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sity of Virginia and Harvard, which have enabled t e student to combine his work of culture with the preparation for a calling “ It seems,” says Professor Shaler, certain that we shall enter in the next century on a college system which will lead men toward, rather than away from, the paths of professional duties." He thinks that there is no loss in the quality of culture of the best kind in this elective system, and he regards as an ideal academy the group of professional schools around an ordinary college—"the seat of what has been termed pure culture.”

brings many noble names to support his side of the case. He thinks that when the South has named Washington, Jefferson, Henry, Jackson, Pope and Lee, it is already well on to proving its claim.

Harriet C. Cooper is loud in her condemnation of having commencements, especially in girls schools. She contends that the exercises of those time-honored institutions are only for show and to please the audience, and that the best schools do not show up best, and she thinks that the excitement and attention of the preparation for these grand finals of the school year are largely to blame for the harm which comes to the health of school girls If educational conservatism will not allow anything better, she begs that commencements be brought down to one day.

THE CHAUTAUQUAN.

“S.

COLERIDGE ON PITT. There are some striking sentences in “Ten Letters from Coleridge to Southey.” We find Coleridge saying of Pitt:

“He is a stupid, insipid charlatan, that Pitt. Indeed, except Fox, I, you, or anybody might learn to speak better than any man in the House."

This is à propos of reporting Pitt's speech for the Morning Post, on whose staff ('oleridge was. Then we find him busy with Duns Scotus

"And in order to wake him out of his present lethargy, I am burning Locke, Hume and Hobbes under his nose. They stink worse than feather or asafetida. Poor Joseph !” -and chuckling over the “stupid, haughty fool,” the librarian of the Durham Cathedral library, who imagines that Leibnitz is a species of animalculæ—"live nits !”

He says,

THE SOUTHERN MAGAZINE. 'HIS monthly has with some reason chosen as its

nett, is given an added interest from the fact that the author has been identified with the movement fro its very inception and knows whereof he speaks.

"settlements have been started as a protest against philanthropic machinery ;” they must be selfsupporting ; they must be hide-bound to no creed or cult, have no object to gain ; they must labor for the community, not for any class. Every man should take his part, however small, in the work, and “he is the best resident who makes the truest friend.” Bishop Vincent wanders back into the conventional, well-trodden paths “In Italy," through Pisa, Milan, Florence and Rome. Professor Mall, of Johns Hopkins, in a brief notice of the many sciences which forin the composite of the great science of life, gives an answer to the question, “What is Biology ?"

Professor Boyesen tells the story of his fellow countrymen, the latter-day Norsemen's trip across the Atlantic, in his “Voyage of the Viking." The article is illustrated by views of the famous little vessel. There is nothing so characteristic of a man as his will in the general run, and for proof of the assertion the reader is invited to turn his attention to Dr. Biddle's article on “ Wills of Some Bich and Famous People.” Reading between the lines, tho whole character of the man is unfolded.

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is the Christmas date of all the better known magazines, and which brings out the Christmas number of Harper's, for instance, considerably over a month before Christmas. The Southern Magazine has one of the most tasteful of the holiday number covers in green and white and gilt, and it is a most creditably illustrated monthly, vieing with the great New York magazines in the quality and excellence of half-tone illustrations. As its name would indicate, its list of subjects and of writers pertain especially to Southern things and men.

The more serious paper of this number is on “The South in the Intellectual Development of the United States." Mr. William Baird, who contributes this, takes exception to Mr. Lodge's recent statement in the Century as to the small share which the South might claim in the distribution of ability throughout the United States, which alleged phenomenon Mr. Lodge naturally attributes to slavery principles, notwithstanding the fact that the Massachusetts senator is backed up by Appleton's Encyclopædia and the Britannica. Mr. Baird examines his statement concerning Southern genius in detail and

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THE FRENCH REVIEWS.

