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THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS, AMERICAN EDITION, EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW

The Review of Reviews is published each month in New York and London, the two editions differing in many features, but publishing numerous articles in common. The English Edition is edited by W. T. Stead,

Mowbray House, Norfolk St., Strand, London.

CONTENTS FOR APRIL, - 1894.

389

With map.

The Earl of Rosebery....

.Frontispiece Negro Progress on the Tuskegee Plan. ..... 436

By Albert Shaw. The Progress of the World

With portrait of Booker T. Washington, and other illusEnglish Versus American Politics..

387

trations. Why the English Game is More Exciting.

387

A People's University for Southwest London. 444 Permanence of the Players.

388

With portraits of Edwin Tate and Sidney H. Wells, and Neither System Can Claim Superiority

389

other illustrations. Obstructing the Seigniorage Bìll. Down With Filibus, ering

389 A New Work on Municipal Franchises....... 448 “ Railroading" the Bland Bill Through the Sen

By Carroll D. Wright. ate

S90 The Outlook for Bimetallism.

390

Leading Articles of the MonthThe Wilson Bill in the Senate. 390 The Anti-Catholic Crusade

449 Louisiana Versus Free Sugar. 391 The Birthplace of the Jesuits.

450 Stiffening the Wilson Bill in the Senate.

391
Par dise and the First Sin..

451 The Senate Report on Hawaii.. 392 The Boyhood of Jesus Christ.

451 Annexation Favored.. 393 How Not to Help ihe Poor.

452 Reciprocity Treaties Threatened.

393
“ Union for Public Good”.

453 The Pending Tariff Policy, 393 A Study of City Tramps..

453 The Late Aggressive Policy 394 The Improvement of the Negro.

455 The Democratic Position.

394
Civic Abuses in New York City.

455 The Brazilian Republic Triumphs.

395 Electoral Corruption : Its Cause and Cure.. 457 The Bluefields Incident..

396 Recent Railroad Failures and Their Lessons.. 458 America will Control the Canal

396
The Banks and the Panic of 1893..

459 Prosecuting Election Crimes.. 396 The Proposed Cables Across the Pacific.

460 Republican Hopes and Prospects..

397
A Naval Union with Great Britain..

461 New York Legislative Topics.

398 Would the Annexation of Mexico be Desirable ?.. 462 A Proposed Temperance Law..

398
Mr. Wells' Views on the Income Tax

462 Gladstone's Retirement and the Fight Against the

What Englishmen Think of the Referendum.. 463 Lords. 399 Absurd Effort to Make the World Over..

464 What the Peers Tried to Do. 339 Organizing English Village Life..

464 Employers' Liability Discharged.. 399 The French Villager..

465 The Retreat of the Peers..

400
The Strategic Importance of Asia Minor..

465 Ending, Mending, or What?..

400
Northeast Sea Route to Siberia...

466 The First Days of Rosebery's Government.. 400 Close of the Russo-German Tariff War..

401
Our Secondary Schools....

467 Franco-Russian Coolness..

401
Common Schools and the Farmers.

468 Putting On the Last Straw

402
The Place of University Extension.

469 The State as Rural Money Lender.

402
A Latin Play at Harvard..

470 The Australian Revival..

402
Marvels Science Has in Store..

471 Silver and Opium...

402
A Gigantic Search Light..

471 The Verdict of the Cape Elections.

402
Flying à la Albatross...

472 Blots on the German 'Scutcheon..

403

With illustration. The Late W. F. Poole, of Chicago...

Cable Cars versus Horse Cars.. 403

472

Electric Carriages.. The Death of Louis Kossuth... 403

473 The Zulus..

473 With portraits of Mr. Gladstone, Mr. H. H. Asquith, Miss

Natural Science in Japan.,

473 Margot Tennant, President-elect Prudente de Moraes,

Woman Suffrage in New Zealand..

