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fied in saying to their neighbors, “ You must either pay us two dollars and a half a day for our work or else support us by your charity."
It will not be possible to furnish work, this winter, to all who will need relief. That is the thing to aim at, and the nearer we can come to it the better. But the need is so unusual and so urgent, and the machinery of relief is in most places so new and inadequate, that we shall sometimes be compelled to give aid to those, whether willing or unwilling to work, for whom we cannot find employment.
The establishment of soup houses and charitable bakeries for the gratuitous distribution of food is the first impulse of many kind-hearted people; but experience proves that the injury outweighs the benefit. It may, however, be safe and wise to establish soup kitchens and cheap restaurants, where nutritious food can be sold at cost. The relief committees might establish such kitchens, in connection with their industries, and pay for their work in orders for food.
The relief committees will, of course, undertake some sort of investigation into the circumstarices and needs of applicants. Those who are new to this business will imagine, at first, that they are getting, in a single hurried interview, the truth concerning the applicant ; there will be evidence enough of poverty ; and the explanation of it will be plausible; but after a few months' experience it will be clear that considerable acquaintance is necessary in order to deal wisely with most of these families. One of the facts most commonly concealed is the existence of relatives who are able to afford the necessary relief and who ought to be shamed into doing so. In many ways the relief committees will find the problem of helping these poor people becoming more and more difficult the longer they study it. Probably it will soon become clear to them that no temporary organization can dispose of the business which they have in their hands; and that there ought to be in every considerable town a thorough systemization of the business of charity. In some of our cities the business has been pretty well systemized, and these cities are much better prepared to meet this emergency than those in which no such organization exists. Yet even here the work of charity organization has been sorely crippled by the sentimental skepticism of multitudes. It has never been possible to convince a great many wellineaning people of the mischief wrought by indiscriminate and misdirected almsgiving. The attempt to combine the charitable workers in such a manner as to prevent the growth of pauperism is always resisted and ridiculed by a class of effusive philanthropists, who have very little practical knowledge of existing conditions. In cities where the charities are well organized, and where every case of want could be promptly attended to if the applicant were sent to the central office, the majority of the citizens still persist in giving to tramps and beggars at their doors, It is to be hoped that this winter's experiences may throw some light upon this matter, and that the peo
ple of this country may come to some realization of the magnitude of the task which confronts them indealing with the evil of increasing pauperism. It is to be hoped that in communities where the charities are already organized a more cordial co-operation of societies and churches and all philanthropic agencies may be secured ; and that in communities where no such organization has been attempted the need of it will be clearly seen. For in dealing with this emergency a great many people are likely to discover that we are confronted with something worse than an emergency ; that the acute disorder is terribly complicated with a chronic complaint; and that a thorough course of constitutional treatment is clearly indicated.
There is no room here to discuss the nature of the remedies. I think that they are likely to include:
1. The abolition of gratuitous, official, outdoor relief.
2. The care of the helpless and friendless poor, who are dependent upon the state, in infirmaries, hospitals, almshouses and orphanages.
3. The establishment of work-houses, to which all able-bodied and chronic mendicants should be committed, with interminate sentences. These incorrigible idlers and tramps need a thorough course of reformatory treatment. A work-house to which they can only be sent for brief terms of a few weeks or months is a doubtful good ; they should be kept in confinement until their bodies, which are generally saturated with alcohol, are renovated and brought under normal conditions ; until they have received some necessary industrial training, and until there is some fair assurance that they will become, if discharged, producers instead of parasites.
4. The provision of some kind of relief institution in every community, in which persons in temporary strạits may obtain employment, and support themselves by their labor. It is vastly preferable, I think, that such relief institutions should be organized and managed by private charity ; but, as I have already said, it is far better that the municipality should furnish work to able-bodied applicants for aid than that it should support them gratuitously for any length of time. The invariable rule of such relief institutions, whether under public or private management, should be to furnish work that is not particularly desirable, at low wages. The compensation offered should be distinctly less than is given for the same kind of labor in the market.
