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romantic legend, produced at the Norwich Festival, Evening Song,” beginning “ Ueber allen Gipfeln.” and “ Signa," the opera brought out at the Dal Verme The words were traced in pencil on the wooden wall Theatre in Milan.
of his room, and thirty years later, while on another THE COMPOSER AT HOME.
visit to the place, he retraced the writing, which had Alluding to Mr. Cowen as a conductor, Miss Klick meanwhile grown pale and indistinct, and confirmed mann writes: “ Calm and concise in every move what he had done by adding “Ren. 29 Aug. 1813.” ment, nothing but his face reveals the fact that his The eve of his last birthday found him once more in whole being is on the alert and strung to the highest his lofty retreat, and when he was looking out into possible tension. His memory is apparently inex the evening glow, his eye again fell on the words of haustible.
his song. Now he was deeply moved, the tears rolled “At home (Miss Klickmann continues) he looks down his cheeks, and his lips whispered softly, “Ja, many years younger than he does on a platform. Of warte nur, bald ruhest du auch !" (" Yes, wait a little, medium height and slightly built, one can readily and you too will be at rest!") credit the many stories that are told of his wild
AND THE TRANSLATION. mountaineering exploits. A very firm will, and a Just four years ago the question of an English transfixed determination to have his own way, are among lation of the lyric cropped up, and many were the atthe open secrets written on his face.
tempts made to give an adequate rendering of it. The “In the study, books are on the walls and in every late Mr. J. A. Symonds, e.g., " saw that its unapnook and corner. Intellectual, refined, they cover a proachable literary excellence depended upon its tremendous range of reading ; the humorous element divine spontaneity in the peculiar, instinctive tact is also well represented. His most engrossing hobby with which Goethe had transmitted a certain feliciis the pursuit of first editions, and he certainly has a tous mood of emotion into the simplest language, the magnificent collection, representing most of our great most wayward rhythms, the most natural rhymes ; authors. In many instances he possesses complete all governed by a predominant sense of music, comsets of their works."
pelling the seeming artless verse to take the inevitable The article is illustrated with portraits of Mr. form which belongs to some product of nature shall Cowen at various ages, and a few pictures of his house. I say a frost crystal spread across a window-pane
which has been breathed upon—or a film deposited THE WANDERER'S EVENING SONG.
on glass by musical tone acting on a fluid ?” Mr. ELHAGEN" has an article on the Commu. Symonds made three versions, all of which he re
nity of Gabelbach, by Herr A. Trinius. garded as failures. Longfellow, Miss Constance Though it is vain to search in atlases and State hand Naden, Sir Theodore Martin, Rev. Stopford A. books for any reference to Gabelbach, the spot has a Brooke, and many more, have tried their hands at it; fame which many another community must envy. In yet the lines still seem untranslatable. innumerable songs and pictures it has been celebrated ; in occasional verses its fame has resounded ; and its
CAN MUSIC DESCRIBE SCENERY? first poet was one of the most popular with the Ger
OW far music is capable of suggesting scenes man people— Viktor von Scheffel.
which the composer may wish to represent, or THE GOETHE-HOUSE ON THE KICKELHAHN.
of assisting the imagination to realize scenes which The wooden house in which the community holds
may be described by words, is the interesting quesits meetings stands in the midst of fine, proud pine
tion discussed by “W. H. T.” in Macmillan's. The trees, and we cannot visit it without being touched
writer is disposed to answer in the negative. “It
appears that there is a similiarity between the effects by the charm of German poetry and the silent thought of him who, with his being and his songs,
of sight and of sound, but it would seem probable
that, as the bodily organs of the two senses are dishas endeared to us every foot of the ground-Goethe. Gabelbach is indeed founded on classic soil, for
tinct, so there are corresponding mental and spiritual Ilmenau, Gabelbach and Kickelhahn are all closely
faculties appropriated to each which cannot be af
fected by the other." associated with the name of Goethe. He often took
He is prepared to grant " that a conventional lanrefuge here, especially when his feelings and his thoughts were centered in Frau von Stein. He lodged
guage could be invented, or might grow up by dein a tower-like house of wood, two stories high, on the
grees, by means of which a great variety of ideas top of the Kickelhahn. In 1870 this building was
might be described by music ;” but he is concerned burnt down, but four years later a faithful reproduc
with “the present state of the art.” “For my own
part,” he says, “I do not think that the mind is tion of it was substituted. It was in this curious house that Goethe wrote many of his poems, and
capable of enjoying to the full simultaneously the beauties of sight and those of sound...