474 Associate Justice White, Senator Blanchard, Assistant District Attorney Wellman. Mr. Isidor Straus,

With portrait of Mrs. Yates. Mr. Lemuel E. Quigg, Mr. Galusha A. Grow, Mr.

Why Women Ought Not to Work..

475 Henry Labouchere, the late Mr. William Frederick

Woman in Clubland...

476 Poole, and the late Louis Kossuth.

The Beatification of Jeanne D'Arc.

476 A Lady of England....

477 Current History in Caricature.....

407
" Picturesque Village Homes"

477 With portrait of the late Mr. Joseph Keppler and repro

A Noted Newspaper Correspondent.

479 ductions from American and foreign cartoon papers.

“La Maréchale”

479

With portrait of “La Maréchale. Record of Current Events....... 411 The Women of Hungary.

480 With portraits of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Bart., Mr. G.

Hildegard Werner.

480 Watts, R.A., the late Mr. R. M. Ballantyne, the late

Wagner and Grieg.

481 Dr. Hans Von Bülow, the late Professor Michelet, and

Some Composers.

482 new members of the Royal Academy, London.

Nature in Early American Literature.

483 The Three English Liberal Leaders : Character The Periodicals Reviewed....

484 Sketches. By W. T. Stead.

The New Books : I. Mr. Gladstone.

417

Marcella, Mrs. Humphry Ward's New Novel on II. The Earl of Rosebery.

422
Socialism and Wealth..

492 III. Sir William Harcourt.

429

Mr. Crawford's New Story of New York Society
Life

493 With portraits of Mr. Gladstone. Lord Rosebery, and Sir

Tolstoi as a Christian Anarchist..

495 William Harcourt.

Other Recent American Publications

495 The Drift in Australian Politics.....

434

Contents of Reviews and Magazines.. . 500
By Sir Henry Parkes, G.C M.G.
With portrait of Sir Henry Parkes.
Index to Periodicals.....

. 509

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by post office or express money orders, or by bank checks, drafts or registered letters. Money in letters is at senders risk. Renew as early as possible in order to avoid a break in the receipt of the numbers. Bookdealers, Postmasters and Newsdealers receive subscriptions. THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 13 Astor Place, New York City.

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THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS.

VOL. IX.

NEW YORK, APRIL, 1894.

No.4

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

Politics.

Our private ad America? The question has been often asked, and not
English Versus
American vices from Eng always intelligently answered. One reason is the full

land, to which centralization of British political life. Just now we
allusion was made in these have been witnessing rather lively times politically
pages last month, proved to within the domain of the State of New York, where a
be correct; and Mr. Glad legislature is in session, and many questions are before
stone's retirement from the
post of prime minister was
consummated early in
March. The course of Eng-
lish politics has been keenly

interesting every day for many weeks. Most of the current news from Washington, with Congress in the middle of the most critical session of recent years, has been too dull to read without effort; while the English news has been, even to us in America, the most eagerly scanned of all that has appeared in the newspapers from day to day. Every scrap of fresh information about Mr. Gladstone has been sympathetically welcomed. There has been an unabated desire to know everything that could be learned about the new Premier, Lord Rosebery. Even Sir William Harcourt has at length won the curious and fixed attention of American readers. Anything about Mr. Secretary Asquith and his engagement to Miss Margot Tennant is far more sure to attract the quick notice of newspaper readers in this country than anything that could just now be said about our own Secretary of the Interior, Mr. Hoke Smith. Readers on our side of the Atlantic are following the sensational parliamentary career of Mr. Henry Labouchere with much greater zest and appetite than they are watching, for example, the remarkable strategies that Mr. David B. Hill is pursuing at Washington. A great discussion has been raging in this country

UNARMING.-From Punch (London). regarding the relations of the Senate toward the Executive and toward the other House of Congress.

