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Referendum, What Englishmen Think of the, 463.
Reform : Absurd Effort to Make the World Over, 464.
Religion, Evolution of, Criticism of Caird's, 348.
Religions, The World's Parliament of, 299.
Religious Intolerance : The Anti-Catholi: Crusade, 449.
Renan, A Posthumous Article by, 345.
Representation, Proportional, 335.
Representative Government : Is It a Failure ? 336.
Republics of the World, 333.
Rhodes, Cecil, The Story of, 728.
Riley, James Whitcomb, as a Sign Painter, 356.
Roads : How France Got Good Roads, 82.
Rochefort, M. Henri, 604.
Rosebery, The Earl of:

First Day of Rosebery's Government, 400.
Character Sketch, 422.
A Cromwellian Premier, 526.
England's New Premier, 596.
Portraits, 386, 423, 424.
Royal Academy, An American in the, 685.
Royal Academy, Six Popular Painters of the, 689.
Ruskin and Modern Problems, 352.
Russia :

The Music of Russia, 88.
The Peasant Emperor, 269.
Close of the Russo-German Tariff War, 401.
Marrying in Royal Circles, 653.
Russian Famine Relief Commission, 725.

.

St. Paul, A Jewish View of, 716.
Salaries, Official : Do We Pay Enough ? 77.
Samoa : The Samoan Question, 517, 518.
Sand, George : George Sand's Religious Faith, 222.
Sargent, John S.: An American in the Royal Academy, 685.
Satolli, Mgr., on the Papacy, 584.
Sayings, Notable, in English History, 705.
Science: What Killed Hindu Science ? 344.
Scientific Problems of the Future, 471.
Schreiner, Olive, 218 ; portrait, 218.
Schumann, Grieg on, 222.
Scottish Review reviewed, 360.
Scribner's Magazine reviewed, 105, 232, 363, 488, 617, 741.
Sea Islands Hurricanes, 317.
Senate, Obstruction in the, 73, 389.
Senatorial Gossip and Scandal, 648.
Ship Canals : See under Canals.
Shelley in Some New Lights, 224.
Siam :

The King of Siam, 601.

Women and Jewels in Siam, 216.
Siberia, Northeast Sea Route to, 466.
Sicilian Mines, Life in the, 724.
Sicilian Peasantry in Revolt, 339.
Slave Trade, Crushing the African, 271.
Smith, Robertson, Tribute to, 715.
Social Problem, A Solution of the, 321.
Solomon's Song, 589.
South, Industrial Crisis of the, 325.
South Carolina Liquor Law, 523.
Southern Magazine reviewed, 235, 449, 619.
Spirit World, Matabele Ideas of the, 211.
Stanley, Dean, Stories About, 350.
Stanley, Dean, and Renan, 603.
Starved Rock, Illinois, 212.
Stonewall Jackson, The Real, 353.
Suffrage, The Question of, 650.
Suffrage, Woman, in New Zealand, 474.
Sunday School Movement of To-day, 583.
Supreme Court: Filling the Vacancy, 135.
Swan, Annie, Career of, 222.
Sweating System, A Remedy for the, 723.
Switzerland : The New Swiss President, 19.
TAAFFE, Count: Count Taaffe's Career, 95.
Taine, the Historian, 734.
Talmage, Dr., and the Brooklyn Tabernacle, 658 ; portrait,

659.
Tammany Hall and New York City, 328
Tariff, The :
The Wilson Tariff Revision, 3, 137, 194, 196, 390, 393,

394, 520, 592, 646.
The Incidence of Tariff Taxation, 66.
The Democratic Tariff Policy, 67, 647.
A Plan for an Automatic Tariff, 67.
Necessity for Immediate Tariff Reduction, 68.
The South for a Protective Tariff in 1896, 68.
The Tariff Act of 1789, 69.
The Pending Tariff and Revenue Bills, 137.