The thing to be aimed at is this : To enable every able bodied person to obtain the bare necessaries of life by his labor; and to prevent abled-bodied persons from obtaining a living without labor. Our charities will not be properly organized until both these ends are practically secured.
When all this is done there will still be ample scope for Christian benevolence in ministering to the sick, the infirm and the helpless poor, who ought not to be permitted to become a charge upon the state, but should be cared for in their own homes.
LORD AND LADY ABERDEEN: A CHARACTER SKETCH.
BY W. T. STEAD.
1. THE MIST OF CENTURIES AND ancient glories of the Plantagenets, that of Lady OF SONG
Aberdeen revives memories not less glorious, in the
opinion at least of one great branch of the EnglishHATEVER grudge the New World may bear
speaking world. The Governor-General is a Gordon the Old, for its heritage of ill, it cannot
of Scotland, but his wife claims descent not only from complain that it is stinted in the counterbalancing the ancient kings of Scotland but also from those dower of reminiscences of its romantic past. In the
of Ireland through the O'Neills of Tyrone. To midst of the metallic clink of the coin on the counter the Anglo-Saxon, Irish history is very much of a and the eager babel of operators in the markets, sealed book. To an Irish patriot it is like those illuechoed and magnified by the journalistic sounding boards of the press until the atmosphere seems vocal with dollars and cents, can be heard now and then stray notes of melody from out," the purple past, the dusk of centuries and of song." These wandering echoes of the clarions of the bygone time come and go like the breath of the zephyr on the Æolian harp. Sometimes it is a name, a place, a date or a person which unloosens the latent music of the world, but whenever it is heard it carries us back in imagination to the vanished centuries which poet, novelist and historian have irradiated with their genius, until they glow with the splendor with which the dawn illumines the Eastern sky.
The name of the present Governor-General of Canada is one of the keys which unloose these chords of the fairy music of old romance. When I was in Chicago the boardings blazed with the ornate posters announcing that a popular actor would shortly appear in one of the theatres of the city in his famous impersonation of Richard the Lion Heart. To-day there lives in the Government House at Ottawa, the direct lineal descendant of the warrior whose arrow slew King Richard before the castle of Charles in Perigord. A chasm of seven centuries yawns between the fatal shot of Bertrand de Gourdon and our own day, but it is bridged by the history of a single family; and the
LORD ABERDEEN. soughing of the Canadian wind amid the pines seems to bring with it far-away echoes of Blondel's song and minated manuscripts which still attest, in European the fierce clash of Christian sword on Moslem helm in museums, the glory of Celtic art and the ancient the Crusaders' war. The legendary origin of the splendor of the Irish race. And among the heroes Gordons of Haddo, of whom Lord Aberdeen is the whose exploits furnish the illuminations to the gilded living representative, does not lose its value from our page, the O'Neills occupy a leading place. They were, present point of view because its authenticity is a it must be admitted, no friends of the English. Nor, subject of antiquarian dispute, or because there are indeed, was it possible for them to regard the invader authorities who trace the Gordon genealogy much as other than the common enemy of their family and further back than the days of the lion-hearted Plan of their race. Had there been a few more O'Neills in tagenet. Antiquaries question everything, and if the Ireland, the course of the history of that distressful isle Gordons were in Aberdeen before the Norman Will. might have been very different. But the axe and sword iam conquered England, that in no way detracts from and musket thinned their ranks, and although the story the romantic interest that associates their name with of the O'Neills is as fuel for the brocling imagination the tragic fate of one of the few English monarchs of the patriot, it resembles all other Irish histories whose story has become an heirloom of the world of in its record of unavailing valor and of the pathos of old romance.
