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THE CIVIL WAR.
what was old and established, a juster view of foreign
IRISH AND CZECH AND TEUTON IN ONE. nations and foreign politics ; that they had been more He comes of an old Irish stock : the Taaffes once like Webster and less like Jackson ; and we may hope "played an important part in Ireland,” even to the that the typical American of the future will be wiser extent of gaining a peerage. The family is now a and better poised. But in the meantime the past is to fairly equal blend of Keltic, Czech and Teutonic be understood and estimated as the facts stand, and elements. Born in 1833, “ he fought his first battles only a thoroughly sympathetic comprehension of for the oppressed” on the playground of the gymthese men who have actually been the typical Ameri nasium. As student, he was a thorough-going democans will enable us to effect that purpose. The fact crat. He rose rapidly in the service of the provincial that Clay rather than Webster, Jackson and not John
governments. The Emperor and he had been as boys Quincy Adams, represented the forces which were warm friends and constant companions, and when, really predominant and distinctively American in our after twenty years' separation, they chanced to meet development is commentary enough on any theory again at Linz, they formed the close attachment that makes either of the peculiar sections of the At which has lasted ever since. In 1867 he was called lantic seaboard the principal or only theatre of Ameri into the Imperial Ministry for the first time—as chief can history. Mr. Smith stares and shudders in Jack
of three departments. The courtiers “ scoffed at his son's presence, and looks upon Clay very much as one ill-made clothes, and marveled that a man of his would regard an uninstructed child."
rank could eat and drink in third-rate restaurants, surrounded by clerks and tradesmen.”
He is singuMr. Wilson finds that Mr. Smith's view of our
larly lacking in the personal gifts by which most men Civil War does not take sufficiently into account the
win popularity; he is no orator, no genius." But the constitutional basis of the struggle. It is a sense
Emperor believed in him, and made him premier in for law that has given to the whole development of
the very next year. After less than two years in this the nation its cohesion. It is because of this that our
office he resigned, and in 1871 went off as viceory of great community, while it has spread, has not fallen
Tyrol. He found the province poverty-stricken, illto pieces. The sentiments of the war time were
governed, discontented, oppressed under a badly adsteeped in legal conceptions. The surviving soldiers justed taxation, and left it, after seven years of vigorof that war would feel with keen shame that they had
ous reform, one of the best governed and most confought unrighteously if they could not still feel that tented provinces in the empire.” In 1879 he became they had fought for law, not to make a right but to
premier once more in a “ministry of reconciliation." preserve one not to ‘reannex,' but to keep the
Rejected by the Liberals, his natural allies, he won South. It is this strong conscience and instinct for
the support of the other parties by lavish concessions law, indeed, which has rendered our written consti
--so much so that his official residence was dubbed tutions valid and serviceable as sound vehicles of the
“the concession market." Yet he was able often to national life. Those constitutions are not causes, but
neutralize reactionary concessions. “ Not the least of results-results of inbred character and.of a desire for
his merits as a strategist is the power he possesses of distinct coherence in respect of every step of con
taking back with one hand what he gives with the struction in the development of institutions."
other ; and of casting a glamor, as it were, over the
husks he throws away.” In his educational policy he COUNT TAAFFE'S CAREER.