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ian credit banks, founded by the people, "thanks to the ancient spirit of, association among Italians.” In Germany similar institutions are more under the control and advice of the richer financial classes ; in Italy they appear to have sprung partly from the savings banks, which enjoy great liberty of investment. The foundation of the first "popular bank,” in 1866, was due to M. Luzzati, and was laid at Milan. It began with a very modest capital, the sum of $150 ; the shares being $10 each, the payment spread over several months. This bank now occupies a large building, and employs at least 130 paid functiona

ries, 100 clerks, and has more than 17,000 members. It pays a high dividend, like the numerous other banks founded on the same model.

THE LIFE OF FRENCH MINERS. In addition to the concluding article on "The Transformations of Diplomacy," and M. Jusserand's curious account of "The Mediæval English Theatre and Drama," noticed elsewhere, the most notable contribution to the second number of the Revue des Deux Mondes deals with the strike of the miners in the north of France. From the description given by M. de Calonne, it does not appear that the French miner is any better off than his English brother. But he entirely denies the truth of Zola's terrible picture in “Germinal”—that is to say, as regards the character and morals of the men.“ The working miner," he observes, “is as a rule a worthy kind of man, very courageous, a very good husband and father. His home, where often some ten or twelve children may be found, is clean and comfortable, and the wife manages to look and dress well on the large wages earned by her man.' The miners' families eat meat every day, in agreeable contrast to the peasantry, who can barely afford meat more than once a week ; though beer is often taken, coffee remains the French miner's favorite beverage. During the last fifty years the French miner's wage has more than quadrupled, and according to this writer they should have remained content ; for he points out that the late strike, so far from being beneficial, was very injurious to the workers' cause.

ance.

surprise of his friends to hear of his engagement to a charming though somewhat commonplace young girl. The whole history of their strange betrothal is told in the most remarkable of his works, “Guilty or Not Guilty," an extraordinary psychical study, and which contains all the author's theories on marriage, theories which he repeated in many of his other works. His own romance ended sadly, and he lived and died a bachelor, spending his last days in a hospital, and this although he had once declared that marriage was and would always remain the most perfect state.

The second number of the Nouvelle Revue is exception ally strong, and can boast of a number of excellent articles ; yet we cannot but notice that Madame Adam gives more and more prominence to political and military subjects both as regards ancient and modern history.

The Revue opens with what promises to be a curious and valuable addition to Napoleonic history-namely, R. A. Gagnière's “Pius VII and Napoleon II,” the manuscript of which the author left by will to the editress of the publication in which it now makes its first appear.

A striking and hitherto unpublished account of the seizing of the Vatican and arrest of the Pope is quoted. The delicate negotiations had been intrusted by Napoleon to General Radet, and the latter accomplished the mission so well that in spite of the formal protests uttered by Pius VII, in less than an hour and a half the Pope and his faithful companion, Cardinal Páca, were being driven rapidly out of Rome, their united funds amounting to the modest sum of sixteen pence, which caused the Pope to remark that in future he would have the right to say that he had once traveled as a simple pilgrim. Cardinal Paca, of whom a vivid portrait is drawn, was soon separated from his master and imprisoned in the Fenestrella fortress, where he spent four terrible years, till after Napoleon's forced reconciliation with Pius VII at Fontainebleau he had reluctantly to give an order for his release. Strange, indeed, is the description of the fatal journey through southern France. Even at Tarascon, a Huguenot centre, Catholics as well as Protestants, nobles and peasants, all turned out to do honor to the old man who was being brought as a prisoner in their midst, ani at last, after a long journey, accomplished in a litter along the mountain road made by the Romans round the Corniche, the Pope and his small reti. nue arrived at Savona on August 17, 1809, where he remained during the next two years, Napoleon I having decreed that Pius VII was to spend the following two years there,

M. Hugues le Roux describes a journey he made last summer to Norway, and he seems to have been most struck when in the land of the fiords by the Japanese aspect of both country and buildings. As regards Christiania, Bergen and other Norwegian towns, he, as a Frenchman, was impressed by their newness. Trondhjem, he observes, has been burnt to the ground fifteen times in three hundred years; and soon these cities of the north will boast of palaces of stone and marble, for wood as building material is being made illegal, owing to the terrible fear of fire. M. le Roux kept a diary each day of his voyage, writing his notes on steamer, railway, and even horseback, and thus his descriptions of Norway and Norwegians are more vivid than most books of travel.