Louisiana versus Free Sugar, 391.
Reciprocity Treaties Threatened, 393.
The Late Aggressive Policy, 394.
Comparison of Votes on the McKinley and Wilson

Bills, 592.
Tax, The Income :

The Income Tax, 70, 195.
The Income Tax and the Democratic Position, 138.
The Income Tax in England, 323.
Catholic Scheme of Graduated Income Tax, 323.
David A. Wells on the Income Tax, 462.
The Income Tax as a Sectional Issue, 521.
Taxation : Art and the Single Tax, 214.
Telegraph Cables Across the Pacific, Proposed, 460, 517.
Temperance and the Liquor Laws :
The South Carolina Liquor

Law, 199, 325, 523.
A Proposed Temperance Law, 398.
Prohibition Abandoned in Iowa, 523.
The W. C. T. U. Movement, 612.
The Liquor Problem in Several States, 651.

A Coming Temperance Congress, 652.
Tennyson, A Tale about, 350.
Tennyson Severely Criticised 732.
Tesla, Nikola: A New Edison, 355.
Theatres and the Drama :

The Actor and His Role, 209.
The Theatres of Our Ancestors, 209.
A Latin Play at Harvard, 470.
Theology : Japanese "New Theology," 717.
Thompson, Francis : A New Poet, 223.
Tolstoi's Condemnation of the Churches, 207.
Tramps :
Tramps, 201.
A Talk with a Tramp, 323.
A Study of City Tramps, 453.
The Rights of Tramps, 608.
Tricoupis, the Greek Prime Minister, 601.
Tucker, Miss Charlotte (A. L. O. E.), 477.
Tyndali, John :
Character Sketch, 172.
Prof. Huxley's Tribute, 227.
Herbert Spencer's Tribute, 347.

Portraits, 24, 173.
UNEMPLOYED, The :

Relief in American Ci ies, 29, 179, 295, 319.
Relief Work-Its Principles and Methods, 38.

The Problem of the Unemployed, 73.
University Extension in Germany, 203.
University Extension, The Place of, 469.
University Statistics, 736.
Utah's Approaching Statehood, 14.
VACCINATION, History of, 713.
Vance, The Late Senator, 528 ; portrait, 528.
Vatican Council, Cardinal Gibbons' Reminiscences of, 586.
Verne, Jules, Life and Work of, 217 ; portrait, 217.
Village Life, Organizing English, 464.
Villager, The French, 465.
Village Homes, Picturesque, 477.
Virginia's Historic Shrines, Rescue of, 680.
Von Bulow, Anecdotes of, 718.
WAGNER and Grieg, 481.
Werner, Hildegard, 480.
Westminster Review reviewed, 359.
Westösliche Rundschau,

491.
Willard, Frances : Miss Willard as "Preceptress," 96.
Wolseley, Lord, on Napoleon, 224.
Woman at Home, The, 361.
Women :
Women and Jewels in Siam, 216.
Woman Suffrage in New Zealand, 474.
Why Women Ought Not to Work, 475.
Woman in Clubland, 476.
The Women of Hungary, 4:0.
The Question of Woman Suffrage, 650.
The Struggle for Woman's Rights, 705.
The Final Problem of Woman, 707.
Is the Representative American Woman Woma'ly:TOS.
The New Woman, 708.
Women as Public Speakers, 709.
The Pioneer Woman in American Literatura, 719
Working Girls' Club, 710.
World's Fair in Retrospect, 198.
World's Fair : Chicago After

the Fair, 14.
YORK, The Duchess of, 226.
Young England Magazine, 216.

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THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS, AMERICAN EDITION, EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW

The Review of Reviews is published each month in New York and London, the two editions differing in many features,
but publishing numerous articles in common. The English Edition is edited by W. T. Stead,

Mowbray House, Norfolk St., Strand, London.

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY 1894.

8
8

13
14

14
15

Lord Aberdeen, Governor-General of Canada.

Frontispiece

The Progress of the World-

The Wilson Tariff Revision..

3

Why Not Wait Until the Year 1900 ?

4

Relieving the Unemployed

A Triumph of State Conciliation...

End of the English Coal War

The “Good Offices” of the Government.

The Rosebery Settlement

Arbitration Victorious at Last

American Labor Organizations.

The Status of the Hawaiian Question.

Mistakes of the Administration.

Our Foreign Servic;

and the Spoils System.

9

Mr. Henry White's Case as an Instance.

9

Need of an Expert Service.

10

Civil Service Reform-Its Progress.

10

The Civil Service Act and Its Administration. 11

A New Abolition Movement

11

Free Kindergartens in New York

11

Canada's Adoption of Kindergartens.

12

Reform in Municipal Service

12

New York City and Its Politics.