secured as an administrator what he had seemed to 'EMPLE BAR contains a clever sketch of the surrender or imperil as a legislator. His protection
ist policy is condemned, but as a set off are noted the establishment of universal suffrage a few weeks
many useful measures of social legislation. In 1881 ago electrified the world. From the account of the
he lowered the franchise as far as his followers would writer it seems that this was but the crowning para
let him. The writer declares that his last bill must dox in a thoroughly paradoxical career. “He is in pass sooner or later, in one form or another,” and politics a moderate Liberal, yet he has been hailed as
the electorate rise at a bound from 1,700,000 to twice chief by the Ultramontanes, high Tories, and fierce that number. His policy in regard to the nationaliRadicals. He is devoted to progress, yet he has sanc
ties was finally rendered impossible by Czech extremtioned the most reactionary of measures ; in keen
ists. In laying down his fourteen years' premiership, sympathy with the poor, he has passed laws intensi he has stepped aside—the writer is confident—"only
for a time.” fying the sting of poverty ; a thorough-going educationalist-apparently at least—he has helped the priests to capture the schools. Whilst leading one The key to the Count's career is said to be this: party, he has constantly proclaimed his preference “By nature he is a straightforward, plain-dealing for the principles of the other, and when his own ad man ; and it was only hard necessity that drove him herents have met with a defeat, he has carried on the to govern by playing off party against party, nation government by the votes of their rivals. Amidst all against nation, and lavishing on each in turn bribes, his tergiversations, however, he has never forfeited promises and threats. In any other country in Europe for one moment the confidence of his sovereign, or a minister who played Count Taaffe's róle would be a the enthusiastic support of the more patriotic of his miscreant and a traitor; but in Austria it is otherwise ; countrymen.”
there opportunism is the one art of ruling."
THE KEY TO HIS CAREER.
A GRAND OLD MARKSMAN.
MISS WILLARD AS "PRECEPTRESS." IR
Lei N the Young Woman Miss Willard continues the cestershire, is styled by Mr. Harry How, in a Story of her Life, describing now her career as bright “illustrated interview” in the Strand, as “pupil and pedagogue." She speaks out of her own “ The Grand Old Man of Shooting.” An
experience when she urges that there is no teacher twenty-one prizes are “ those of the Albert at Wim and no school that can compare to the companionship bledon in 1862 and the same trophy at Bisley in 1893, of large-minded and loving-hearted home folks. For a record lapse of thirty-one years!" He was eight ever and a day it will be delightful to me to rememyears old when he had his first gun, and last year, on ber that my dear mother taught me my A B C. She his sixty-fifth birthday, “he adjourned to the field was not in the least bit of a hurry about it, either. adjoining the house, which makes a capital range, • She let me run wild, playing the same games and rattled off a dozen or two bull's-eyes." He is him that my brother did, and given over to the big outself a practical gunmaker.
doors, until at last I fairly cried for my primer." THE COLOR OF “ THE BEST SHOOTING EYES."
THE CHILD AND THE BIBLE. “ Whilst he was handling the tobacco," says the
Miss Willard, it seems, early began to busy herself interviewer, “I noticed the difference between the
with Biblical criticism. She says: “Father and shape of the right hand as compared with the left. "Ah !' said Sir Henry, in reply to my query, 'you
mother ... did not teach us creeds; I never saw a can alway tell the hand of a man who has shot much.
Catechism until I was emerging from my teens. We Look at that second finger-it is quite disjointed ; in
read the Gospels, and sang the dear old hymns haldeed, the whole hand is turned. Then many men
lowed by generations of reverence and affection. I bear the kiss of the rifle butt on the jawbone. The
think it was the hymns that did the most for me, for
I had a hardy mind, and wondered how we knew eyes, too, are a guide in singling out your rifle shot. I always think that blue or gray are the best shooting
that a book had come to us from God, and used to
ask my mother if she could tell me who had seen it eyes; that's why the Scots are so successful at the
handed down, and whether it was fastened to heaven target, for apart from their thoroughness in all they undertake, there are more blue eyes amongst them.
by a gold chain ? She never said that I was naughty,
but would take me on her knee and talk to me about An eye with a very small pupil is a great advantage. Brown eyes seldom come in ; the marked exception ing little lectures on natural theology. “Not till she
the wonders of the world around us, and give charmto this, however, is Lamb, who is as good a shot as
was fourteen years of age did Miss Willard go to any man, and his are chestnutty brown ... Then
school. To this fact we probably owe much of her I learnt that amongst shooting men the larger proportion of them are non-smokers. The veteran is a per
unconventional charm and originality of initiative. sistent smoker, and, practically, never shoots without
Later she went to college at Chicago, “invested solid a pipe in his mouth. “Let me put in a plea for the
years in study, attained the usual diploma, and was pipe,' he said merrily. 'I was once shooting in one
afterwards preceptress of the natural sciences, and of the matches for the Elcho Shield-and shooting
later on (when this institution was merged in the very badly. “Why, where's your pipe ?” somebody
great University of the Northwest) became Professor standing by asked. “Light up-you'll do better."