An anonymous article deals with the Christianity of Pierre Loti, the well-known novelist. In the latter's lately published story, “Matelot,” he concludes the volume with a religious hymn which has been much noticed, and in this article his critic attempts to prove his hovering on the brink of belief, which he had apparently abandoned, in a future life,

THE NOUVELLE REVUE. M. Richard contributes a pleasant account of a journey in Thessaly, the largest district of ancient Greece ; his description of Rigas, the great Greek patriot who lived during the eighteenth century, being specially interesting. Even to this day both Rigas' speeches and the verses he composed on the subject of Greek independence are sung and recited in the mountains by the peasantry. This patriot saw the beginning of the present cen ury, and had at one time a long correspondence with the young Bonaparte. He died as have died so many men of his type ; arrested at Trieste by the Austrians, he was given over to the Turks, who were ordered to drown him in the Danube, but while making a desperate attempt to escape he was shot down, crying as he staggered back ; on, and see how die the Palikares," adding, “I have sown the seed ; my countrymen will soon reap the harvest !”

The same number contains a short sketch of Soren Kierkegaard, the Danish moralist and author. This remarkable man was born at Copenhagen in 1813. He and his brother (late Bishop of Aalborg) were the sons of a peasant who had made his fortune in the wool trade, and then retired to Copenhagen, where he led a quiet, austere life, bringing up his two sons according to his own theories, and entertaining the few friends he still saw with his views on morality and religion. During the whole of Kierkegaard's life he remained strongly influenced by his father's ways of thought, and many of his writings, treating of religion and morality, might easily be delivered as sermons, and this, although he was extremely severe on the faults, not to say vices, of the Danish clergy, whose conduct and life he stingingly contrasts with that of their master, Jesus Christ. Not only the clergy but the whole of the Danish society of his day feared the writer of these powerful diatribes, and for a time at least he enjoyed no credit in his own country. Soren Kierkegaard lost his father at the age of twenty-seven. He had no at that time written anything, but he was known and respected as a severe Doctor of Divinity, and great was the

" Come

THE NEW BOOKS.

RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.

that time between Japan and America naturally make this volume one of the most interesting and timely of its series. The maps, illustrations and other supplementary matter are well prepared.

Historic Green Bay. 1634-1840. By Ella H. Neville,

Sarah G. Martin and Deborah B. Maryin. 12mo, pp. 285. Green Bay, Wis.: Published by the Authors. $1.25.

Green Bay is historically one of the most interesting towns of the Northwest, and it is fortunate that a careful and adequate account of the life which centred there from 1634 to the organization of Wisconsin as a Territory has now been written. This sketch is an entertaining one, well illustrated, and the fact that the introductory note by Mr. Reuben Gold Thwaites is a commending one and a sufficient guarantee for the reliability of the volume. Mr. Thwaites also revised the MS. and prepared the valuable index.

Leonidas Polk, Bishop and General. By William M. Polk,

M.D., LLD. In two vols., 12mo, pp. 359-442. New
York : Longmans, Green & Co. $4.

A recent contribution to the accumulating volumes which record the parts played by the military leaders of each side in the Civil War is a memoir by Dr. W. M. Polk of his father, Leonidas Polk. The author's interest attaches largely to the personality of Bishop Polk, but the second volume is a military history of considerable general importance, and the peculiar position of Polk as ecclesiastic and general has a marked dramatic value. The subject of widest bearing in the first volume is the labor of Bishop Polk in the founding, of the University of the South (at Sewanee, Tennessee). The portraits, maps, index, various appendices, etc., are carefully prepared, and Mr. Polk has written in a dignified, attractive style, drawing very largely upon his father's private and official correspondence for the narrative.

HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY AND ECONOMICS. A History of Chile. By Anson Uriel Hancock. Octavo,

pp. 471. Chicago : Charles H. Sergel & Co. $2.50.

. Charles H. Sergel & Co. of Chicago, are at present issuing a series of volumes treating of the history, government and national peculiarities of the Latin-American Republics. In this series the second volume is devoted to Chile, and is written by Anson Uriel Hancock. There have been recently a number of books giving in English a more or less full account of certain periods and episodes in Chilean history, but Mr. Hancock's work, though it dwells at length upon recent occurrences and doubtless has its raison d'être in the newly awakened interest in South American affairs, covers the whole story from the Spanish invasions to the present time. Its parts are devoted respectively to " The Colonial Period," "The Revolutionary Period," "The Era of Constitution Making," • The War with Peru and Bolivia," "Balmaceda and the Civil War of '91," and " Chile of To-day." This outline reveals an important attempt, and Mr. Hancock has apparently, succeeded in making the attempt result in an important book. It is a serious and needed contribution to our knowledge of a sister republic. Besides the text there is valuable material in maps, illustrations, bibliography and the appended constitution of Chile. History of England and the British Empire from B.C. 55

to A.D. 1892. By Edgar Sanderson, M.A. Octavo, pp. 1133. New York : Frederick Warne & Co. $3.

Though adapted for certain classes of general readers Mr. Sanderson's outline of British history is designed mainly for students in schools and colleges. The narrative, clearly and simply written, begins with the time of Julius Cæsar, though the author has not dwelt to any extent upon the Celtic or Anglo-Saxon period ; “Book Four” the Coming of the Normans," beginning on page 69. Mr. Sanderson brings the record down to 1892, and throughout has aimed at a comprehensive treatment of progress not only in constitutional history and British dominion, but in art, science, literature, commerce and discovery as well. The people have not been considered as a mere background for the actions of sovereigns. In so extended a volume it is impossible that all slight inaccuracies should be excluded ; in American history, for instance, Mr. Sanderson gives June 18 as the date of the battle of Bunker Hill, and his nearly 4000 soldiers" as an estimate of the army which Burgoyne surrendered to Gates is perhaps an underestimate. The typography of the book is clear, the binding substantial, the index, table of contents and chronol. ogy, genealogical tables, maps and marginal topics seem reliable and serviceable. Russia and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century. By Eliza

beth Wormeley Latimer. 12mo, pp. 413. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. $2.50.

In Russia and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century " the author has followed the same general method as in her previously issued “ France in the Nineteen Century," the kind reception of which gave a stimulus to the preparation of the new volume. The reader will find in these pages a carefully made, thorough-going account of the main events in the milltary history of the two countries, and of the characters and vicissitudes of their sovereigns. The portions devoted to constitutional struggles and to the progress or situation of the masses of the people are comparatively small. The history is furnished with something more than å score of portraits. The Story of Japan. By David Murray, Ph.D., LL.D.

12mo, pp. 441. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50.

The last issued volume of the extended “Story of the Nations Series" is from the pen of Dr. David Murray, whose preparation for writing of Japan included not only careful study of Japanese history, but a residence of several years among the Japanese people. His account begins with the period of myths and legends and continues to the establishment of constitutional government in 1889. The important part which our Commodore Perry played in the opening of Japan to modern influence and the many close relations since

The Romanco of an Empress. Catherine II of Russia.

Translated from the French of R. Waliszewski. 12mo, pp. 466. New York : D. Appleton & Co. $2.

Catherine II of Russia is one of the most fascinating and brilliant woman who had a part to play in the affairs of Europe in the eighteenth century. Mr. Waliszewski's account of her as duchess and as empress is based upon a research of official and private documents, which discovered much new material. The translation of his work has bistorical value, while at the same time it dwells with most zeal upon the personal and romantic elements in Catherine's career. It apparently deserves a place beside the

numerous recent issues which have portrayed for us the brilliant French women of the last and earlier centuries. The frontispiece is an attractive portrait of the empress.

The Spanish Pioneers. By Charles F. Lummis. 12mo,

pp. 292. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.50.

