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tion of all important executive positions. Mello also
One proof that the Imperial temper has claimed to be fighting for a policy that would lead
Naval not quite died out among the English to the pacification of the justly rebellious province Supremacy. is the unanimity with which all parties of Rio Grande do Sul. It should be remembered insist, at least in words, on the maintenance of naval that there is no well developed public opinion in
supremacy. The approaching expiry of the Naval the vast imperial territory of Brazil ; that there is
Defense act; the apprehensions aroused by the Francono real freedom of the press ; that facilities for the Russian alliance and the opening of French harbors distribution of news are imperfect and unreliable ; in the Mediterranean to Russian men-of-war, together and that there can therefore be no such thing as the with the comparative weakness of England's fleet in existence of a clear and simultaneous public senti those waters, have given rise to a vigorous agitation ment throughout the country. Bishop Peterkin came with a view to making the British Navy what it away with the impression that, all things considered, should be. The absolute necessity of maintaining the balance of sentiment was probably in favor of the command of all the seas is admitted by men not Mello. If Peixoto's new ships, bought and fitted out generally suspected of Imperial enthusiasm. Mr. at New York, should be successful against the very John Morley, speaking at Manchester, declared that limited fleet controlled by Mello, the war would of England must maintain an "all-powerful” navy. necessity be at an end and Piexoto would be master Lord Charles Beresford requires as the minimum of the situation. On the other hand, if Mello should standard of efficiency a fleet one-third greater than succeed in destroying or disabling the “Nictheroy any possible combination of two hostile fleets. At and the vessels accompanying that ship, the Bishop present England has sunk far below that point. To was of opinion that Mello would quickly gain a foot reach it will require an outlay of several million ing on land and would stand a very good chance pounds. Mr. Gladstone at last seems ready to conof obtaining control of the government. It is
sent that the aspirations expressed by Lord Spencer further interesting to learn from Bishop Peterkin on the one hand, and Mr. John Morley on the other, that he did not, by any means, find that in shall be fulfilled to the letter, the general consciousness among Brazilians Mello stood clearly for the restoration of the monarchy. If Dom Pedro's heir had been a son, the empire would in all probability have continued for many years to come. But Dom Pedro's daughter was married to a thoroughly unpopular European nobleman, and she herself was believed to be under the absolute control of the Jesuits ;—whereas army leaders and practical men of affairs in Brazil seem for the most part to have adopted some form of positivism or rationalism, and to have assumed an attititude of decided hostility against any connection between church and state.
So much for the merits of the case. Will There be a Fight matter of course the immediate event most
at Sea? intently looked forward to, is the news of an encounter between Mello's ships and Peixoto's New York outfit. Strange to say, the nations of the earth, great and small, have spent not merely hundreds but thousands of millions of dollars within recent years in building modern vessels of war on new principles as to defensive armor and offensive armament, and yet we have not a single instance on record of two modern ships of war engaged in hostile encounter. England very indecently used some of her largest vessels to bombard the helpless city of Alexandria ; but not one of the ships of her vast modern navy has ever fired a shot at a ship belonging to another power. It is no wonder then that the
SIR ROBERT MORIER. whole world is watching with intense interest for the news of a naval encounter somewhere off the coast of
The death of Sir Robert Morier, who had Brazil. For our part, we cannot regard as anything Sir Robert for so many years represented Britain at St. else than lamentable the fact that American officers
Petersburg, is a great loss to the cause of and sailors, in the capacity of mere adventurers and European peace. Sir Rubert Morier was trusted by mercenaries, have manned the ships bought with the Czar more fully than any British Ambassador Peixoto's money.