despair. In these later days, however, the cause of If the family history of Lord Aberdeen recalls the Irish liberty and Irish nationality has found a repre
sentative in Lady Aberdeen, who from her position existing law. Then speaking as Minister he declined in the inner arcanum of British rule may be able to to propose any alteration in the law to enable this do more for her country in the council chamber than monstrous iniquity to be legalized. The Stuarts were any of her stalwart ancestors were able to achieve for a stubborn race, and instead of recognizing the justice Erin in the tented field.
and integrity of Lord Aberdeen, the King drily obApart from the associations of legend and of ro. mance that cluster round the family history of the Governor-General and his wife in the dim twilight of the remote past, it is interesting to note that the associations between the Gordons and the American continent date back for two centuries, to a period antecedent to the great schism by which George the Third rent the English-speaking world in twain. John Gordon, of Haddo, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles Stuart, King of England, and the baronetcy is one among the many titles borne by the Earl of Aberdeen.
Sir John Gordon was a Cavalier of the school of Montrose. When the Scottish people were signing the Solemn League and Covenant with their heart's blood Sir John was fortifying his castle and sharpening his sword, and mustering his fighting men to help the King to govern by right divine. The fates and the Scottish people were, however, too much for Sir John and for his royal master. When the Marquis of Argyle besieged him in his castle of Kellie his Scottish artillerymen, having no stomach for the cause, deserted to the army of the Covenant and Sir John was compelled ingloriously to surrender. There was short shrift in those days for the vanquished. Sir John Gordon was carried as a prisoner to Edinbro, and in the same month of July that Oliver Cromwell on the moor of Long Marston gave the royal army the foretaste of the quality of his Ironsides Sir John Gordon was judicially condemned to death and publicly executed. The lesson was a severe one, but the effect seems to have been most salutary. From that time to this, although his descendants may have described themselves as Royalists, Jacobites or Tories, they have always been true to the cause of liberty, of justice and of progress.
Of this a more conspicuous example was afforded in the person of the first Earl of Aberdeen. Five years after the first Nova Scotian baronet went to the headsman's block the axe of the executioner was employed on the neck of Charles Stuart, but after a time the whirligig of time brought about its revenge, and the son of the beheaded king, having come to the throne, made the son of the beheaded baronet first Earl of Aberdeen and Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. Argyle went to the scaffold, and the Cavaliers, once more in the saddle, pursued their old enemies without ruth. They found, however, that their Lord High Chancellor brought too much conscience to his work to serve as the tool of mere proscription. The Privy Council, finding some difficulty in striking at the heads of some of the Whigs, issued orders that hnsbands and fathers should be held responsible by fine served that he would be served in his own manner and imprisonment for the opinions of their wives and and according to his own measures. Lord Aberdeen daughters. Lord Aberdeen, to his credit be it spoken, at once resigned. He was too loyal to the dynasty declared from the judgment seat that the orders of to consent to serve King William when James the Privy Council could not be carried out under any was sent packing across the seas, and he spent
the rest of his life in retirement. He was, however,
II. THE PRIME MINISTER. sufficiently free from Jacobitism to take the oath of
The most notable name among all the ancestors of allegiance when Queen Anne came to the throne. the Governor-General is that of his grandfather, Earl He was said to have been the solidest statesman in
of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the Queen in the Scotland, the first of a line of which the present middle of the present century. How great and good, Governor-General is no unworthy representative. how ideally perfect a character he was has but re
It would be a mistake, however, to imagine that cently been revealed to the world. In the useful and the Aberdeens descend solely from the conservatives interesting series of the Queen's Prime Ministers or aristocrats of the world. Lady Aberdeen owes her which Mr. Stuart Reid is editing the most interestfamily name of Marjoribanks to the grant of cer ing volume is that which Sir Arthur Gordon has tain lands made by King Robert the Bruce to his devoted to the story of the Earl of Aberdeen. It is a daughter, Marjorie, who married the High Steward narrative which tends to deepen and reassure our Johnstone, whose family in time substituted the