Mr. Lummis is a worker in the field of the Spanish occu. pation of America, following the general method and spirit of the historical scholar, Mr. A. F. Bandelier. Mr. Lummis has already, written several books in reference to people and events in the Spanish Southwest of the United States. The heroes whom he introduces in his last issued work are many of them unfamiliar to our young people ; the author believes that the school histories do not generally present a fair and accurate account of these men. The stories of Vaca, Coronado, of the less strange Pizarro, etc., are instructive and entertaining, and the text is aided by a number of good illustrations. With such books as this in hand, young readers ought not to find history "dry."

Authors and Their Public in Ancient Times. By George

Haven Putnam. 12mo, pp. 326. New York: G. P.
Putnam's Sons. $1.50.

Mr. George Haven Putnam's prominent part in the recent enactment of the Inter..ational Copyright Law" and in

the discussions of many years which preceded this most important legislation is well known Mr. Putnam is not only interested from a practical and ethical standpoint in the subject of literary property, but he is a careful student of its history. In "Authors and Their Public in Ancient Times" he presents a study of the gradual evolution of definite business relations between the producers and consumers of literature in ancient Greece and Rome, with some attention to even earlier data. This volume, which is intended as an introduction to a forthcoming one treating of the same subject down to our day, will be of interest and value to almost any reader seriously concerned with the history of books.

this spirit, which finds reality in the life of men and women upon the earth, and with a strong sense of historic inheritance and a firm belief in the "solidarity " of our race, Mr. Bosanquet writes his calm and clearly written chapters upon The Future of Religious Observance." - The Civilization of Chris tendom," "Right and Wrong in Feeling," "Individualism and Socialism," and other kindred topics.

The Psychic Factors of Civilization. By Lester F. Ward.

Octavo, pp. 390. Boston: Ginn & Co. 82.

Mr. Ward's elaborate and systematic treatise is based upon an expansion of certain ideas which he advanced in • Dynamic Soeiology," a work published some ten years ago. In his introduction the author gives us this bit of analysis, which will serve to indicate more or less distinctly the scope of the book's purpose : "1 The phenomena of subjective psychol. ogy, viz., the feelings, taken collectively, properly called the soul of man, constitute the dynamic element of society, or the social forces ; 2. The initial, original or primary characteristic of objective psychology, viz., the intellect proper or intuitive faculty, constitutes the directive element of society, and only means by which the social forces can be controlled." Mr. Ward's aim, therefore, is simply to build up a true science of sociology upon the ground work of an accurate psychology ; and he holds the beliel that the true solution of the problems of modern social organization is found only in the day light of science," a subversion of the reign of the individual and the inauguration of a form of government which in his conclud. ing chapter the author denominates "Sociocracy."

The Diary of Samuel Pepys, M.A., F.R.S. Edited by

Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A. Vol. III. 12mo, pp. 371.
New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.50.

The third volume of Mr. Wheatley's new edition of the famous diary of Pepys contains the record for the year 1663. The illustrations are a portrait of Pepys from Sir Peter Lely's painting and a p rtrait of Sir Samuel Moreland. The volumes of this edition have the substantial and pleasant appearance which nefits them as belonging to Bohn's "Historical Library." The Cincinnati Southern Railway : A Study in Municipal

Activity. By J. H. Hollander. Paper, 8vo, pp. 116.
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Press. $1.

Among recent issues belonging t, the “ Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science is a monograph by Mr J. H. Hollander, a Fellow of the University, upon “ The Cincinnati Southern Railway." This railroad was completed from Cincinnati to Chattanooga early in the year 1880, after considerable legislation and litigation. The municipality of Cincinnati constructed and controlled the line and the economic importance of Mr. Hollander's paper rests in the light this enterprise throws upon the general problem of the province of city government, its relation to the action of State legislation, the effect upon municipal finance of undertaking so large a task as the building of an extended railroad and questions of a similar nature. The author of this study believes that the history of the “ Cincinnati Southern Railway affords forcible illustration of the danger to which, with the marked variety and quick change of modern industrial life, a local body may by a .: (rigid legislative] limitation be exposed.'