“Unarm !—The long day's task is done !" Yet unquestionably the contest that begins to fill the

(Antony and Cleopatra, Act IV, Scene 12.) air in England regarding the House of Lords and its obstruction of legislation has a dramatic interest the people. These local issues have engrossed more even for Americans that the Washington situation attention than affairs at Washington. There is much does not possess.

talk about nominations for Governor. A Constitu.

tional convention is soon to assemble. And in many Why the English

Why is it that the great game of poli other States, as in Iowa, Colorado, California, New Game is More tics in England is so much easier to fol Jersey and Ohio, home political questions and home Exciting.

low and so much more thrilling in its political personages have filled the public mind to the daily incidents than the great game of politics in obscuring of events and men at Washington. Even

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when we endeavor to fix our attention upon the course of affairs at the Federal capitol, we find it necessary to change the focus continually. The boy who wants to miss nothing that is done at the circus where simultaneous performances are going on in three rings, finds his eye and brain subjected to a severe and anxious responsibility. And the observer who wishes to miss nothing of the political performance at Washington,—when one House is engaged with a tariff or

Commons do about it? The game may be hindered and its outcome seriously affected by such an outside influence as the House of Lords. But the fact is not altered that the whole game remains in the hands of the Commons and there are really no other participants. Permanence

Another thing is to be noted. The leading of the players in the game of British politics do

Players. not change very rapidly or frequently, and we come to know them and follow their fortunes with all the warmth of interest that attaches to old friends or old enemies. We cannot keep up with French politics because every Ministerial upheaval lands a fortuitous group of new men on top of the situation. But we do not have to ask who Salisbury, Balfour, the Duke of Devonshire, Randolph Churchill, Joseph Chamberlain and George J. Goschen are, nor is it difficult to keep track of a party that entrusts its leadership to Gladstone, Rosebery, Harcourt, Morley, Kimberly, James Bryce, Fowler, Asquith, Trevelyan, and their associates. Labouchere is always on hand ; Justin McCarthy, John Dillon, Michael Davitt, Tim Healy, Dr. Tanner and other Irish patriots maintain their positions and attitudes. John Redmond, the Harringtons, and their little faction, are clearly located in our minds. We are puzzled somewhat by the shifting groups and factions of so comparatively stable a body as the German Reichstag. But in the English political game we know the men,

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coinage bill, when the other is wrestling with a Supreme Court nomination or an anti-option bill, and when the Administration is busy on its own independent account with the issue of a national loan or an attempt to enthrone a Queen,-is facing a wellnigh baffling task. Moreover, the most interesting things go on behind the scenes. The Cabinet never comes before Congress for public cross-examination, and Congress itself does its real work by means of committees rather than by process of open debate. There are really a dozen rings in the Washington political circus, into most of which the spectator is allowed only an occasional unsatisfactory peep. But in England there is absolute unity in the performance. For all practical purposes the Cabinet and Prime Minister,-i. e., the Executive Government,-are a Committee of the House of Commons. Everything is fought out in that one arena. Occasionally, as now, it happens that the Prime Minister is in the House of Lords; and it is always true that several members of the Ministry are Lords. None the less it is a fact that the Government stands or falls with the support or rejection of a majority of the House of Commons, and that the whole political game is played in that one spot. The House of Lords possesses no interest so far as its proceedings are concerned. That is to say, no one ordinarily attaches any importance to its debates or opinions. It is of consequence merely because it may stand in the way now and then as an obstruction. The interesting question that then arises is, What will the House of

MISS MARGOT TENNANT.

Bill,

can estimate their forces, can comprehend the moves,

Obstructing

Without any change in the distinctive and in short can witness the entertainment with a the Seigniorage features of our legislative system, it comfortable and flattering sense of fairly clear com