In confrom this high place that he addressed his effusions to
templating such a scene as that of the Jungfrau the his beloved, assuring her of his love, and depicted the
entire attention is absorbed, and one could not while beautiful scenery of the neighborhood.
fully taking in its loveliness, at the same time fully UEBER ALLEN GIPFELN."
appreciate the finest music ; and in the same way, The retreat on the Kickelhahn has another special when listening to perfect music, one's faculties are interest. It was in this house, on September 7, 1783, too much occupied to be capable of at the same time that Goethe wrote the charming little “Wanderer's fully appreciating such a scene of beauty.”
A PROPHET Än eminewithout chamaikeim rhisowen
The inquiry ends with advice to the musician to
JONAS LIE. satisfy himself with the limits naturally marked out
HE November number of Samtiden is, from for his art : “ Surely the most ambitious musician has scope wide enough to exercise the fullest powers
sides being a graceful tribute to the genius of the of his genius and his imagination. Let him be con
great writer, is a welcome and valuable contribution tent to leave to the painter and the poet the descrip
to the magazine literature of the day, giving as it tion of sunny lands and starlit skies, of placid lake
does a perfect portrait of the man who, with Björnand rugged mountain, of peaceful meadow and son and Ibsen, forms for all time an Orion's belt in stormy ocean. The attempt to depict such scenes by Norway's literary firmament. The first study of Lie musical sounds must fail in the present state of his -for there are several—is given by the eminent writer art, and can only be successful in the future at the
Herman Bang. In character and person he is Ibsen's cost of genuine musical expression.”
Dr. Stockmann-as large of heart, as genial of These generalizations of “W. H. T." seem to over thought, as broad minded, as blind. Whoever knows look differences in temperament. There are some Stockmann knows Jonas Lie. And, save for its mismen to whom the best music is also the mental vision
tress, the house of Lie is as the house of Stockmann, of nature in its various guises. A nocturne of Chop too. in's affects them almost as precisely as does one of By request of the editor of Samtiden, Jonas Lie Wordsworth’s “Evening Voluntaries."
himself gives in the same number the portrait of his
helpmate, and an intensely interesting portrayal of THE BERLIOZ CYCLE.
her exquisitely womanly character and intellectual
gifts. They are of the same age, were betrothed at country. An eminent musician like Mr. Cowen
nineteen, married at six-and-twenty, and have lived has had to go all the way to Milan to get his new
for three-and thirty years an ideal life of love and
sympathy together. Like John Stuart Mill, he opera, “Signa," produced ; and Berlioz, one of the
ascribes all that is best in his writings to his wife : greatest musical glories of France, seems to have
“ With the exception of Nordfjordhesten, Slagterfound his Bayreuth in Germany! Early in Novem
Tobias,' and a few Adventures, I do not know the ber, Herr Mottl, to whom indeed is due the chief credit
book in which she has not been my trusted guide as for the undertaking, gave a performance in chrono
regards style and, so to speak, my fellow-worker logical order of Berlioz's operas at Carlsruhe, and to Carlsruhe the pious French have made their pilgrim- siring this or that to be written and, under necessity,
through every chapter, erasing all extravagance, deages in order to be present at the performances of the
even writing it herself. It has passed through her German versions of their composer's dramatic works, “Benvenuto Cellini," “ Béatrice et. Bénédict,” and
sieve; from an artistic point of view my creative
powers were undeveloped, and I depended rather on “Les Troyens,” besides a miscellaneous concert devoted to Berlioz. The Revue Bleue of November 18
mere chance than on keen and certain sight. That and other magazines publish articles on this subject.
my sea-novels received solid shape is owing to her “Les Troyens " has had to wait thirty years for any
more intense and developed artist-feeling and clearer
artist-eye. The plot of 'The Pilot and his Wife'I had thing like adequate performance, “ Béatrice et Béné
from her.. She might well have had her name dict” was first heard at Baden-Baden in 1862, and
on the title-pages of my books as my collaborateur. “ Benvenuto Cellini," through well known in Ger
It was, however, not a thing for a ‘Frue of our many, has not been heard in France since 1838.