A History of Philosophy. By Dr. W. Windelband. Oc

tavo, pp. 672. New York: Macmillan & Co. 35.

This good-sized volume takes its place among the solid and important philosophical works which Macmillan & Co. publish. It is an authorized translation, by Dr. James H. Tufts, of the University of Chicago, of a German work designed as a serious text book, with the definite aim of treating the formation and development of philosophical problems and conceptions, minimizing the literary, biographical elements. Greek and Hellenistic-Roman thought is treated at length, and some seventy-five pages are given to mediæval philosophy. The period from the humanists "t, the present time occupies the last three hundred pages, or about half the work. The translator believes that Professor Windelband's history "awakens an interest thai is greater in proportion to the reader's acquaintance with other works on the subject."

The City Government of Philadelphia. A Study in Munic

ipal Administration. With an Introduction by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. Octavo, pp. 300. Philadelphia : Wharton School of Finance and Economy. $1.50.

The chapters of this volume devoted to the Quaker City are the results of investigation by the thirty young men composing the class of 1893 in the “Wharton School of Finance and Economy." The whole field of the work done by the city government of Philadelphia is carefully covered, though with necessary brevity. and the book might well serve not only as in itself an interesting study of existing methods in municipal administration, but as a stimulus to other schools to prepare, in similar manner, a résumé of the actual working of the great city which happens to be nearest at hand.

Primer of Philosophy. By Dr. Paul Carus. 12mo, pp.

238. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Co. $1.

Dr. Carus' preface informs us that he here “means by Primer a presentation of the subject in the plainest and most lucid form in which he could print it.” The author believes that a new era of influence is opening up for philosophy in which its results shall be based upon experience

which in the widest generalization is science.Dr. Carus' style is clear ; he has kept as free as possible from antiquated technical terms, and has explained those employed. His aim in this volume is in the main "a critical reconciliation of the rival philosophies of the type of Kantian Apriorism and John Stuart Mill's Empiricism."

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE.
The Civilization of Christendom, and Other Studies. By

Bernard Bosanquet. 12mo, pp. 383. New York:
Macmillan & Co. $1.50.

The object of "The Ethical Library," edited by Mr. J. H. Muirhead, in which the newly issued collection of studies by Mr. Bernard Bosanquet finds its place, is not a systematic presentation of morals as science. The aim is rather to exam. ine in the light of modern method and result "questions of the inner and outer life that have been too much the monopoly of the theologian," and to deal with these problems " from the point of view and in the spirit of the student of philosophy." Mr. Bosanquet is one of the more prominent English leaders in what is known as the Ethical Culture movement, whose ablest exponent in our land is Professor Felix

Adler. It is but fair to say that the individual beliefs and theories of the thinkers in this movement are not of a uniform nature, though there is a large basis of common ground. The author of these studies has advanced beyond the standpoint of Agnosticism, deeming it wise that we should not even deny a knowledge of an extra-human world, because it does not concern us closely enough to merit a denial ; " for us the Unknowable is and must be nothing, and ... our business lies with the life and with the good that we know and with what can be made of them." In

Genetic Philosophy. By David Jayne Hill. 12mo, pp.

395. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.75.

The essays of Mr. Hill's volume are clear-cut and able discussions in a philosophic method, and upon the basis of modern biological and physical science, of the genesis of matter, life, consciousness, feeling, thought, art, morality, etc. The book as a literary as well as a philosophical value and in itself illustrates the "genetic method," which consists in referring every fact to its place in the series to which it belongs." A Theory of Development and Heredity. By Henry B.

Orr, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 264. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.50.