of the History of the Fine Arts." And I did. I hadn't been smoking for some little
AS MORAL HORTICULTURIST. time, but with the first few puffs my very next shot A teacher for fifteen years, she confesses herself was a bull's-eye!'
more intent on the “moral horticulture" of her two ". The primary necessities to make a good shot thousand pupils than on merely mental acquisition. are nerve, carefulness, a calm temperament, eyesight She tells how she called her pupils together, told them and power of concentration. I don't think you will that coming from Christian homes they knew as well find any man who is not a steady liver last long at as she did how they ought to act, and proposed that shooting. Let young volunteers remember that the
they should make themselves behave.” She formed student of habit and a good shot must run together." ”
them into a sort of upper and lower House of ParliaLORD SALISBURY AS A SCHOOLBOY.
ment, where they made their own rules, and based It was at Sir Henry's ancestral hall that Charles I their standing wholly upon conduct, thus giving the slept before the battle of Naseby, and again on the dull scholar an equal opportunity with those of nimflight from Naseby to Leicester the King and Prince
bler mind. The lower House had their names on the Rupert changed horses there. The royal saddles they
Roll of Honor, the upper on the Self-governed list. left are still preserved as heirlooms. Among Sir “ This method worked so well that it diminished Henry's school-fellows at Eton was the ex-Premier,
the friction of school-life to a minimum, making of of whom he remarked : “I think I may say that Lord what we call discipline' a means of culture to the Salisbury was one of the few boys who never got into students, and greatly relieving the teachers. Another any trouble. He was always very reticent kept a admirable idea which turned the dramatic instinct to good deal to himself, not · hail fellow well met' with valuable educative ends was · The Good Behavior the boys. He wasn't a boating or cricketing man, Club,' which proved to be a favorite feature of the but more of the literary class. Everybody liked him.”
school. Teachers and pupils were all members, and
shared the offices. Representations were given of all social observances, from the White House reception to the morning call; personations of distinguished characters adding the dramatic charm so attractive to both young and old.”
even suggest, the nickname. It is possible that the New World may have given Vespucci his celebrated name of Americus, and not Vespucci his Christian name to the New World."
M°Sohn CuEvans particle in Longman's on the
HOW PRINCESS LOUISE DID THE IRONING.
THE MANUFACTURE OF "ANTIQUITIES." N the Woman at Home Miss Katherine Lee gives
UCH curious information is contained in Sir ter and bride, sculptor and painter, as well as royal
“ Forgery of Antiquities.” “Both counterfeits and personage. She tells an incident of the Princess so
forgeries," he says, “ abound in every department of journ in Canada, for which she is unable to cite the archæology.” The fabrication of lapidary inscripauthority, but which she thinks “is worth repeating
tions is said to have begun some four centuries ago. as an instance of that total absence of “fine ladyism'
The number and verisimilitude of the forgeries in the which is, in its bad sense, so noticeably absent among
first half of this century was so great as to reduce our royal ladies. It seems that one day the Princess
considerably the value of genuine antique gems. “It was walking without any attendants near her, when
is probable that more than half of the 'old' Dresden
The she came to a cottage. The only person visible was
china now exposed for sale is counterfeit.” an old woman busily ironing one of her husband's
forgery of ancient carved ivories has developed “two shirts. The Princess was thirsty after her walk, and
distinct schools”—one in Southern France, the other stopping at the cottage door asked the old woman if
near Cologne. she would kindly get her a glass of water. The busy
A DRIVE TO IMPROVE THE COMPLEXION. old woman somewhat shortly refused to do so.
The German Becker seems to have been the modspring was a little distance,' she said, “and she was
ern prince of antique coiners : “He engraved dies for busy ironing her old man's shirt, for he was going
upwards of 300 types of coins, principally Roman, with her to see the Queen's child on the morrow.'
and as most of these were struck in gold-a metal “ The Princess, no doubt with a secret thrill of
that does not change in appearance with time-he amusement, said that she would iron the shirt if the
realized large sums from unwary collectors. old lady would fetch her the water.