times to take her rightful place in publicity-her unVery appropriately the November number of Music includes a translation of an article by M. Camille
swerving taste was to content herself with her own
consciousness that she was her husband's spiritual Saint-Saëns on Hector Berlioz. He describes his
But, now that we are entering on our countryman as a paradox made into a man, and says
sixtieth year, it seems to me it is time I told that, in that if there is one quality we must concede to his
all that is finest and best I have written, she has works, it is the prodigious coloring of the instrumen
her part.” tation.
HOW “KVAERN-KALLEN” CAME TO BE WRITTEN THE very pressing problem of the teaching of ethics
Among the many vividly interesting articles in this in schools is treated by Mr. John Dewey in the Edu Lie-number is one by Erik Lie, telling how his father cational Review for November. He strongly protests came to write “ Kvaern-kallen." It was in the month against the assumption " that if you can only teach a of November. They had just arrived at Rome, and child moral rules and distinctions enough, you have had housed themselves at 52, Via di Capo le Case. somehow furthered his moral being.
The . Gray, dirty, sleet-weather, cheating and vexations of inculcation of moral rules is no more likely to make all sorts had combined to render the first impression character than is that of astronomical formulæ. • · particularly disappointing. “Inside the house," says In any right study of ethics the pupil is not studying Lie, we were plagued by fleas-not such little mishard and fixed rules for conduct ; he is studying the erable country fleas as we know here in Norway-no, ways in which men are bound together in the com great, fat, shining beasts of prey that grunted like plex relations of their interactions."
little pigs when one dragged them by the ears to the
washbasin. And not one or two or ten, but regiments. Lie paled where he stood. It might be a forewarning More than once while writing I heard a little pat on of death, this! Ten minutes more of blood curdling my paper, and, looking up, beheld sitting staring at curses, and then the mystic being vanished like a me, believe me, just such a monstrous horrid blood shadow round the corner, and peace reigned once sucker! Outside in the streets a swarm of jeering, more. The morrow came, and the next, and yet animportunate beggars pursued one with prayers and other, and Jouas Lie lived on. The days flew by in threats alternately, like regular creditors ; yes, and merriment-now an evening spent with Arne Garthe dissatisfied drivers followed one, street up and borg, now an evening with the artist Ross, and so on. street down, till one was tempted to appeal to the “Winter passed as through a sieve, and our nine police. But, worse than fleas and beggars and drive months' stay in Rome was marked only by stronger ers, was an old witch of a servant, named Lovisa Sor and stronger flea bites !" But on the night before entina. She was a genuine Roman hag, with one their departure, lo! the peaceful slumber of Jonas solitary fang in her gums, and hands like claws. She Lie was once more broken by the weird song of curses, was lazy beyond all measure, and so slow in every and there in the deserted street stood that mystical thing that we had at last to have our boots cleaned ally of the witch, with colossal scorn and menace in by a street shoeblack.”
his throat! But this time triumph mingled with the To cut the story short, and forego the temptation abuse and threat-triumph that the foreigner was to give the whole of it in Erik Lie's own fascinatingly leaving, was leaving the place-going far over the vivid style, this charming old lady, who was a pitiless mountains to the people whose blood is green, and thief and a confirmed drunkard into the bargain, one whose God is Satan! Branded like a slave, he was lucky day fell downstairs and disabled herself, and the fleeing from Italy's sunshine, and the Romans would overjoyed Lies instantly seized the opportunity to get see him no more before their eyes—would see him no rid of her. But the old witch got life in her then, and, more-would see him no more-ho! ho ! ho ! ha! ha! on hearing that she was discharged, flew up at them ha! like a fury, and hurled a Niagara of round fat curses The next morning the Lies left Rome, and traveled over their heads. She stormed and thund-red, not in homewards, and some two months afterwards there ordinary fashion, but in majestic Italian, with eyes grew out of the witch's curse and other Roman remiagleam and her claws in such swift motion that her niscences the story called “Kvaern-kallen." fierce gesticulations could only be rivaled by the flood of abuse and menace that gushed and foamed and hissed from her lips. She was magnificent in her
THE MOST POPULAR NOVELS. rage. Her attitude, her gestures were splendid as N the December Forum, Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie those of some glorious tragedy-queen ; and, long after takes as a text the statistics which the publishing the door had been locked upon her, her guttural lash. firm of Messrs. Tait & Sons have collected in regard ing invective rose from the stairway like some awful to the novels most often called for at the public lidecree of damnation. Jonas Lie was deeply and al braries of the United States, and the editor of the most morbidly impressed.