who has been sent to Russia since he came to the
throne. It will be most difficult to replace Sir Robert. Europe from behind the scenes. He knew every one, Even if the best man were secured, he could not step had been everywhere, and could throw a flood of vivid at once into the position which his predecessor had light upon almost all the incidents of modern history. won by years of honest, sturdy, straightforward di No dry light, or colorless light, by any means ; for plomacy. The peace of the world depends on the Sir Robert was a man of fierce antipathies and strong Czar, and it is of supreme importance that the man predilections. He was a Berserker of a man in some who speaks for England in the Russian Court should things. His language, when he let himself go, was have his confidence, and should be a man of trans something to remember rather than to repeat ; but parent honesty and simple truthfulness. Sir Robert these idiosyncrasies added to the fascination of his was anything but a diplomat in the usual sense of the discourse. Like many men of his type, he was a terin ; he was often a very clumsy bull in a very pessimist in Home Politics. Home Rule made him crowded china shop; but he was a man of his word. foam at the mouth ; but he loved his country with a He had brains enough to understand where the truth 'passionate devotion, and almost to the last he cherlay, and courage enough to speak plainly when occa ished hopes that he might be able to serve her in the sion arose. The selection of his successor will be the Senate. He was a man bursting with information, most difficult and delicate task that has fallen to Lord and he inundated his chiefs with dispatches which Rosebery's lot since he became Foreign Minister. As to were often too long for the patience of the Foreign Sir Robert Morier personally, he was a man who alike Secretary, who as a rule does not care for encyclo
pedic knowledge served up in dispatches. Sir Robert was by nature a journalist rather than an diplomatist, and he very narrowly escaped being an editor instead of an ambassador. In St. Petersburg he recognized the opportunity his position afforded him of promoting the peace of the world and the overthrow of Prince Bismarck, and before he died he had the rare satisfaction of feeling that in both objects he had been completely successful. The same month which records the death of the Ambassador who had done so much to promote friendly feeling between Russia and England witnessed the decease of the brilliant young adventurer, Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, whose personal influence among British Royalty it was once feared might have involved this country in hostilities with the Czar.
The Employers' Liability bill, in spite of Employers' obstruction, safely passed through all Liability Bill.
stages in the Commons. The chief interest of the debates centred in Mr. W. McLaren's amendment to allow employers and employed, under carefully specified conditions, the liberty of “contracting out.” It was stated that the vast majority of the workmen now covered by the mutual insurance arrangements of certain great railway and other companies had voted or petitioned for exemption from the proposed law. But the Commons held, by 236 votes to 217, that citizens, however much they desire to do so, may not relieve the State of its obligation to secure for them that compensation for injury and that consequent protection from injury which the bill has in view. A great landlord undertaking, with the consent of his tenants, to defend their life and property from aggression might as logically expect to contract himself and his estates out of the jurisdiction of the police. Mr. Chamberlain got back from America just in time to speak against the bill on its third reading. His speech will possibly be best remembered by its ingenuous allusion to “his Radical days” and the explanatory confession," I was a Radical once.” It remains to be seen whether the covert obstruction of his present allies will prevent the passage through the Commons of the other measure down
for his qualities and for his defects left a very deep and lasting impression upon the minds of all his friends. The late Lord Derby said that Sir Robert had more knowledge of men and affairs in modern Europe in his little finger than all the rest of the diplomatic corps possessed in their combined heads. Sir Robert Morier had studied the transformation of modern
for this winter's work,—the Parish Councils bill. The House of Lords, as was to have been expected,
The wants and woes of the workingman Affairs
are the preoccupation of the hour in all the has refused to pass the Employers' Liability measure
civilized world. The official statistics of without first inserting the objectionable contracting
the elections to the Reichstag, which was opened in clause.
Berlin on the 16th, showed that the Social Democrats The House of Commons, meanwhile, has
had polled more votes than were cast for any other English Topics been working with tremendous energy,
party, and had increased their total in three years by in the face of constant obstruction, to
one-third of a million. The Social Democrats have pass at the end of the longest parliamentary year on
also won further victories in the Berlin municipal record the Parish Councils measure. It is a vast
elections. The German Emperor, with his genius for code of local government, in completion of the pre
dramatic contrast, may hurry from opening the Diet, liminary outline contained in the County Councils
elected on a wide popular suffrage, to tell 12,000 bill of four years ago. The condition of the unem
soldiers freshly sworn, You must have but one will, ployed in England is frightful this winter. But the and that my will ;” but all this parade of military local authorities, and the local authorities alone, are,
autocracy fails to lay the menacing spectre of the by Mr. Gladstone's reply to Mr. Keir Hardie, left to
Social Democracy. The dynamite outrages have deal with this evermore obtrusive problem. The na
temporarily checked the boldness of socialistic uttertional Government is to limit itself to issuing circu
ance, but they have not really weakened the movelars and Blue-books. In November a Blue-book was ment. Meanwhile, Chancellor von Caprivi has sucpublished by the Labor Department of the Board of ceeded in clinching his new reciprocity treaties with Trade containing much valuable information about Roumania, Servia and Spain. The excitement over methods for dealing with the unemployed, but prac
the capture of French spies at Kiel has abated, the tically going no further than negative or suspensive spies suffering nothing worse than temporary impriscriticism; and at the end of the month was promised onment in a fortress. To the world at large no news a report on the same subject from the Labor Com from Germany is more interesting than that which .mission.
