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scholar fresh from the best continental universities, activity. He was the leader in securing many social his plan being to study American institutions. He reforms, and the story of his political and journalwas descended from a worthy line of Swiss publicistic life in Switzerland would be the recital of much men; and with rare aptitudes for political science that is creditable in the history of that republic dur
ing three decades. In 1882 he returned to the United States as Swiss Minister and served in that capacity at Washington until 1888. Since that time he has for a considerable period served as Vice-President of the Swiss Confederation. His promotion to the Presidency is a well-earned honor.
EMIL FREI, PRESIDENT OF SWITZERLAND.
and public affairs, he turned naturally to America as an instructive field of inquiry. He was on the ground to witness the stirring events that immediately precipitated the war ; and as soon as the call for troops was issued he registered his purpose to become a naturalized American citizen, and enlisted as a private soldier in an Illinois regiment. He served through
Canada to promote trade and to arrange for a cable between the two great colonial continents. Of the alternative routes proposed for this cable—the shorter crossing French territory and the longer touching British possessions only—the latter alone will be seriously considered. The electric link connecting the Dominion and the nascent Commonwealth is much too precious, from the Imperial point of view, to be exposed for the length of a single inch to the control and caprice of any foreign power. That Australians are not behind Canadians in the new enterprise is evident from the statement that Sir Thomas McIlwraith has yielded the premiership of Queensland to Mr. Muir Nelson in order to find time for a journey
to Canada on this business. The new Premier, who HON. MACKENZIE BOWELL.
still has Sir Thomas in his cabinet, is faced with a the entire war with great courage, and came out recrudescence of the separaticn movement in the with a Colonel's commission, which had been fairly north. Mr. Bowell, meanwhile, is in Canada again, earned. He returned at once to Switzerland and en- having stopped at Honol ilu on the return journey to tered upon a public career of great usefulne;' and preach the gospel of the proposed cable.
RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS.
November 20.—Commissioner Blount's report on Hawaiian affairs made public ; it upholds the policy of the Administration....27,000 coal miners will be thrown out of work by the Lehigh Valley strike ; the strikers begin to show an ugly temper at Sayre and Wilkesbarre.... New schemes for rapid transit in New York City devised .... The great storm on the west coast of Europe is still raging ; the shores of England, France, Prussia and the Netherlands strewn with wrecks.... Brazilian government forces said to be pressing the insurgents closely ; proclamation of the Empire by Mello denied in Europe.... Lobengula tired of war....
... Prince Alexander buried at Graetz Work resumed at the English collieries.
November 21.-Hawaiian Minister Thurston denies the truth of the statements in Commissioner Blount's report .... President Wilbur, of the Lehigh Valley, issues a circular offering to treat with his employees.... A lynching takes place in an Iowa court room....Brazilian war ship "Nictheroy”
" sails from New York for the seat of conflict.... An earthquake at Kuchan, Persia, on Friday, re
November 23.-Fire in Detroit results in the loss of seven lives and $800,000 worth of property.... Coal men desire peace and endeavor to bring Lehigh Valley officialsand employees together ; freight trains move at several points.... The Matabele War is over and Lobengula is. fleeing with the remains of his regiments beyond the Zambesi. ... Admiral Mello's ironclad “Javary," previously disabled, is sunk by the fire from a land battery ; her crew lost.... Two hundred and thirty-seven lives were lost off the English coasts in the recent great storm ; 165 fishermen off Jutland. ... The report on the scandals in the Banca Romana implicates a number of Italian deputies, among them seven members of the present and previous cabinets ; Crispi and Giolotti both accused of guilty knowledge.... Anarchist arrests frequent and troubles rife in Spain ; a nest of them discovered in Algiers.
November 24.-President Wilbur will not treat with the Lehigh Valley strikers ...A million dollar fire in Columbus, Chio, destroys a hotel and three theatres.... Steel interests in the Eastern section of country combine for the p rpose, it is said, of raising prices. ... The Italian cabinet resigns and there is a wild scene in the Chamber of Deputies.... Spain declines Muley Araaf's overtures for a truce for the Riff natives and will hold the Sultan responsible ...Nineteen-twentieths of the Scotch coal miners strike for increase of pay.
November 25.- Hat manufacturers lock out 4,000 employees at Danbury, Conn.; they decide to employ no more union workmen.... Yale defeats Harvard at football by a score of 6 to 0.... Evacuation Day is celebrated in New York by the unveiling of a statue to Nathan Hale.... Lehigh Valley officials fear violence at the hands of the strikers....Dupuy's cabinet goes to pieces at Paris, due to the Premier's efforts to rid it of its radical members....No cabinet has yet been formed at Rome ; further disclosures implicate thirty other members of the Chamber, Signor Martini and two of Garibaldi's sons in the bank scandals ; Caprivi encounters violent opposition to the commercial treaties proposed.... Rumors of an impending financial crash in London.