Outlook analyzes and argues from these data to find It was a night some time later that he was roused out the character and standard of literature which from sleep by a strange, horrible song. He rose and really appeals to our public taste. The results are far looked out of the window. It was two o'clock, and more encouraging as to the true instincts of that popthe wineshop over the way had long been closed. But, ular taste than one would think. Among a list of the in the middle of the dark, deserted street stood a soli one hundred and fifty most popular novels, judged on tary being with a turned-down felt hat and a pair of this basis, “ David Copperfield" is first, "Ivanhoe” long arms fiercely gesticulating up at the sky. And is second and “The Scarlet Letter " third. this being was singing in a rusty giant voice, raw Among the first eleven Mr. Mabie finds that eight with wine-was “screaming his heart's blood into are novels of the highest literary workmanship and his mouth,” wildly and more wildly yet, horribly, artistic quality, indeed among the greatest in all terribly, and more and more satanically in the stilly literature. A further analysis of the statistics shows, night. Jonas Lie listened with all his senses, fasci- by comparing the popularity of different works by the nated; there was a gigantic majesty over the man. same author, that the public prefers dramatic force He was almost on the point of waking his wife, but and freshness of feeling and touch, among the abstract refrained. The lamps in the street had been extin qualities of literature. Among the whole list of one guished-no soul was about save this creature, whose hundred and seventy-seven Mr. Mabie finds that no wild song bellowed forth hate. He had been sent by less than seventy-six are books of very high or of the that old witch of a servant to confirm her curses, and highest order of literary quality. He notes a remarkJonas Lie was to be put to death, pierced, tormented, able absence of foreign names, and that neither Tolstoi, burnt-hau, hau, hau !-scourged, broken limb from Turgenieff, Gogol nor Dostoyevski are found there, and limb; his people cursed to the ten thousandth gener what is much stranger, neither Balzac, Daudet, De ation, and evil given for good through all eternity; Maupassant nor Zola. Of the surprises among the Enhe was to be flayed alive and, in the biggest kettle of glish and American novels, Mr. Mabie considers the hell fire, boiled in burning oil—hau ! hau ! hau !-the greatest surprise that Thomas Hardy, “the most kettle boils ! the kettle boils ! the kettle boils! Jonas powerful and most artistic writer of the former" is un
recognized. He attributes this omission of the popu
EMERSON AT LONGFELLOW'S BIER. lar taste to the themes, unproductive of cheerfulness, which Mr. Hardy chooses, and he explains the absence
A touching story of Emerson in his latest days was
told by Dr. Holines. of Mr. Kipling's name on the theory that Mr. Kipling
• After Longfellow died, he is a writer for men, and that, as Mr. Howells has
was laid in the chapel on a bier, his face was exposed,
and numbers of his friends went in to take a last said, “ the readers of books in America are women.”
look. Emerson was at that time failing-his memCRUMBS FROM THE "AUTOCRAT'S” TABLE.