tells of the great new fortified camp established by
the German government at Malmedy, on the Belgian The last reports as this record goes to the frontier. Belgium is naturally alarmed and indigThe Matabele press announce grave disasters to the South nant. Trouble.
African forces in pursuit of Lobengula and the Matabeles. This war between British South
The crisis brought about by Count Taaffe's Africa and the stanchest and craftiest native ruler Austrian valiant endeavor to enfranchise the Austrian
Crisis. left in the Dark Continent has made a tremendous
workingmen ended in the formation of a discussion in England, and has led to much wholly coalition Ministry composed of Conservatives, Gerimproper criticism of Prime Minister Cecil Rhodes man Liberals and Poles, under Prince Windischat the very moment when he was entitled to confi- grätz, as Premier ; but even they have been comdence and forbearance. The end of this sad conflict pelled to admit that an extension of the franchise is will be awaited with keen anxiety.
inevitable, and to prepare bills accordingly. The
stronger than ever, and the government is manned with inen of force, character and experience. Dupuy retired from executive office with high honor and general esteem, and there are no stains on the reputation of Casimir-Périer. In his cabinet are such men as M. Spuller, Minister of Public Instruction : M. Burdeau, Minister of Finance, and, notably, M. Raynal, Minister of the Interior. President Carnot's seven-year term is nearing its end, and this new year 1894 will witness a French presidential election.
PRINCE WINDISCHGRÄTZ, AUSTRIAN PREMIER. Royal assent to the Hungarian Civil Marriage bill marks the breaking of another bar to progress in the bi-partite realm. The Fall of
The crisis in France supplies perhaps the
most startling illustration of the power Ministry
of the new Labor or Collectivist movement. The Chambers assembled on the 14th of November with a clear majority of 100 for the Moderate Republicans. Against their 325, the Socialists numbered only 50, Radicals and Socialists together only 185. The ministerial programme was announced on on the 21st by M. Dupuy, and wore a strongly antiCollectivist complexion. He “repudiated all doctrines claiming to substitute the impersonal tyranny of the State for individual initiative," and he would have
PREMIER CASIMIR-PÉRIER, OF FRANCE. nothing to do with a progressive income tax, sepa
Carnot is supposed to wish a second term, and both ration of Church and State, or revision of the constitu
Constans and Casimir-Périer are regarded as aspirants tion. But the new leaven was at work in his own
for the high office. All are safe men, in whose hands cabinet-M. Peytral, the Finance Minister, being
French republican institutions would prosper. wedded to the project of a progressive income taxand the vigorous Radical criticism in the Chamber,
There has been quite an epidemic of miniscoming on the top of the ministerial dissensions, led
Gone terial crises, Austria, Greece, Italy, France to the resignation of the 'ministers in a body, their Bankrupt. and Servia have all succumbed. Spain and majority in the Chamber notwithstanding. M. Spul- Portugal have been threatened. The Greek Chamber ler, a great friend of Gambetta, who is said not par
was opened on November 8, with the announcement ticularly to favor the Russian alliance, was asked to of a certain funding scheme as the only way of escape form a new ministry. Eventually, however, M. Casi
from financial collapse. Next day the Government mir-Périer became Premier and Minister of Foreign was defeated by a majority of more than two to one, Affairs, with M. Spuller as Minister of Public In
and the King, on receiving their resignations, called struction.