Certain scientists of our day are attacking the old-time view of hereditary influence as an important factor in mold. ing the individual. Doctor Orr, who is professor in Tulane University (New Orleans), does not so interpret the facts which recent biological investigation has accumulated. Throughout his chapters upon “ Limits of Natural Selection," Action of the Nervous System." "Origin of Variation," etc., etc, a belief in the potency of both heredity and environment manifests itself. His theory, not revolutionary, but based upon the broadest generalizations of natural science, explains hereditv by the physchic properties of living matter and finds no place for any chance force among the agencies of development, which is a series of necessary causal connections.

Romance of the Insect World. By L. N. Badenoch.

12mo, pp. 359. New York : Macmillan & Co. $1.25.

The matter and spirit of this little volume are thoroughly scientific, though it is well fitted to be a popular book upon the interesting branch of natural history of which it treats. The author's data are drawn both from personal observation and from the recorded observation of others. There are chapters upon "The Metamorphoses of Insects," "Food of Insects, " * Hermit Homes," • Social Homes," and "Protection as Derived from Color." A glossary explains the necessary technical terms and more than fifty illustrations accompany the text. The book is of British origin.

Search Lights and Guide Lines ; or, Man and Nature,

What They Are, What They Were, and What They
Will Be. By Edgar Greenleaf Bradford.

16mo, pp. 103. New York: Fowler & Wells Co. 50 cents.

Mr. Bradford's observations are of a semi-philosophical nature, clearly written, and give us glimpses of life from the standpoint of a student and believer in phrenological science.

RELIGION, THEOLOGY AND BIBLICAL CRITICISM. Jesus and Modern Life. By M. J. Savage. With an in

troduction by Prof. C. H. Toy. 12mo, pp. 230. Boston: George H. Ellis. $1.

Mr. Savage's present volume is a contribution to the critical discussion of the essentials of Christianity and the true position in religious thought of its Founder. In more detail, the preface defines a three-fold purpose : To find the actual beliefs and teachings of Jesus ; to place this teaching in its relation to the preceding thought of the world and specially to that of the Jewish people, and to determine how much of Christian doctrine " is vital to-day, and how it bears on the problems, religious and other, with which we must deal." Mr. Savage's own view, as shown in these sermons and as revealed in his frequent writings, is that of reverent but ad. vanced Unitarianism. In his introduction Professor Crawford H. Toy, one of the foremost students of historical elements in religion, assures us that the author is " in the spirit and the general results of his critical analysis of the gospel narratives at one with the best modern authorities. The New Bible and Its New Uses. By Joseph Henry

Crooker. 16mo, pp. 286. Boston: George S. Ellis.

We remember hearing a sermon some few years ago by the Rev. T. K. Beecher upon the theme of a precious gift conveyed in an earthen vessel. The preacher conceived of the Bible as such a vessel, imperfect in itself and yet vastly important because of its contents. This view of the Bible is that which prevails in Mr. Crooker's pages. The author does not sympathize with the worship of a book, and he devotes a large portion of his space to an examination of errors in the Bible and to a statement of the fields of thought and knowledge in which it can no longer be considered authoritative. He believes, however, that the new uses of the Scriptures compensate for the loss of the old, and that the Bible - will live as long as humanity lives," as a religious classic and an aid to our own spirit to make more audible and persuasive the voice of the living God, in whom we, as well as Isaiah and Paul, live, move anı have our being."

The manual is designed as a species of text-book, and finds place in the "Guild and Bible Class Series" edited by two divines of the Church of Scotland. Supernatural Revelation : An Essay Concerning the Basis

of the Christian Faith. By C. M. Vead, D.D. 12mo, pp. 481. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. $1.75.

There comes to our desk a second edition of a series of theological lectures delivered before the students of Princeton by Dr. P. M. Mead, who holds the professorship of Christian theology in Hartford Theological Seminary Connecticut). Professor Mead seems somewhat impatient of the socalled " higher criticism," and his view of miracles, inspiration and kindred questions would probably appear conservative to many present-day thinkers. His chapters are those of an earnest and scholarly student, who is a firm believer in the fact and authority of a revealed religion. The Christian View of God and the World, as Centering

in the Incarnation. By James Orr, D.D. Octavo, pp. 537. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Co.

