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Tehousands of people tried, companies and syndicates AN instructive and amusing article is that in the
surpassed the powers of computation, and the deso dred miles, and then continued one hundred and lation was widespread.
forty-four miles to the northwest corner of the colony. “The nimble legions passed to and fro over the land Queensland also thought it needed some fences. One like an avalanche of destruction, consuming whatever was built along the southern line of that colony for came before them. The continent became checkered two hundred and sixty miles, to connect with the with the tracks of the roving scourge.
northeast corner of New South Wales. Another “The colonists again assembled themselves. Their fence, three hundred and forty miles in length, was condition was desperate, their future most unpromis- projected in New South Wales from Albury to Traning. The rabbits had possession of the land, and bade zie. fair to take charge of the country. The attempt to “ When these fences effect a connection with the exterminate the furry hosts had been like an attempt other fences the rabbits will be surrounded, and their to sweep back the waves of the ocean. The more the extermination can by military supervision be reduced people exterminated, the faster the animals increased. to a system. Fences can be handled instead of troops. Rabbits reproduce when four months of age. They Raiders can move on the rabbits with wire in the have eight little ones in a litter. They breed seven place of arms. Fences can be used within fences. times a year, and in a few years the offspring of one The screens can be advanced, shifted, and deployed pair number millions.
to accomplish strategic ends and to achieve extraHYDROPHOBIA AS A MEDICINE.
ordinary slaughters. The wires have been put in At last the colonial parliament had to take up the
training and moved on the aniinals with the most
successful results." cudgels in the settlers' fight with the rabbits and a reward of $125,000 was offered to any one who would
HOW OUR ANCESTORS SPENT THEIR HOLIDAYS invent a way of relieving the colony of the pests.
Nouvelle the desirable end. Pasteur finally evolved the original
Middle Ages, by M. Fernand Engerand. Towns may theory that by inoculating certain of the rabbits come and towns may go, as war and commerce deand introducing hydrophobia into the systems of a
cide ; but wherever curative springs, hot or cold, few hundred bunnies, they would bite their comrades start unbidden from the earth, we usually find them and their comrades would bite their comrades, and so
frequented, from age to age, by an unending stream on until madness would take off the whole tribe. The of visitors. French scientist's experts had actually arrived in THE HEALTH RESORTS OF THE SAVOYARD VALLEY. Australia with their hypodermic syringes when the The Romans have left traces of their thermal esAustralians suddenly considered that this cure might
tablishments all over France. The great arch in the be worse than the disease, since their dogs would
market place of Aix-les-Bains, and the remains of bite the mad rabbits and there would be the pleasant
conduits and baths underneath the flowery gardens prospect of having the whole continent go mad, so
of a neighboring villa, testify to the long record of that that scheme was abandoned at the last moment.
the Savoyard valley ; and the early Gauls adopted HOW THE RABBITS WERE FINALLY EXTERMINATED.
the habits of the Roman imperial colonists and bathed
and feasted in like manner. “ One hundred million acres of territory were over
But when Attila came
down with his Huns they wrecked the complicated run by the animals. Although the raiders killed
bathing arrangements, and that generation bathed no 2,528,000 rabbits per year, and received a bounty from
On the withdrawal of the barbarians into the government for each of the scalps, the rabbits remained in full force. But the great drought of 1888
Germany, the natives, however, set to work to restore
the conduits, and in 484 we find Prince Ambron, son excelled Pasteur's remedy and all the guns and canines in Australia. The lakes and watercourses were fenced
of Clodion the Hairy, bathing at Plombières and at
Luxeuil, where arose a legend of the seventh century, in by wire screens, and the animals died by millions
telling how St. Agile restored a dead man drowned from thirst. Shutting out the water from the bunnies
in the bath. Aix in Provence was sought by invalids has been found the most successful weapon in all the
during three centuries, but Charlemange preferred arsenal of destruction.
Aix-la-Chapelle, and fixed there the abode of his later “Wire fences were the final resort of the colonists. It was seen that the only way to protect adjacent dis
years for the express purpose of enjoying the hot tricts from invasion was to fence in the territory oc
springs; he liked bathing in company, and his court
iers disported with him in the water. cupied by the rabbits. A fence, two hundred and seven miles in length, was constructed from Narro
CAUTERETS AND SPA. mine, on the Macquarie River, to Bourke, on the Then came the turn of Cauterets in the Pyrenees, Darling River. It was then continued to Barringun, and of Spa on the skirt of the Ardennes. We hardly a distance of eighty-four miles. The cost of the realize that Spa was a popular watering place in the fences was four hundred and ten dollars per mile. time of Willian the Conqueror, and that invalids Other colonies concluded to follow this example. A camped out in tents because the little old town was fence was constructed along the South Australian too small to hold them. In the fourteenth century border from the river Murray a distance of two hun we find an ironmaster buying wood from the Bishop
of Liége and building “Young Spa," near the spring under which they were living in security and freecalled the Pouhon.
dom. THE MEDLÆVAL BATHS OF SWITZERLAND.