ory was almost gone—but as he had been so intimate with us for so many years I thought I would take
him into the chapel. As we were both silently conYoung Man on his personal acquaintanceship templating our dead friend, Emerson turned to me with Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes. He tells of three
and said, “That is the face of a very amiable gentleand-a-half hours spent, during his English visit in but I don't know who it is.' This,” remarked 1888, in the “Autocrat's” company, along with Holmes, was very interesting, as well as very touchBishop Ellicott and Dr. Samuel Smiles : “ The talk
ing. It showed that, although his memory was gone, wandered freely over all sorts of fields-literary and
his perceptive and intuitive powers and a certain inscientific and social—until it got entangled inevitably stinctive judgment of character, all remained unimin “occultism "-ghosts, double psychic phenomena
paired to the end.” on all which questions the Bishop keeps a singularly Walt Whitman, on being told this incident, did not fair and open mind. Talking of brain waves, Oliver think it sad. He said : “ Emerson's decline always Wendell Holmes went off in his best style. I think
seemed to me quite harmonious. This slowly sinking we are all unconsciously conscious of each other's
back into the arms of Mother Nature when one's brain waves at times ; the fact is, words and even
work is done-and well done—it is like the decay and signs are a very poor sort of language compared with slow decrease of fruit-bearing capacity of an old the direct telegraphy between souls. The mistake we apple tree in a great orchard ; at last the old tree make is to suppose that the soul is circumscribed and crumbles away and sinks naturally into the soil from imprisoned by the body. Now the truth is, I believe, whence it sprang." I extend a good way outside my body; well, I should say at least three or four feet all round, and so do you, and it is our extensions that meet. Before words
MR. BALFOUR AS CRITIC OF IDEALISM. pass or we shake hands, our souls have exchanged (R. A. J. BALFOUR contributes “a criticism of impressions, and they never lie ; not but what looks count for something.'
number of Mind. He describes the exponents of
transcendental idealism as “a metaphysical school, PIONEERS OF CULTURE ON THE STUMP.
few indeed in numbers, but none the less important Having heard Mr. Haweis lecture at Boston, Dr.
in matters speculative.” Its central position is that Holmes gave a glimpse of the infancy of the American
of “a mind (thinking subject) which is the source of institution of lecturing, which sheds interesting light relations (categories), and a world which is constion his younger days : “.You star lecturers,' he added,
tuted by relations
a mind which is conscious 'who come over here now and pocket your hundreds
of itself, and a world of which that mind may withand thousands of dollars, little know what we poor out metaphor be described as the creator.” It claims fellows, the pioneers of art and letters in America,
thus to free us from skepticism, to make reason the had to go through. I assure you, when I began, and
essence, cause, origin and goal of the world, and to Emerson and Theodore Parker, there were places in secure the moral freedom of self-conscious agents. the States, calling themselves civilized, that did not Mr. Balfour is sorry to object to a theory promisknow what was meant by a lecture. I have arrived at
ing so much : “ We may grant without difficulty that a schoolroom or hall on the night, and found it empty, the contrasted theory which proposes to reduce the and we have had to send out and whip up an audi universe to an unrelated chaos of impressions or senence; and so we went up and down the land, trying
sations is quite untenable. But must we not also to get a hearing for poetry, literature, art, science,
grant that in all experience there is a refractory eletramping on foot, too, when we could not get a con
ment which, though it cannot be presented in isolaveyance. Well I remember arriving at a lone, for
tion, nevertheless refuses wholly to merge its being saken place after traveling all day, and at last walk in a network of relations, necessary as these may be ing across fields in the mud to get there in time, and
to give it significance for us as thinking beings?' finding it was the wrong day. Another time the
If so, whence does this irreducible element arise ?" committee waited on me at the close, the attendance
THE SELF-CONSCIOUS “1." having been uncommonly thin, and asked me to lower my fee. Well, those were good days all the same; To Mr. Balfour it “certainly appears ” that tranwe were young then ; and then, when you did get scendental idealists are not warranted by their own your fee, the joy and content of sitting in the sanded essential principles in making mind the sole creator
parlor of the village or town inn with your feet on of experience. Their analysis of experience leads · the mantel-piece, and rattling the dollars in your them to the conclusion “that the world of objects trouser pockets, so hardly earned.""
exists and has a meaning only for the self-conscious .I'
(subject), and that the self-conscious I' only knows MR. GOLDWIN SMITH'S VIEWS ON OUR itself in contrast and in opposition to the world of
HISTORY. objects. Each is necessary to the other; in the absence of the other neither has any significance. How
N the pages of the Forum Mr. Woodrow Wilson then can we venture to say of one that the other is its product? And if we say it of either, must we not
the recently published outline of American political in consistency insist on saying it of both ?"