How to take off the appearance of novelty from the inise was quickly agreed on. The old woman went
freshly-struck coins was a question of difficult soluto the spring and the Princess did the ironing.
tion. He solved it thus : He had a small box conWhen the old woman returned the shirt was handed
structed, which he partly filled with iron filings, and over to her. Needless to say, it was nicely ironed.
screwed to the springs of his carriage, and in this box . . In exchange for the glass of water the recent
he placed his newly-struck coins, and then, as he exlaundry woman informed the astonished old woman
pressed it, took his old gentleman a drive' on the that she was the Queen's child.' The startled old
road between Frankfort and Offenbach. The coins woman took the shirt, declaring that her old man
came out of the box, still fresh, but with the too should never wear it, but that she would keep it for
glaring bloom of youth judiciously toned down.” ever as a memento of the Queen's child.""
The most frequent coin forgeries are those cast from genuine originals. “ Wherever excavations are carried
when coins are inquired for they are THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME AMERICA.
sure to be produced.” 'HE much-debated question of the origin of the
PREHISTORIC" PRODUCTION. Murray, of the “Challenger" expedition, in a most in Even “prehistoric antiquities” are manufactured. teresting article in the Scottish Geographical Maga The making of “palæolithic implements takes rank zine for November. He points out that in the Can as one of the fine arts” in the valley of the Somme tino map—the oldest but one of the New World, and in the neighborhood of London. So with neoprepared in part, it is believed, by Vespucci-the lithic implements. “ Modern flint axes and arrownaine Tamarique occurs “ towards Darien and in the heads are not so easily distinguishable from the direction of Nicaragua.” To this day a little to the ancient." A certain artificer of this craft, nicknamed westward of Nicaragua is a range of mountains called “ Jack Flint," when from their abundance his forgSierra Amerrique, inhabited by a tribe (once widely eries lost their sale, earned a somewhat honest penny extended) called Amerriques. Again Amarca or by publicly exposing his tricks of trade. Objects of America is shown by their Sacred Book to have been the bronze period are also obligingly prepared. the national name of the Peruvians. Tamarique is, The writer concludes with the consoling reflection therefore, supposed to stand for Terra Amerique. “ It that “great as may be the forger's skill, not one of his was an age of nicknames. What more natural than frauds in a thousand escape detection,” and that the that Vespucci should be called America Vespucci ? His existence of fraud sharpens and tests archæological Christian name of Amerigo would lend itself to, or discernment.
THE ART OF
HOW TO MAKE BOYS MANLY.
being now wage earners, they become independent, PROFESSOR DRUMMOND gives a receipt in the andar they need paned unprincipled and lawless. deems it. He accepts the boy as he finds him, a happens that there is one form of discipline which is primitive savage.
not only the most thorough conceivable, but which is
actually congenial to boy-nature; for military organTHE OLD METHOD THAT DOESN'T WORK.
ization in every shape and form boys have a natural “Let us suppose you have gathered a number of aptitude. It occurred, therefore, to a Scotch volunboys together, and treat them at first in the old or teer officer who took part in the work of a large Suntime-dishonored plan of having a Bible-class for them day-school to utilize this in the hope of securing a on Sundays. Infinite trouble and infinite bribery finer and more spontaneous discipline among his have brought these creatures together, and as they senior boys. By banding them into a military comcome solely to amuse themselves, your whole effort pany for week-day drill he thought he could teach is spent in keeping order—in quelling riots, subduing them valuable lessons-obedience, reverence, patience, irrelevant remarks, minimizing attacks upon the per- manliness, neatness, punctuality-without their being son and protecting your Sunday hat from destruction.