Dr. Orr is the incumbent of the chair of church history in an Edinburgh college, under the auspices of the United Presbyterian denomination. The general purpose of his lectures is to define the Christian view of the world— Weltanschauung" in the German terminology-which, according to the author, "stands in marked contrast with theories wrought out from a purely philosophical or scientific standpoint," and is also not entirels consonant with our prevalent modern conceptions of sin, incarnation, immortality, heaven, hell, etc, The lectures have a technically theological and philosophical basis, as abundant notes testify, but are themselves written in a rather easy though systematic style. Natural Theology : The Gifford Lectures, Delivered be

fore the University of Edinburgh in 1893. By Prof. G. G. Stokes. 12mo, pp. 280. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.50.

The general position of Professor Stokes in these lectures, which were delivered last year before the University of Edin. burgh, may be determined by a sentence Occurring in the last chapter: "Any divorce between natural theology, and revealed religion is, in my opinion, to be deprecated." Professor Stokes discusses the idea of design in some of its numerous applications, chemical, physical and physiological, the theory of evolution, the Christian doctrine of revelation, the primary condition of man, immortality and kindred topics, treating all in a candid spirit and in a clear, incisive style. Heart-Beats. By P. C. Mozoomdar. 12mo, pp. 330. Bos

ton : George H. Ellis. $1.50.

Mr. S. J. Barrows, in his biographical sketch of some length prefixed to this series of " Heart-Beats," affirms that the volume is the most remarkable devotional book since that of Thomas à Kempis." Whether that statement be too strong or not, the high position of Mozoomdar among present religious thinkers and the great interest awakened by his recent visits to the United States guarantee a wide reading for this selection of his meditations. The style is as vigorous and sensitive as the thought is profound and spiritual, and both are under bondage to a genuine experience. The volume contains a portrait of Mr. Mozoomdar.

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The New Testament and Its Writers. Being an Introduc

tion to the Books of the New Testament. By Rev. J. A. McClymo t, B.D. Octavo, pp. 288. New York ; Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. $1.75.

The Rev. J. A. McClymont is a clergyman of the Church of Scotland, and it is as such that he examines "The New Testament and Its Writers" in a volume which aims to be of service to ministers and other readers of the Bible. He notices each book separately, treating of such points as its authorship, date of composition, general character and the like, An appendix gives a brief summary of the literature of the Fathers of the Church, and a map locates most of the places mentioned in the text. There are also notes upon English versions of the New Testament, the canon, textual criticism, etc., fac-similes of portions of ancient codices and a photograph of an ancient Syriac palimpsest.

Seven Great Teachers of Religion. A Series of Sermon

Lectures. By Jenkin Lloyd Jones. Paper, 12mo.
Chicago : Unity Publishing Co. 10 cents each.

In each of these admirably clear pamphlets Mr. Jones considers the biography of a great religious leader and the system of religious truth which he founded or the aspects of the religious life which he seems to particularly emphasize. The search in these pages is not for scholarly knowledge, but for a wider revelation of the spiritual life and a stimulus to noble morality. The leaders whom Mr Jones has chosen are Moses, the Hebrew Law Giver ; " " Zoroaster, the Prophet of Industry;” “Confucius, the Prophet of Politics ;" * Buddha, the Light of Asia ; " "Socrates, the Prophet of Reason; "Jesus. the Founder of Christianity," and " Mohammed, the Prophet of Arabia." The Aim of Life : Plain Talks to Young Men and Women.

By Philip Stafford Moxom. 12mo, pp. 300. Boston:
Roberts Brothers. $1.

Mr. Moxom, who is a Baptist clergyman of Boston, has brought together a series of addresses to young people upon “Character." * Habit," "True Aristocracy," "Ethics of Amusements," and other kindred topics. The chapters are marked

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The Old Testament and Its Contents. By James Rob

ertson, D.D. 16mo, pp. 162. New York : Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. 30 cents.

In somewhat the same manner as obtains in the volume just noticed, Professor James Robertson, D.D., of the University of Glasgow, analyzes the books of the Old Testament.

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