faith in human nature, and especially in the native name Majoribanks for their own more prosaic one. virtues of the English-speaking race. The discovery But not only is Lady Aberdeen associated by her of a great personality is to the historian what the ancestors with the patriot hero of Scottish his finding of a nugget is to the miner who is prospecttory, there is in her family story one of the most ro ing for gold. To come upon a pure lump of metal mantic incidents which occur seldom far from that
lying in an out of a way place is of much more immystic borderland of old romance which divided Eng- portance than the intrinsic value of the particular land from Scotland. Among her ancestors she counts nugget. Its importance arises from the fact that it the famous Grizel Cochrane, whose reckless daring suggests the presence of other nuggets of equal value saved her father's life. It was in the last years of which have not yet been discovered, but may be reKing James' reign and Grizel's father, Sir John
vealed in that gold bearing stratum. You rise from Cochrane, of Ochiltree, was lying in Edinbro under the perusal of Sir Arthur Gordon's monograph feel. sentence of death. All efforts to secure his pardon ing that the world, and especially the British public, failed. The death warrant, signed in London, was is richer in human worth and almost ideal goodness forwarded by mail to Edinbro; on its arrival Sir John than you suspected before you turned over its pages. was to die. Despair gives courage to the most timid, Lord Aberdeen as Prime Minister closed his official and Grizel Cochrane, seeing that there was only one career amid the dark clouds and sombre discouragechance left, seized it with intrepidity. Disguising ment of the Crimean War. Owing to that unfortunate herself as a highwayman she waylaid the Royal mail, circumstance by which he was overwhelmed in a anl clapping a pistol to the driver's head compelled catastrophe that he had in vain endeavored to avert, him to give up the death warrant. As soon as she his real merits as a statesman were overshadowed, possessed herself of the fatal document she rode off and it was not until his son's biography appeared that and soon had the pleasure of thrusting it into the men began to appreciate the greatness of Lord Aberfire. Whether out of consideration for the heroism deen as an imperial statesman. The memory of such of the exploit or because of the Revolution is not a man and the story of the services which he was stated, but Sir John was ultimately pardoned.
able to render the Empire is a perpetual incentive Lord Aberdeen also boasts a Grisell among his an to his grandson, whose shoulders are not unequal even cestors, who, by the way, makes him a direct descend to the burden of the heritage of so great a name. ant of John Knox. Among all men born on Scottish Lord Aberdeen before he was 30, had to play a part soil there is none greater or more universally esteemed in the history of Europe which is without a parallel. than the great Reformer. Lady Grisell Baillie mar He was sent as special emissary from England to the ried the son of Robert Baillie, the martyr, who was camp of the allies when coalesced Europe was rising to John Knox's great grandson. Lord Aberdeen's grand throw off the tyranny of Napoleon. During the mother was Lady Grisell's great granddaughter. whole of the campaign which culminated in the Battle Robert Baillie was one of the martyrs for Christ's of Leipsic and the triumphal entrance of the allies Crown and Covenant, whose sufferings have done so into Paris Lord Aberdeen was the intimate adviser much to glorify the history of Scotland and to dignify and trusted confidant of the Emperor of Austria and of the Scotch character. It is a very pretty story, that most of the crowned heads of Europe. Seldom had a of Lady Grisell and of her visits to the martyr as he young man so great a róle to play, and seldom has lay in the Tolbooth waiting for death. It has features any one fulfilled so difficult a part with so brilliant a which suggest that Grisell was the original of Rob success. Nature and education had alike fitted him ert Louis Stevenson's latest heroine. Grisell played for the position. A rare scholar, familiar with her part faithfully and nobly. She could not save modern languages, at home equally in court and Robert Baillie, but her heroism and beauty won the camp, of a transparent sincerity and simplicity, which heart of his son George, whom she married after the enabled him to command the confidence of the soverRevolution of 1688 had made it safe for honest folks eigns and statesmen with whom he was thrown into to marry and be given in marriage. Lady Grisell was constant contact, Lord Aberdeen contributed as much a poet as well as a heroine, and fragments of her as any man to the success of the great European minstrelsy to this day enliven the hours of the Scottish revolt against Napoleon. In his son's pages we catch peasants.