history by Mr. Goldwin Smith. Mr. Wilson finds The universe is as much or as little the creator of the
that Mr. Smith's personal view gives a cynical and self-conscious principle as the self-conscious principle impracticable quality to his book ; that the treatment is of the universe. “All, therefore, that the transcend
of the American Revolution gives evidence of the ental argument requires or even allows us to accept Smith's reading of our own historians does not give
British nationality of the author, and that Mr. is a 'manifold' of relations and a bare self-conscious principle of unity, by which that manifold becomes
sufficient weight to the newer and more scholarly inter-connected in the field of a single experience.”
canons of historical criticism now obtaining. Mr. Balfour then proceeds to view the bearing of this
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. result on theology, ethics, and science. The combin
As to the Englishman's view of our Revolution,
in ing principle, which, apart from the multiplicity it which he saw few elements of greatness and merely combines, is only an empty abstraction, and which is
the necessary outcome of a relation radically false only real in its relation to that multiplicity, cannot from the start, Mr. Wilson writes : “ The claim to be God, who by hypothesis distinguishes Himself representation, though it may have no legal basis, from Nature. Just as little can the combining prin- had a very substantial historical foundation. The ciple, taken together with the multiplicity, be other
American demand was, that the colonists be allowed than non-moral, because it holds in its all-inclusive
to act through'their representatives, whether in Paruniversality every element, good and bad, of the
liament or in America, as they had always done knowable world. The “unifying principle can as such
hitherto, according to a principle lying deeper in the have no qualities, moral or otherwise.” Lovingness English constitution, as they conceived, than even and equity belong to the realm of empirical psy
the privileges of Parliament or the powers of the chology, and Mr. Balfour does not see “ how they are Crown. If this was in effect a claim to independence, to be hitched on to the pure spiritual subject.”
that is why a war for right so suddenly became a war THE IDEALISTIC THEORY.
for separation. There had been virtual separation in
matters of this kind all along ; if it could not remain The freedom ascribed by idealists to the self
virtual, it must be made real. That was the revoluconscious "I” is metaphysical, not moral ; for it be
tion; and it is vain to cry “ Woe!” The direful longs only to the subject “in virtue of its being not an agent in a world of concrete fact.” Mr. Balfour
spirit of civil war did all the rest, that was not
just, but bitter and shameful. The cause itself was comments on the “difficulty which exists on the
great, if the spirit of English liberty is great ; and idealistic theory in bringing together into any sort of
Mr. Smith differs from the greatest English histointelligible association the 'I' as supreme principle of unity, and the 'I' of empirical psychology, which
rians, not only, but also from most informed and has desires and fears, pleasures and pains, faculties
liberal Englishmen of our day, in not perceiving that it and sensibilities ; which was not a little time since,
was really the authentic spirit of English liberty that
moved in the Revolution. No other outcome was and which a little time hence will be no more. The
conceivable, except by us who sit at this cool distance. 'I' as principle of unity is outside time : it can have,
Mr. Wilson seriously objects to that view of Ameritherefore, no history. The 'I' of experience, which
can history which dwells mainly on “The Expansion learns and forgets, which suffers and which enjoys,
of New England," and the clash of Virginian sentiunquestionably has a history. What is the relation
ment and principles with those of the Yankee. Our between the two ?" It will not do to make the latter a phase or mode of
history, says Mr. Wilson, " is far from being a his
tory of origins. It is just the opposite : it is a history the former which is then identified with God or an
of development," and it is in this connection that one eternal consciousness : for, argues Mr. Balfour, the
is bound to give more attention than Mr. Smith has idealistic theory pressed to its furthest conclusions,
given to the importance of the Middle States. precludes us from supposing that either the eternal consciousness or any other consciousness exists save
THE TYPICAL AMERICAN. only our own.
Readers of Mr. Smith's outline will remember that Similarly with regard to science, Mr. Balfour en he found a great deal that was approvable in the deavors to make out that the transcendental “solip- character of Washington, but looked somewhat sism,” which is the natural outcome of such specula askance upon the more rugged and native heroes of tions, is no more valid or reassuring than the “psy our national struggle. Mr. Wilson does not wonder chological, or Berkeleian form of the same creed.” that a search through our history for correct English He concludes : “I am unable to find in idealism any gentlemen of a modern university and cultured stamp escape from the difficulties which, in the reign of is somewhat disappointing. “We may wish that the theology, ethics, and science, empiricism leaves upon typical Americans of the past had had more knowlour hands.”
edge a more cultivated appreciation of the value of