“ Yet many attempts were made to bring them to a
better mind; and long forbearance was exercised But the strangest story of mediæval baths is that
towards them. They were absolutely free of all told by Pogge, the Florentine Secretary at the Coun
taxation. . cil of Constance in 1415. Not far from Zurich are
On their instantly demanding the return of their sulphur springs still enjoying a mild reputation
weapons, of which their hostile actions had compelled among the serious and decorous Swiss people. They
the British authorities to deprive them, they were had been discovered, named and used by the Romans,
told that they must take the full oath of allegiance, and may now be found in the then Gazetteer, under
and that if they refused "effectual measures ought the head of Bade, near Aarnau. They were not of
to be taken to remove all such recusants out of the much importance in classic times and are not of much
province.” Their deputies point blank and twice importance now, but in 1415 they were the height of
over refused to take the oath. Deportation was thus fashion ! From a radius of two hundred miles and
the only alternative left to the British Government. farther, if the trouble and perils of the journey could
“ It should also be remembered that this was not the be surmounted, came the bathers, not, generally
first deportation of Acadians. What the British did, speaking, on account of illness, but because they de
after long years of forbearance and as a measure of sired a complete holiday ; and according to a long
self-protection, the French had for years been doing, . letter written by the Florentine to a friend they seem
with all the power of the sword and crosier, as a to have had a merry time indeed. Neither Bath in
matter of policy." the last century, nor Nice, Vichy or Royat in the present day, can boast of such carnivalesque diver
THE STORY OF THE DEPORTATION, sions. The bathers lunched in the water off floating
“The deportation in Evangeline's' country was trays made of cork ; their hair was garlanded with
entrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel Winslow, a colonial flowers, tied up with ribbons. Men, women and
officer, descended from the Winslows of “ Mayflower" children played games and indulged in the wildest
fame. He seems to have been a humane man, to gaiety. Pogge, the Florentine, seems to have enjoyed whom his task was very obnoxious, and who strove it all very much, but we may well be thankful that
to do it with as much consideration as was possible. times are quieter now.
The deportation was of necessity forcible. If no
stratagem had been used, the men would have taken "THE MEN OF ACADIE” IN ANOTHER LIGHT.
to the forests, and there, joined by the savages, would R. T. BOWMAN STEPHENSON continues in
have maintained a fierce guerilla war . . and the the Sunday Magazine his chivalrous endeavor pacification of the province would have been imposto vindicate the British name from the aspersions cast
sible for a generation. The men were therefore sumon it by Longfellow's " Evangeline.” He quotes from
moned to the church to hear a proclamation on a French authorities to show that when peace was de
given day. The proclamation told them their fate clared between France and England, French priests
and the reasons of it. They were detained in custody, stirred up savages to massacre Englishmen, and
but their families were allowed to bring them proFrench governors supplied the murderers with arms visions, and to hold reasonable communication with and ammunition. He tells how a French governor
them. Twenty each day were allowed to go home to wrote: “In order that the savages may do their part settle their affairs, and every effort was made to secourageously a few Acadians, dressed and painted in cure not only that families should not be separated, their way, could join them to strike the English.”
but even that neighbors should go in the same ship.
The whole deportation occupied, not a few "NOT THE SIMPLE PEASANTS OF THE POETIC STORY."
hours, as the poem states, but many weeks, and the “The Acadians, then," rejoins Dr. Stephenson, measure, stern, indeed, even though it was necessary, were not the innocent, simple peasants of the poetic was carried out with as much consideration as in the story.' Abbé le Loutre, Vicar-General of Acadie, nature of the case was possible. “habitually employed the savages whom he had con “If this stern and lamentable deed had to be done, verted (!) to terrorize those Acadians who were dis it was only done after long forbearance, after plain posed to dwell peaceably under English rule, and he and repeated warning, and with such care as was poswas the contriver and patron of innumerable vil sible to prevent needless aggravation of the suffering lainies.
that was inevitable.” “The English colonists had abundant reason to fear the continued presence within their borders of a pop In the Popular Science Monthly, Prof. Warren Upulation belonging to an alien race under the complete ham, after reviewing the investigations and estimates control of a hostile and unscrupulous priesthood ; of well known scientists such as Lord Kelvin, Darwho were not ashamed, at least at times, to assist win, Geikie, Dana, Davis and Wallace, concludes savages in their murderous raids, and who declined to that not over one hundred billion years have ensued give, by oath or otherwise, any sufficient assurance of since the first crust was formed on what is now their having accepted in good faith the government known as the earth.