November 26.-Petty violence begun by Lehigh strikers ; arbitration boards will try to meet President Wilbur.... The Tariff bill is practically completed ; raw sugar remains on the free list, the duty on refined sugar is reduced, reciprocity stricken out.... The crew on a Lake Shore freight train drive off eight robbers after a sharp fight.... Twelve thousand people were killed in the recent earthquake at Kuchan, Persia.... Imposing obsequies held over the body of Prince Alexander, at Sofia. ... A detachment of Mexican troops wiped out by border rebels ....General de Campos goes to Melilla to take charge of the forces.
November 27.- The full text of the new Tariff bill is made public-wool, coal, iron ore, lumber and salt on the free list ; nearly all duties ad valorem instead of specific ....Slight shocks of earthquake are felt in New York, Vermont and Canada. ...Lehigh strikers mob a little station ; trains move irregularly.... The machinery for John Y. McKane's trial set in motion.... Nine officers of the Madison Square Bank indicted. ...Zanardelli, President of the Italian Chamber, will form a new ministry....A.
HON. W. B. HORNBLOWER. Nominated by President Cleveland as Associate Justice
of Supreme Court. ported to have almost completely destroyed the town.... Another bomb exploded at Valencia, Spain.... Reports of Europe's recent great storm continue to add to the long list of disasters....Spanish forces will take the field against the Riffians.
November 22.-Freight trains b gin to move on the Lehigh ; the employees reject President Wilbur's advances ; recruits are imported. ... A fire at Springfield, Mass., destroys $500,000 worth of property.... The Ways and Means Committee agree on a wool schedule on a basis of about 40 per cent.... The insurgents gain ground in Brazil ; Pernambuco in a state of siege....Natives defeated in skirmishes with Spanish convicts.... Anarchist club discovered and raided in Barcelona ; many arrests made in France, also.... Belgium alarmed at the establishment of a German Army camp on her frontier.
revival of dynamite outrages in Dublin.... Caprivi receives an infernal machine from France.... Desultory firing continued in Rio Bay.
November 28.-Lehigh labor chiefs summoned to Philadelphia for conference ; officials claim that the bac bone of the strike is broken.... Col. E. S. Otis nominated to be Brigadier-General, to succeed Gen. W. S. Carlin .. Gov. Tillman, of South Carolina, denounces the federal judiciary in discussing railroad interests in his annual mesage .... The Postmaster-General issues his first report.... Emperor William also receives an infernal machine from Orleans.... Spain is pouring troops into Africa....A memorial, consisting of two stained glass windows, to Lowell is unveiled in Westminster Abbey.... The Italian Army will be reduced by two corps.
November 29.-President Wilbur will yield nothing to the Arbitration Boards.... It has been practically decided to levy no tax on incomes, but on legacies and the net earnings of corporations, in the new Tariff bill.... Secretary Lamont makes his report of the War Department .... Thirty people are killed in a railway accident near Milan, Italy....An anarchist tunnel is found under a street in Marseilles....Cholera is raging at Teneriffe.
November 30.-Secretary Herbert's report to the President, making his representations of the achievements and needs of his Department, made public.... Police are called out for the protection of Lehigh trainmen from strikers ; trains move regularly.... 'The Yale-Princeton football game results in a victory for the latter by a score of 6 to 0.... Brazilian insurgents gain ground ; they win a victory in Rio Grande do Sul.... The Credit Mobilier, in Rome, suspends payment ....Casimier-Perier undertakes the formation of a cabinet at Paris, in place of Spuller, who resigns the task.... Twenty persons killed in a fight with Cossacks in defense of a Catholic church at Krosche which was ordered to be closed by the Russian government ... The great cathedral at Marseilles, begun in 1852, consecrated with imposing ceremony.
December 1.-McKane's trial for contempt begun in Brooklyn.... Several trains wrecked on the Lehigh.... Admiral Mello leaves the harbor of Rio Janeiro with his flagship to intercept the new government vessels from New York.... The Reichstag votes to readmit Jesuits to Germany....Anarchists display activity in many European capitals.
