been
to be due chiefly to the fact that the people arose in strongly supported in Congress. At length it is con
organized revolt against a military governor, while ceded on all hands that Mormon polygamy is a thing
Peixoto and the federal forces insisted upon sustainof the past, dead and buried beyond all danger of resur
ing that military executive in the exercise of author. rection. It is also better understood now than it has
ity over the province. been heretofore, that the Mormon population as a whole is made up of honest and thrifty people, before
Originally, Admiral Mello, who leads the
Mello's whom as American citizens there lies a worthy and Prospects revolt of the navy against Peixoto, dean important future. It happens that both of the and Claims. clared that his contention was for civilians great political parties have strong hopes of being able in the civil offices, as against the military occupa