FORESTALLED BY THE NORSEMEN.
CLIPPING THE LAURELS OF COLUMBUS.
THE BEGINNING OF MAN.
HE Beginning of Man and the Age of the Dr. Murray, of the “ Challenger" expedition, tells,
Race” is the subject of an article in the in the Scottish Geographical Magazine, of the Norse
Forum, by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, one of the fore
most anthropologists of the time. The very earliest men who discovered and colonized Iceland and Greenland in the ninth century, and went on to
deposit in which there may be said to be a general forestall Columbus by well nigh half a millen
agreement that man's remains are found is that nium.
called the “ Drift," a series of gravel beds in the val“In the year 1000 Leif Erikson and his
ley of the Thames in England, Somme in France, and companions discovered the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland (Helluland), Nova Scotia (Markland),
the Manzanares in Spain, and elsewhere in western and New England (Vinland), but the voyages of
Europe. In these beds his stone tools and weapons are these bold mariners were wholly unknown to the
found lying in undisturbed relations with bones of nations who did not speak the ancient language of
animals long since extinct, and which under the pres
ent conditions of the climate could not exist in that the North.
The settlements formed by Thorfinn and others early in the eleventh century locality, these animals belonging to a tropical or subwere soon abandoned, and in 1347 we have the last tropical fauna. From this one is led to believe that record of a voyage to America. It doubtful
man lived there at an early date when the climate if Columbus had ever heard of these voyages."
was much warmer than now, and that he had lived
there for a long time, for thousands of his implements ANTICIPATED BY ANCIENT GREEKS.
have been found in various strata and scattered over
a wide area. The Renaissance, dispelling the geographical night of the Middle Ages, brought to light the ideas of the
WHEN MAN FIRST APPEARED. scientific Greeks. Aristotle had established the
After this warm period, a period of extreme cold sphericity of the earth, and argued that India and the
descended from the north over central and western Pillars of Hercules were near to each other. Eratos
Europe. Huge glaciers covered Scotland, Scandinathenes (third century B.c.) had estimated the circum
via and Switzerland, and the forests of France were ference of the earth at 25,000 geographical miles. The
the haunts of Arctic quadrupeds and birds, of muskItalian poet, Pulci, published in 1481 a poem in which
ox, reindeer and the white fox. Man, however, he predicted “the discovery of a new hemisphere and weathered this cold period and continued to roam the the circumnavigation of the globe : "
woods and fish the streams, transferring his habitahis bark
tions to natural caves, where evidence of his hunts The daring mariner shall urge far o'er
and his battles are still to be found. This period of The western wave, a smooth and level plain,
cold is what is called the “glacial period” and by Albeit the earth is fashioned like a wheel.
some of our most learned geologists the length of this Hercules might blush to learn how far
"icy age" has been placed from twenty to thirty Beyond the limits he had vainly set The dullest seaboat soon shall wing her way.
thousand years. Adding this to the former calculaMen shall descry another hemisphere,
tion, and allowing a reasonable time for primeval Since to one common centre all things tend.
man to develop and spread over the area in which he Such was the intellectual atmosphere in which Co lived, we have as the approximate time since man has lambus formed his great enterprise.
appeared in Europe - where, up to date, we have
found the earliest trace of his existence-about fifty ECLIPSED BY MAGELLAN.
This Mr. Brinton regards as the The palm of “the most extraordinary voyage on minimum allowance for him. Some writers of emi. record,” Dr. Murray awards to Magellan, when for nence have required two hundred thousand years to ninety-nine days he ploughed the waters of the Pa explain all these changes in climate, in organic life, cific—a voyage “far surpassing the exploit of Colum and in geological deposition, but Mr. Brinton points bus in the Atlantic, both in boldness and in the effect out that the tendency of late years has been toward it produced on geographical conceptions. Though he a reduction of these figures, especially by field geolodied at the Philippines, and though only one of his gists, who seem to be more impressed with the rapidity vessels ultimately reached Spain, Magellan had finally of natural actions than heretofore. solved the problem of western navigatien, the spher
THEORIES OF MAN'S ORIGIN. icity of the earth, and the existence of the antipodes. ... Fifty-seven years elapsed before Drake ac Coming next to the consideration of the origin of complished the second circumnavigation of the man, Dr. Brinton declares that “there is no trace globe."