December 2.-—The Lehigh Valley railroad tied up by wrecks all along its line, resulting in the loss of several lives and the destruction of much property ; at White Haven, fire communicated from a wreck consumnes $200,000 worth of property....Many buildings burned in Baltimore, with an estimated loss of $700,000.... Chicago police accused of collusion with gamblers ; Democrats and Republicans select their candidates for the Mayoralty.... Scarcity of fuel compels the closing of many factories and is the cause of much suffering among the poor in England ; financial matters otherwise much improved.... Influenza of an infectious type appears in London.... The dispute between France and Germany concerning the Cameroons Hinterland and the Anglo-German Convention to be settled by arbitration.
December 3.-J. J. Van Alen refuses to accept the Embassy to Italy.... Very few trains move on the Lehigh, the weather aiding the strikers....Comptroller Eckels' report shows that the currency during the past year has been increased by more than 36 millions.... Anarchist meeting in London a fai’ure.... Würtemberg's failure to conduct summer army manœuvres result; in strained rela
tions between it and the empire.... The Riffians have promised Muley Araaf to stop fighting....Chaos reigns in Servia in all the departments of the civil service... Ivanoff's plot to kill Prince Ferdinand stated to be only one of a series. .... The distress among the Russian peasantry from debt and famine increasing ....Zanardelli's cabinet nearly completed.
December 4.— The first session of the Fifty-third Congress convenes.... The President's message reviews our foreign relations, asks for authority to call an international monetary conference and approves the Wilson bill. ... The French cabinet narrowly escape defeat in their opposition to a measure to grant amnesty to political offenders.... Boselli's refusal of the Finance portfolio excites suspicion and distrust of Zanardelli's cabinet; its tenure of office likely to be short.
December 5. -Advices from Hawaii state that Minister Willis will not act until he hears again from our government, meanwhile, peace will be preserved.... The cutter "Corwin” sails for Honolulu, carrying, it is believed, instructions t Minister Willis. ... The Lehigh strike nearing its end.... Steamer “ Jason” wrecked off Cape Cod ; 27 of her crew probably lost .... Georgia will have State banks ....Dupuy elected President of the French Chamber.... Zanardelli's cabinet at last completed....Caprivi encounters violent opposition to his Russian and other commercial treaties ..A buffer State, north of Siam, will be formed between the English and French possessions ; it will not include Luang Prabang, so much coveted by France.
December 6.-The Senate calls upon the President for all the information as to Hawaiian affairs in his possession.... The end of the Lehigh strike officially proclaimed by Brotherhood officers ; the men gain their chief points .... Trial of Daniel Coughlin for the murder of Dr. Cronin begun in Chicago.... The Italian cabinet, after a life of a day, goes to pieces.... Mello cruising with his ships near Rio....M. Gruichs has organized a cabinet in Servia
December 7.-Lehigh strikers go back to work as fast as places can be found for them.... A bank at South Bend, Ind., is looted at noon of $15,000.... McKane's hearing in Brooklyn is ended.... The cruiser “ Marblehead” makes 18.94 knots on her trial trip.... The Manchester Ship Canal formally opened.... Professor Tyndall's death caused by an overdose of chloral, administered by mistake by his wife....General Campos disbands the convict guerillas at Melilla....At Rio, heavy firing forces the insurgents to anchor further from shore. Revolt in Para suppressed.
December 8.- The Bankruptcy bill defeated in the House by rking out the enacting clause....Minister Willis declares to President Dole that he has no authority to use force at Honolulu.... The Spanish police make a discovery of an anarchist headquarters at Mesina de Rio Seco, where they find papers containing names, information about the societies and their doings....Crispi will undertake the formation of an Italian cabinet.... Admiral Gama, in a proclamation at Rio, advocates restoration of the monarchy.... Sultan Muley Hassan going to Melilla to confer about the Riff war ; he is unlikely to accept Spain's ultimatum.... Lobengula desires to surrender... The English coast gale-swept.
December 9,-An anarchist bomb exploded in the French Chamber, injuring eighty persons, among them thirty deputies ; Dupuy w,unded....News from Hawaii, dated November 22, states that the Queen has asked
protection of the Provisional government; she refuses to be restored unless the United States will maintain her on the throne.... Canada asks indemnity for Victoria sealers seized by this country.... The Germania Club, of Chicago, insults Gov. Altgeld, by pointedly refusing to allow his portrait to be hung in the house.... A Southern Pacific train wrecked by tramps.... The situation in Servia becomes worse daily, and intervention by Austria and Russia is looked for.
December 10.-Kansas invaded by an army of tramps as a result of the proclamation by Governor Llewelling that the vagrant law is unconstitutional.... Chicago and Toledo are actively engaged in raising money for the relief of distress among the poor and unemployed.... Auguste Vaillant, the anarchist who threw the bomb into the Chamber of Deputies, has been caught....His object was to kill President Dupuy....A granary in Antwerp is burned with a loss of $1,600,000.... Report of the destruction of Nictheroy confirmed.... Mello gaining sympathy .... Germany will help Italy through her financial crisis.