directly conscious of it, and almost in the form of an No boy-I am not speaking of an ordinary Sunday amusement. Drill—not mere playing at soldiers, but school class, but of a gamin class—has yet succeeded regulation drill in its most thorough forms—was inin listening to you for two consecutive minutes. They stituted, and kept up during a whole winter. At the have learned nothing whatever. Respect is unknown, end of the experiment the result was successful beobedience a jest. Even the minor virtues of regu- yond expectation. The school was transformed, dislarity, punctuality and courtesy have not yet dawned cipline was perfect, manners were acquired, the upon their virgin minds. What is wrong is that they physical bearing was improved, the moral character are street-boys, and you have treated them as if they was strengthened, and the foundations of religious had the motives and interests of domestic boys. The principles laid. Other companies were speedily real boy-nature in them has never been consulted. formed in the neighborhood on the model of the first. You may be a very remarkable man, but it is not The idea was gradually taken up in one district after their kind of remarkableness, so you are a person of another, and the movement spread throughout the no authority in their eyes. They believe you to be a country.” thoroughly good fellow in your way, only it is an earth's diameter from their way; and that you should
JERUSALEM OF TO-DAY. know precisely what their way is, they guilelessly
MR. to the
cember McClure's an excellent paper on Jeruyou spend among them.”
salem, in which he tells of the city as it exists to-day. DRILL THEM!
He says : “Roughly speaking, then, Jerusalem in its The essential spirit of boydom that is the sine qua
highest splendor was not larger than the area of the non, Professor Drummond finds in the moral effects
Central Park below the reservoir. Moreover, this of caps and belts and rifles and drills. He tells with
limited space has always been diminished by the excharming humor how this transfers the power, in a
tent of the area leveled and walled, set apart of old meeting with boys, from their irresponsible multi
for the Temple, and still held sacred by the Turkish tude to the man who calls “ 'tenshun!”
authorities against the erection of ordinary buildings. “ The genius who discovered this astounding and
This area contains, I should suppose, from thirty to inexplicable psychological fact ought to rank with
thirty-five acres. It is the one conspicuous green spot Sir Isaac Newton. Talk of what can be got out of
in Jerusalem. It is covered with grass and adorned coal tar or waste paper! Why, you take your boy,
with trees ; and the only buildings on it are the gloriyour troglodyte, your Arab, your gamin, on this prin
ous and beautiful Mosque of Omar, the Mosque of ciple, and there is no limit to what you can extract
Aksa, and one or two other dependent structures. from him or do with him. Look at this quondam
“The present population of Jerusalem is not far class, which is to-night a Company. As class it was
from forty thousand, and more than half are Jews. confusion, depression, demoralization, chaos. As
They live in a separate quarter of their own, as do Company, it is respect, self-respect, enthusiasm, hap
also the various divisions of Christians, as the Arpiness, peace. The beauty of the change is that it is
menians, the Greeks and the Protestants. All these spontaneous, secured without heartburn, maintained
quarters are densely built, with narrow and irregular without compulsion. The Boy's own nature rises to
lanes for streets, but the prevailing prosperity does it with a bound ; and the livelier the specimen the
not seem to reach the abodes of the Hebrew. The greater its hold upon him.”
indications are all of extreme poverty. A synagogue HOW THE BOYS' BRIGADE WAS STARTED.
was pointed out bearing an inscription showing that • It is well known that not alone the gamin, but it was the gift of a Paris Rothschild; but its mean many boys of the working class, will submit to almost appearance and unattractive surroundings bore no no parental authority. They are done with school suggestion of critical refinement in the congregation, before any habits of self-control are formed ; and The articles of food set out for sale in the petty
give you opportunity of learning every single second MR
little shops were often squalid and repulsive. We organism the masses (as the phrase is) represent pascame so often upon spoiled salt fish among the sion, impulse, emotion.” And they must be ruled stores exposed by the venders, that we concluded it
by reason. “Civil society arises from the nature of inust form a regular element of diet in the quarter. things.” The State must be based on morality, on There was no visible sign of industry by which the justice therefore. Justice requires that every man people might earn their living; and no one need be “should count in the social organism for his true surprised to learn that in various parts of the world political value. And the political value of men differs the well-to-do and charitable Jews are regularly called greatly." upon to contribute to the support of their pauper “All the elements of national life should be repbrethren in Jerusalem."
resented in just proportion. All should be subsumed
in the reason of the organic whole. .. 'pure MR. LILLY'S BLAST AGAINST DEMOCRACY.
democracy,' as it is called, the unchecked domination T is quite in the academic style that Mr. W. S.
of numbers, is not a form of government at all.