anywhere of the missing link. No evidence that man The whole review of geographical progress leading developed out of some lower animal by long series of up to and beyond Columbus is masterly and replete slow changes.” Nor does he accept the doctrine of with valuable information. The appended “maps of specific creation as a scientific explanation. There is the world, according to early geographers," constitute a third possible theory of the origin of man which in themselves a liberal education in the evolution of Dr. Brinton holds is as good as another, namely, that geography.
called "evolution per saltum," or with a jump. “It
is that process, whatever it may be, which produces however small ; from the highest to the lowest organ'sports’ in plants and cranks' and 'geniuses ' in re ism there is present life, which, indeed, gradually dispectable families. No doctrine of heredity' or minishes so as to become imperceptible in its manifes'atavism' or ' reversion' can explain these prodigies tations, but never does it become altogether extinct.” or monsters, as they happen to be. A family of we know not which of the higher mammals, perhaps the
THE MUSIC OF RUSSIA. great tree ape which then lived in the warm regions
The Late Peter Tschaikowsky. of Central France, may have produced a few.sports,' widely different physically and mentally from their
'HE music of Russia” has been a favorite subparents, and these 'sports' were the ancestors of
ject during the last few months. First, mankind. This is a theory which asks for its ac
there were the papers on the music of various nations ceptance no blind faith in the dogmatic assertions
read at the congress at the Chicago exhibition, and either of science or religious tradition.”
reprinted in a number of magazines ; later M. Albert
Soubies published a “ History of Russian Music: " WHERE MAN FIRST APPEARED.
and now the death of M. Tschaikowsky again draws As to where man first appeared, Dr. Brinton says: attention to the subject. Several magazines contain “In fact, we are limited by a series of exclusions to the southern slope of that great mountain chain which begins in Western Europe and Africa with the Atlas Mountains, the Cantabrian Alps and the Pyre. nees and continues to the Himalayas and their eastern extensions in Farther India. Somewhere along this line in Southern Asia, or in Southern Europe, or in Northern Africa, we may confidently say man first opened his eyes upon the world about him. Up to the present time his earliest vestiges have been exhumed in the extreme west of this region, but that may be because there search has been more diligently made, but the fact remains that speaking from present knowledge we know of man nowhere earlier than in England, France and the Iberian peninsula."
ARE ATOMS ALIVE?
Merry England for November, Rev. J. A.
THE LATE M. TSCHAIKOWSKY. principle of motion,” that life is such a principle, and
articles on the late Russian composer, the most inthat “the more science advances, the more it discovers that life is bound up with the most elementary
teresting perhaps being that on his lyrical drama, forms of matter.
“Eugene Onegin," in the November number of the
New Quarterly Musical Review. moreover, uphold the theory that all material nature is thus animated ; the tartar upon our teeth, the cor
RUBINSTEIN AND TSCHAIKOWSKY. puscles in our blood, the liquids contained in plants “ Russian music (says the reviewer) is evidently on and vegetables, are all living."
the ascendant, for the names of Rubinstein and Electricity, magnetism, terrestrial attraction, Mr. Tschaikowsky are growing as familiar to our ears as Dewe holds to be “merely one and the same power those of Brahms, Dvorák and Gounod, not to speak acting with different forms and kinds of intensity. of the host of new Russian composers, of whom our That power is generated by the action and reaction musical journals are constantly informing us. Both of material atoms one upon the other. It increases Rubinstein and Tschaikowsky, however, stand out in intensity according as the superficies of the atoms far and away in advance of their native contempoare so placed that their centres can enter into the raries, and on the Continent take rank among the closest proximity, thus producing the three different greatest living composers. grades of ordinary attraction, magnetism and elec “ The works of the former are, to a certain extent, tricity. The reason why the centres of the atoms cast in the classic mold, and are characterized by or, to speak more correctly, the atoms themselves, rugged grandeur, bold conception and breadth of are thus spontaneously drawn toward each other is melody; while Tschaikowsky shows a stronger leanto be found in the fact, which is being daily proved ing toward the modern romantic school, relying for to be more and more universal, that each atom is effect chiefly upon charm of melody, strongly marked animated by a principle of life and feeling. This rhythms, and the rich coloring of harmony with alone in the whole range of nature is found to be a which his ideas are generally invested ; his works, in spontaneous cause of motion.