glimpses from time to time of this high spirited, chiv.
alrous Englishman living in the midst of alarins of had as much opportunity as any living man in shapwar and in the very vortex of the intrigues of half a ing the policy of England, both in Colonial affairs dozen rival courts without ever betraying the confi and on the continent of Europe. It is interesting to dence of a friend or sacrificing for a moment the in note, in view of the position which his grandson holds terests of his country. Had he done nothing else Lord to-day, that the most conspicuous feature of his adAberdeen would have conferred an inestimable service ininistration of colonial affairs during the short time apon the cause of liberty and national independence he was at the Colonial Office was to draw up instrucby the part which he played in that campaign. tions to Lord Amherst, whom he proposed to send as
The Gordons have often distinguished themselves High Commissioner to Canada with powers not only in early life. One of the same family fell on the field to investigate but to settle in the most liberal man
ner the grievances of the colony. Although Lord Aberdeen was a Conservative and Foreign Minister of the Duke of Wellington, he always set his face as a flint against the doctrine favored by Lord Palmerston of interfering in every possible way short of military force in the affairs of other nations. In like manner, although he was a peer and a member of the permanent majority in the House of Lords he opposed without hesitation what he considered the Duke of Wellington's dangerous policy of throwing out the measures of the Reform Administration. Notwithstanding this, the leadership and management of the Conservative party in Scotland was forced upon hiin by the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, who assured him that he had become “the standard of our colonial policy as you were before of our foreign policy." Despite his preoccupation with foreign affairs, he was statesman enough to see that the destruction of the Scotch Church was inevitable unless action was taken to promptly meet the demands of those who subsequently constituted the Free Church of Scotland. His advise was disregarded until it was too late.
During his second term of office as Foreign Secretary it fell to his lot to arrive at two important decisions of vital importance to the Dominion over which his grandson is now presiding as representative of the Queen. When he entered office the relations with the United States were somewhat dangerously strained owing to frontier difficulties and Canadian troubles. He sent Lord Ashburton to Washington on a special mission to adjust the difficulties between the Empire and the Republic. The frontier line which secured British Columbia for Britain was Lord Aberdeen's handiwork. Lord Aberdeen had proposed in
the first case to refer the disputed question to arbitraGEORGE GORDON, FOURTH EARL OF ABERDEEN.
tion. But President Polk took a high line on the sub. Memorial Bust in Westminster Abbey.
ject and declared that the rights of the United States of Waterloo a Lieutenant-Colonel and a K. C. B., to the territory in dispute were so clear and unqueswhen he was only 23 years old. Lord Aberdeen had tionable that he was determined to takeactive measures been taught statesmanship as a boy at the table of to vindicate American rights. Lord Aberdeen was Pitt and Melville, in whose homes he had spent his the last man in the world to deal in bluster, but he youth, and who had besides inherited a great tra was not to be bluffed by the President, and in the dition of public service broken only by a single link. House of Lords he stated that Britain also had rights He had, moreover, been steadied by the responsibili in the disputed territory which were clear and indisties of the management of his estate at a time when putable, and these rights, with the blessing of God other young men have barely left the university. and their support, he was fully prepared to maintain. This, however, is not the place for telling the story After this preliminary defiance on each side, a comof Lord Aberdeen, the Prime Minister, excepting so promise was drawn up by Lord Aberdeen, and ultifar as it bears upon the prospects of Lord Aberdeen, mately approved of by the American Senate. By this the Governor-General. As Foreign Minister, as Colo means British Columbia was secured to the British nial Secretary and as Prime Minister, Lord Aberdeen Empire. But although Lord Aberdeen was very