would be possible, at least, to eliminate prehension. Now, to be perfectly frank, most of us some very objectionable practices. The one imporare not always sure of knowing the men at Washing tant measure which has made its way through both ton. A strong man does not drop out of English houses of Congress since our record closed last month, politics. Mr. McKinley, Mr. Harrison, Mr. Ingalls, is Mr. Bland's bill for the coining of the seigniorage, Mr. Tracy, Mr. Morton, Mr. Hiscock, Mr. Warner —the purport of which was explained in our March Miller and other prominent Republicans are no number. The means by which the enemies of this longer participants in the game at Washington. Such bill retarded .its progress in the House deserve eman exclusion is unknown in England. A seat in the phatic condemnation ; and the means by which its House of Commons can always be found for a promi friends accelerated its passage through the Senate nent member of either leading party. The fighting are not less sharply censurable. For two weeks Mr. leaders of the two parties always confront each other. Bland and Speaker Crisp were occupied with strenuThe Ministers of the party in power sit on the front ous attempts to secure a quorum in order to act upon bench of the Governmental side ; and the ex-Ministers Mr. Bland's motion to fix a date for the final vote. of the party out of power sit on the front Opposition Members absented themselves upon all sorts of bench. New men are worked in gradually, but not

trumped-up excuses, and warrants were issued for spasmodically. With us, the change of men is very the arrest in various States of truants who had gone rapid. Mr. Cleveland's present Cabinet was for the to their homes on divers pretexts. But more promost part composed of men who had never partici voking even than the recreancy of members who left pated at all, ,-or never with great prominence,

in the

Washington and scattered themselves in all direcpolitical game at Washington. Mr. Carlisle's case tions was the conduct of those who remained and was the exception that proved the rule. The House

who actually occupied their seats, yet by refusal to of Representatives, moreover, is full of new men. participate when Mr. Bland's motion was put preEven Mr. Wilson himself is a comparatively recent vented the securing of a quorum under the rules of figure in our public life, and yet he is an old stager the House. It will be remembered that under the when compared with many others who are taking last Republican control of the House of Representamost active and prominent parts in our governmental tives Speaker Reed met and vanquished obstructbusiness at Washington.

ive filibustering of this particular character by the

straightforward device of counting, for purposes of All of this proves nothing as to the 812 a quorum, every member actually in the room, Neither System

periority of the one system or the other. whether that member admitted his presence by reCan Claim The consensus of recent European opinion sponding to the roll call or not. Mr. Reed simply Superiority. is inclining towards a preference for the

cut the Gordian knot. American plan of a separation of the executive power from the law-making body. But nobody can deny

With due regard for the rights of minorthat the English system is the more entertaining for

Down with

ities and the reasonable duration of de

Filibustering! the onlooker. If the Senate and House were consoli

bate, the majority has a right to legisdated into one chamber, and if the Presidential late ; and it has an undoubted right to use masterful cabinet occupied seats on the floor and were engaged methods to break up obstruction through the abomiin constant discussion of their own acts and policies nable tactics of “no quorum.” Mr. Bland was perand of pending legislation as it related to their vari- haps too harsh and choleric in the language used by ous departments, we should see a more exciting him in the denunciation of this practice, but he was political game at Washington ; and personality in not far from right when he pronounced it essentially politics would count for much more than it now anarchistic. Lawmakers who desert their posts in does. If, in addition, our laws and customs did not • order to prevent the passage of laws they do not like, compel a public man to abide by the verdict of the conspire to effect the total annihilation for the time State or district in which he lives, but made it readily being of the law-making body. This is a matter to possible for him to represent the people of some other which constituents should look with care. Members State or district, we should not lose out of our public who have played these tricks should be asked to relife at the very moment of their highest usefulness nounce them before they are sent back to Congress such men as Thurman of Ohio, Harlan of Iowa, and for another term. The Democrats had made such a plenty of others who could be named. Our system record of passionate protest against Speaker Reed's is far more truly representative of the people than rulings and methods that when they came into authe English system, which is essentially aristocratic. thority themselves they were ashamed to make use And such as it is, our system is with us to remain in of his excellent reforms. Their return to obsolete all its most characteristic outlines. But it does not parliamentary methods that make filibustering comfurnish us with half as zestful sport as the English paratively easy, now affords the Republican members system of government by a committee of the domi under Ex-Speaker Reed's leadership a very colorable nant party or coalition in the House of Commons. pretext for retaliation. Nevertheless, we must pro

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