M. Tricoupis back to power. But not even the new Another French cabinet is at the helm, and Premier's abilities could cope with the situation. He The New has now lived nearly a month. M. CasimirCabinet.
has had to declare that Greece could no longer fulfill Périer, who is Prime Minister and also in her foreign engagements, and desired therefore to charge of the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, had been come to “an honorable compromise with her creditserving as President of the Chamber of Deputies ; ors, offering them such terms as the state of the and he has now exchanged places with the late country would permit." The smallness of the HelPremier Dupuy. A few months ago the Panama lenic kingdom does not destroy the importance of the scandals seemed to have left untainted almost no fact that in a continent overburdened with debt the public men of first-rate ability. But the Republic is precedent of national bankruptcy has been revived.
Greece has fallen into the abyss of in be seen what Signor Crispi, who was induced by BisCries in solvency; Italy still reels on the brink. marck to bring Italy into this military combination Italy.
The assistance lent her by German firan with Germany and Austria, can now do to extricate ciers has only postponed the evil day, and an ex his country from its resulting plight. President Minister has gone so far as to suggest war as the only Cleveland on December 19 nominated Hon. Wayne way out-a desperate plunge to bring the present MacVeigh Ambassador to Rome in place of Mr. tension to an end, which has long been apprehended. Van Alen, who declined the post. England has sent Even if the public honor of the Government was un there the Right Hon. Sir Clare Ford, G. C. B., in scathed, the private honor of its members was not place of the late Lord Vivian. above suspicion. When the Chamber met on the 23d,
The principal anarchist sensation of the the French year was caused by the explosion of a Chamber.
dynamite bomb in the French Chamber of Deputies on December 9. The audacious attempt at Paris is the gravest of all recent crimes in the name of social reconstruction. The bomb was thrown from the gallery of the Chamber by an Anarchist named Vaillant, -an artisan of considerable superficial intelligence, who has frequently been convicted of petty crime, and whose extreme socialistic views have apparently grown out of hostility to the virtues as well as the evils of the established order of things. Vaillant meant to kill Dupuy, who was occupying his new position of President of the Chamber, having been elected to that post on his retirement from the Premiership. But the course of the bomb was diverted by some one who caught Vaillant's arm; and the missile exploded against a cornice, wounding the thrower himself, together with some eighty others. Dupuy quieted the Chamber with a noteworthy exhibition of self-control, and business was speedily resumed. The first answer made by the Chamber to the fiendish conspirators who belong to the Anarchist party was to let it be known that public servants would go straight on with their duties ; that if they were assassinated their places would be filled, and that the foundations of society would be strengthened rather than shaken by such cowardly assaults. The second answer was the adop
tion of measures for the much more thorough ferreting the report of the committee appointed to inquire into
out of dynamite plots, and the more severe restraint the charges revealed gave irregularities in the deal
of the socialist press. Every indication points to the ings of Ministers with the banks. The violent debate which ensued next day, and in which the Premier,
probability of international co-operation to rid the
world of this new class of criminals. Meanwhile the Giollitti, was personally denounced, ended in the resignation of the Ministry. After four days' nego
cause of peaceful socialism has been discredited and
set back throughout all Europe ; for unfortunately the tiation, Signor Zanardelli was intrusted with the formation of a new Cabinet. But Zanardelli (then
dividing line between the socialism that seeks an orderly
and lawful development of the industrial functions of President of the Chamber of Deputies) was unable to
the state and the revolutionary socialism that preaches bring together a body of Ministers that the people's
destructive attacks upon government and private representatives would sustain. At length the King was compelled to summon Crispi from his retirement,
capital is not sharply drawn. If the Socialists have and this experienced statesman formed a government
any real remedies to offer for social wrongs and which was completed on December 14. The new Cab
grievances, they have at hand political and educainet is of rather non-partisan complexion, anil its ob
tional modes of propaganda that are all-sufficient. ject is patriotic in the broadest sense. It will endeavor gradually to reduce the needless military burdens
On December 14 Colonel Emil Frei was which have drained the Treasury, and to improve the
elected President of Switzerland. This
President. relations between Italy and France, upon which
item of foreign news has very properly been Italian commercial prosperity is so dependent. Italy's received with much interest and pleasure in the membership in the Triple Alliance has been fright- United States. Emil Frei came to the United States fully expensive and wholly unnatural. It remains to in 1860, at the age of twenty-two, as a young Swiss