A rudi fact, exhibit finesse in contrast to Rubinstein's force. mentary life there must be attached to every atom, Distinct as are the styles of these two masters, a
strong national element is visible in their composi THE COMPOSER OF “THE BETTER LAND." tions, tending to produce picturesque impressions on
Mr. F. H. Cowen. the mind."
MAGINE Mr. Cowen having to go all the way to JURISPRUDENCE AND MUSIC.
Milan to get his new opera produced ! And the Peter Iltitsch Tschaikowsky was born in 1840, and English a musical nation ! The story of “Signa's " was the son of a mining engineer. From his associa misfortunes has been keeping Mr. Cowen's name well tion with the peasantry the child early imbibed a to the fore of late, however, and Sylvia's Journal for strong love for music, particularly taking to the folk Deceinber seizes the opportunity to present its readsongs and antique church music ; but his father in ers with an interesting sketch of the composer by tended him to study the law, and it was not till he was Flora Klickmann, happily not hidden away under the twenty-one that the youth entered himself as a general heading “ Musical Notes." student at the new Conservatoire at St. Petersburg. Among his teachers were Professor Zaremba and
Born in Jamaica, on January 29, 1852, Frederic H. Anton Rubinstein, and when he left the Conserva
Cowen composed his first “ work,” “ The Minna toire in 1865 he took, besides his diploma as a musi
Waltz," in 1858. Two years later this was followed cian, a prize medal for a cantata on Schiller's “ Ode to
by “Garibaldi," an operetta ; and as a souvenir of its Joy."
first performance Mr. Cowen still cherishes a cup preProceeding next to Germany, he became an ardent
sented to him on the occasion by Mr. Henry Russell. advocate of the works and ideas of Schumann. In
At the age of eight he had Julius Benedict to teach 1866 he accepted a professorship at the Moscow Conservatoire, and remained there till 1878. After this he seems to have devoted himself alınost exclusively to the work of composition. It was in the spring of 1888 that he made his first appearance in London to conduct the performance of two of his works at a concert of the Philharmonic Society. Since then his works have frequently been heard in our concert rooms, and the composer himself has come over to conduct several of them. Only this last summer, when the musical society of Cambridge was celebrating its jubilee, Tschaikowsky was among the five foreign composers upon whom the degree of Mus. Doc., honoris causa, was bestowed. The Czar, who was a warm admirer of his work, granted him some years ago an annual pension of three thousand roubles, and now he has issued an order that three of the dead composer's latest operas shall be given in the native language at the St. Petersburg Imperial Opera House during the present winter season. “ EUGENE ONEGIN."
MR. F. H, COWEN. “Eugene Onegin” was written over ten years ago,
him the piano, and John Goss to teach him harmony.
Later Mr. Goss taught him the organ, and Mr. Carbut was introduced into this country only in 1892.
rodus the violin. In 1865 he entered the ConservaThe text, which deals exclusively with Russian do
toire at Leipsic, and had as his masters Moscheles, mestic and social life, was furnished by the celebrated
Hauptmann and Reinecke. . In 1867 he proceeded to Russian novelist, Pushkin. But the libretto is never
Berlin, but the following year returned to London, and theless a clumsy affair, and it is only by the continu
henceforth gave himself up to the life of a composer. ous flow and wealth of melody, the judicious use of harmonies, and, above all, the exquisite workman
WORKS. ship visible on every page of the score, that the com Mr. Cowen's first symphony was composed in 1869, poser has succeeded in elevating the music far above and “ The Rose Maiden," one of his most popular the level of the libretto. Musically, the opera is a cantatas, was produced a year later, when he was triumph.
only eighteen. A universal favorite is “ The Lan“Originality of ideas and the methods of their de guage of Flowers," an orchestral suite. In 1888 Mr. velopments (says the writer in conclusion) are not the Cowen was summoned to Melbourne to conduct the common property of every musician, but with Tschai concerts and undertake the musical arrangements kowsky all seems to come naturally. Russia has evi- generally for the exhibition. He was fêted everydent reason to be proud of her Rubinstein and Tschai where, and his visit will be long remembered in the kowsky, considering how much they have, by their Antipodes. After his return to England he composed individual efforts, raised the musical art of their the cantata “St. John's Eve ” and the opera “ Thorcountry to a pitch of excellence and prestige in the grim.” His new works, about which we have been eyes of all Europe."
hearing so much of late, are “The Water Lily,” a