December 11.--A revised draft of the Tariff bill submitted to the Ways and Means Committee, yielding to the demand for more protection....Riots occur in Sicily and Southern Italy, accompanied by fearful barbarities on the part of the mob... The Kaiser's proposal to bring the Würtemberg army under the control of the Berlin Office is exciting much opposition in the former state.... Paris bomb thrower removed to the Prison de la Sante ; his trial will occur next month .. Repressive r..easures against anarchists will be undertaken by nearly all European governments....Peixoto will begin active operations in Rio Harbor.
December 12.-Hawaii will resist, by force of arms if necessary, any attempt to restore the Queen. Government houses barricaded and protected by cannon.... The Lehigh strike cost the company half a million dollars. The men dissatisfied with the new rates of wages.... Sharp debate in the House over the admission of Utah to Statehood.... The Tariff bill not yet completed.... Four negroes lynched in Alabama for one crime.... An oper; ation will be necessary to save the life of the Paris bomb thrower, due to a concealed wound in the leg.... England will spend $40,000,000 on her navy.... Sicilian anti-tax riots continue.
December 13.-A caucus of Democrats in the House has been called to consider the Tariff bill.... Admiral Irwin sends word the Hawaiian government has 1,000 men under arms and will fight.... Wreck on the Pennsylvania Railroad ; many passengers injured.... Troops worsted by rebels in the mountains of Chihuahua, Mex.... Matabeles, driven to bay, inflict a defeat on the British.... The merry war in Brazil goes on and Adiniral Da Gama takes two island forts at Rio....New measures against anarchism to be rigidly enforced in Europe ; bombs found in Madrid.
December 14.-McKane and three of his election inspectors found guilty of contempt.... Fire destroys property in the business portion of Buffalo to the value of $1,000,000.... The Election Law Repeal bill reported in the Senate.... Disgruntled Democrats in the House invited to confer on the Tariff bill with the committee. ... Evidence found that the Paris bomb thrower, Vaillant, had accomplices.... A stinging defeat administered to Socialists in the French Chamber....Sig. Crispi has completed his cabinet.
December 15.-A span on the Louisville Bridge falls, carrying down 45 men and killing at least 21.... The
House votes to admit Arizona into the Union ; Senators Morgan and Frye urge the government to take control of the Nicaragua Canal.... Accidents of various kinds occur on four railroads, resulting in injury and loss of life.... Destructive fires in New York City and New Haven.... Russia declines France's proffer of a Mediterranean port ..., The Shereef offers satisfaction to Spain ... The Spanish, Servian and Roumanian treaties passed by the Reichstag ....Rio completely blockaded.
December 16.-Two schooners with their crews lost off the New England coast....500 houses flooded in South Buffalo by an overflow of Buffalo Creek....French spies sentenced by the Leipsic Court to imprisonment in fortresses.... The government is considering a scheme for the reclamation of British shore lands ....Anarchists are being vigorously prosecuted everywhere in Europe.... The news of the British defeat in Matabeleland confirmed.
December 17.—Three men killed and four injured in a wreck on the C. O. & S. W. R. R.... Report of ravages by fire and water in China and Japan brought by steamers ....Da Gama's proclamation increases the popularity of the insurgent cause in Brazil....Anarchists threaten terrible reprisals in case of Vaillant's execution.... Sicilian agrarian riots abate.... France and Belgium alarmed over the German fortified camp at Malmedy, on the Luxembourg frontier.
December 18.-The President sends his message to Congress on the Hawaiian question ... Distress among the poor and unemployed increasing; measures for their relief to be undertaken in New York, Boston and Pittsburgh.... Cordage Trust receivers permitted to sell the property for $5,000,000.... Two hundred anarchists expelled from France; other governments adopting stringent measures.
Cannonading kept up constantly at Rio ; the national finances in an extremely bad way ..A bill makes the ground granted to Russian peasants when the serfs were freed inalienable ; persecution of Catholics continues.... Sicilian anti-tax riots break out afresh.
OBITUARY. November 21.-Ex.-Gov. Jeremiah Rusk, of Wisconsin.
November 22.-William T. Coleman, California's foremost citizen and chief of the famous Vigilance Committee of 1851.
November 23.-George Kemp, of the wholesale drug firm of Lahn & Kemp, New York City.... Charles Hérisson, a distinguished French lawyer, public man and officer of the Legion of Honor.