For the present deplorable state of things Mr. Lilly Fortnightly on the nature and method of true self
has two remedies to offer : “ the increased separagovernment. He is moved with a lofty pity at the
tion of the executive from the legislative governvulgar notion that self-government is realized by cur
ment ;” and “ a strong second chamber " as a saferent democratic institutions. He draws-chiefly from
guard against the tyranny of a debased popular chamMr. Bryce's writings—a picture of the partisanship cor
ber.” ruption and “ boss” rule which prevail in the United States, and exclaims : “ This is what you call selfgovernment in its greatest perfection!” He then
A EULOGY ON KHAMÁ. turns to Great Britain and says : “ Self-government R. GEORGE COUSINS, of the London Misin England, as in America, means party government ;
sionary Society, supplies the Leisure Hour and in England, as in America, the two great parties with a glowing eulogy on “ Khama, the Bechwana represent little more than a desire for power and
Christian Chief.” He recounts how Khama as a youth place.... The fact is certain that to win or re
came under missionary influences, and how his retain office, not to carry out principles, has become the
fusal, on account of the Word of God," to take a dominating motive of the two chief political parties.
second wife enraged his father. Khama suffered True, the system of Ring-and-Bossdom is at
much under the reigns of his heathen father and uncle. present inchoate among us. But surely the Parlia
It was only in self-defense that Khama revolted, drove mentary party, of which Mr. Bryce is an ornament,
out his uncle, and became king in 1872. On his acis essentially a ring, and, most assuredly, the Prime cession he refused to perform the customary royal Minister is a Boss in excelsis ! And he rules his fol
rites. “Khama emphatically announced his own adlowers with an absolute sway which an American
herence to the Word of God. He would not prohibit Boss might envy. ... In England, then, as in the
heathen ceremonies, but they must not be performed United States, 'self-government' really means boss
in his .khotla,' and as their chief he would contribute dom in fear of the Irish vote.”
nothing towards them. He was about, by public Mr. Lilly knows no more signal proof of the deep
prayer to Almighty God, to ask a blessing upon their degradation of English public life than the way Mr.
seed sowing, and afterwards would set to work. WhoGladstone thrust Home Rule on his reluctant ad
ever wished to have his seed charmed could do so at herents.
his own expense. He next looks to France, but finds there the same
“For twenty-one years Khama has been in power, story repeated. “Self-government in France, as in
and his reign throughout has been in thorough harthe United States, is party government; nor does the
mony with that early declaration. All who know machinery of politics in France differ substantially
him bear testimony to his consistent life, his sagacious from the American, although it is less highly organ
and enlightened rule, and to the general strength, ized. These parliamentary engineers are the
probity and nobility of his character." bosses of France, who set up one phantasmal ministry after another, filling meanwhile their own
AS A RULER. pockets."
Mr. Cousins thus sums up this British ally : “UnWHAT TRUE SELF-GOVERNMENT IS.
doubtedly this chief stands out conspicuously among From these “ counterfeits of national self-govern- South African princes as the finest, noblest of them ment," Mr. Lilly passes on to consider what the all. He rules with a firm hand, is soldierly in beartrue article is.. "Self-government in an individual ing, a keen sportsman, a good rider, every inch a man ; man means the supremacy of the rational nature but combined with this strength there is remarkable over the emotional ; the predominance of the moral patience, gentleness and kindliness of disposition, and over the animal self. The lower powers and facul none who know him doubt his sincerity or earnestties of a self-governed man are brought into subjec ness as a Christian. The remarkable way in which by tion, and kept in subordination to the higher." the force of his own example and conduct he has led
So is it in the nation. But-and here we come on a his people forward in the pathway of enlightened piece of Toryism as old as Plato—“in the social Christian progress furnishes striking evidence of this."