November 24.-Major Morgan C. Hamilton, of Texas, ex-Senator and Comptroller of the Treasury.... Ex-Gov. John Jacobs, of West Virginia.
November 26.-A. M. Scriba, formerly bank examiner ...John Straiton, of the firm of Straiton & Storm, cigar manufacturers, New Yo k City.
November 27.-The Rev. Dr. John L. Nevius, American missionary in China.... Emile, Viscount de Kermenguy, Deputy for Finisterre, France, and one of the oldest Legitimist members of the Chamber.
November 28.-Dr. W. H. Holcombe, President of the American Institute of Homeopathy and writer on various topics....Col. N. B. Eldredge, ex-Congressman from Michigan....Capt. M. P. Wild of Portland, Me.
November 29.—John J. Kiernan, ex-State Senator of New York. ...Commander De Haven Manley, retired naval officer.
November 30.- Major M. C. Kizer, one of Atlanta's old
est and wealthiest citizens.... George David Brown, author and founder of the United Press Association.... Major-General Alexander Cunningham, of the British Army in India, on November 28.
December 1.-Judge Edward Coke Billings, of the U. S. District Court o. Eastern Louisiana.... Gen. William Lilly, Congressmanat-Large from Pennsylvania..... Major Charles J. Dickey, a retired army officer .... Samuel Richards,
American artist....Gerald Fitz Gerald, fifth Duke of Leinster.
December 2.-Charles Kozminski, a prominent Polish Hebrew banker of Chicago....Martha Wilson, founder of the Home for Old Ladies .... George 0. Willard, writer and dramatic author.... Charles J. Hays, press reporter of the House of Representatives ....Dr. Paul Hoffmann, Assistant Superintendent of Public Schools, New York City.... Pauline Cusbman, the noted scout of the late war ....George Guy Greville, Earl of Warwick.
December 3.-Joseph D. Potts, President of the Empire Steamship and American Steamship Companies....Willis Raney, exsecretary of the Louisville anıl Nashville railroad. .. Stephen B. Ransom, oldest member of the Hudson County, N. Y., bar and one of the founders of the Republican party.
December 4.—John Tyndall, the eminent scientist ... John Chester Buttre, a leading steel engraver in this country.... Bishop Power, of St. Johns, N. F.
December 5.-Ex-Senator David M. Read, of Connecticut....George W. Grandey, a well-known lawyer and statesman of Vermont.... The Rev. Joseph Johnson White, of Williamsburg.
December 6.-Henry Goebel, believed by many to be the inventor of the incandescent electric lamp.... Lord Strathallan, heir presumptive to the estates and titles of Perth .... Herr von Schmid, Würtemberg's Minister of the Interior.
December 7.- Isaac C. Lewis, President of the Meriden Brittania Company. ... The Rev. David Jewett Waller, of Bloomburg, one of the leading citizens of Northeastern Pennsylvania.
December 9.-Royal W. Merrill, financial editor of the New York Press ... Fordyce D. Barker, of New York.... Bishop J. J. Moore, of Greensboro, N. C.
December 10.-Hon. Nathan A. Farwell, ex-U. S. Sen. ator and prominent citizen of Maine.... Walter Smith Coles, a lawyer of this city.
December 11.-Hon. Jeremiah H. Murphy, ex-member of Congress from Iowa ...Jacob B. Jackson, Governor of West Virginia for four years.... Admiral Sir John Corbett, K.C.S., of the British Navy.
THE LATE JOHN TYNDALL,
December 12.-Col. Alton R. Easton, veteran of the Mexican and Black Hawk wars and for whom the towns of Alton, Ill., and Easton, Maine, were named. ..Prof. Hans G. C. von der Gabelentz, the distinguished German Orientalist.
December 13.-Thomas H. Hassett, an Irish patriot in the time of the attempted revolution of 1865. ...The Rt. Rev. T. B. Lyman, Episcopal Bishop of North Carolina ....Edward Horwitz, editor and proprietor of the Philadelphia German Demokrat....Dr. L. Dokics, President of the Servian Council of State.
December 14.-Henry W. Torrey, emeritus professor of history of Harvard University.... Vicar-General Michael McCabe, of the Providence Diocese.
December 15.-John L. Porter, chief naval constructor of the Confederate States, builder of the famous “Merrimac".... Thomas Taylour, Earl of Bective.
December 17.-Dr. Wm. S. Lawton, president of the Augusta and Savannah railroad.
December 18.-George de B. Keim, ex-Prevident and exReceiver of the Philadelphia and Reading Companies.... Consul-General Alfred D. Jones, to China, en route from Shanghai to San Francisco.