Chicago After the Fair

Utah's Approaching Statehood.

The Struggle in Brazil.

14

Mello's Prospects and Claims

Will There be a Fight at Sea ?

England's Naval Supremacy.

15

Sir Robert Morier.

15

The Employers' Liability Bill

16

English Topics in General.

17

The Matabele Trouble.

17

Affairs in Germany.

17

The Austrian Crisis

17

The Fall of the French Ministry.

18

The New Cabinet

18

Greece Gone Bankrupt..

18

The Crisis in Italy.

19

Dynamite in the French Chamber.

19

The New Swiss President....

Canada and Australasia

20

With portraits of Hon. William L. Wilson, Miss Clara

Barton, Hon. J. P. McDonald, Arthur Marshall Cham-

bers, Hon. G. Robertson, Jr., J. R. Sovereign, Ter-

ence V. Powderly, Senator Hoar, Henry White, John

R. Proctor, Daniel S. Remsen, Mayor Schieren, Rev.

Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst, Marshall Field, Sir Robert

Morier, Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, Major Goold-

Adams Dr. C. S. Jameson, Col. Sir F. Carrington,

Prince Windischgrätz, Premier Casimir-Périer, Signor

Crispi, President Emil Frei, Hon. Mackenzie Bowell,

Hon. Hugh Muir Nelson.

Record of Current Events....

21

With portraits of Hon. W. D. Hornblower and the late

John Tyndall.

Current History in Caricature...

25

With reproductions from American and foreign Car-

toon Papers.

Relief for the Unemployed in American Cities. 29

By Albert Shaw.

Relief Work,-Its Principles and Methods..... 38

By Rev. Washington Gladden, D.D.

Lord and Lady Aberdeen: A Character Sketch. 41

By W. T. Stead.

With portraits of Lord and Lady Aberdeen and other

illustrations.

The Mission and Destiny of Canaca.... 61

Leading Articles of the Month-

Reunion of the United States and Can da..... 65

The Incidents of Tariff Taxation.....

66

The Democratic Tariff Policy.

A Plan for an Automatic Tariff.

67

Necessity for Immediate Tariff Reduction,

68

The South for a Protective Tariff in 1896.

The Tariff Act of 1789.

09

The Income Tax....

70

The Justification of Interest..

70

Increasing Difficulty of Getting Gold

70

“Feats and Follies" of American Finance.

The Hawaiian Situation...

71

Obstruction in the Senate

73

The Problem of the Unemployed.

73

Government Control of Railroads.

The Cause of Strikes

75

Causes of Failure in “Boom” Towns.

75

The Mission of the Populist Party.

76

Do we Pay our Officials Enough!.

How to Find the Money for Old Age Pensions..

The Manners of the House of Commons..

78

Is England to Lose Command of the Sea ?, .

80

Is Rhetoric Wrecking Ireland ?

81

How France Got Good Roads ..

The Italians of To-day

Matabele Manners,

A Plague of Rabbits.

How our Ancestors Spent their Holidays.

“The Men of Acadie ” in Another Light.

Clipping the Laurels of Columnbus

The Beginning of Man..

Are Atoms Alive ?..

The Music of Russia.

88

With portrait of M. Tschaikowsky.

The Composer of “The Better Land

89

With portrait of F. H. Cowen.

The Wanderer's Evening Song

90

Can Music Describe Scenery ?.

90

The Berlioz Cycle...

91

Jonas Lie.....

91

The Most Popular Novels.

9.2

Crumbs from the “Autocrat's" Table.

93

Mr. Balfour as Critic of Idealism..

Mr. Goldwin Smith's Views on Our History. 94

Count Taaffe's Career..

A Grand Old Ma ksman..

Miss Willard as “Preceptress"

96

How Princess Louise Did the Ironing.

The Origin of the Name America..

The Manufacture of " Antiquities"

97

How to Make Boys Manly.

98

Jerusalem of To-day..

98

Mr. Lilly's Blast Against Democracy.

99

A Eulogy on Khama....

99

The Periodicals Reviewed....

100

The New Books....

108

Contents of Reviews and Magazines..

116

Index to Periodicals......

125

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THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS.

VOL. IX.

NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1894.

No. 1

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

The Wilson

THE HE two foremost topics of the day are the pro more fatuous and more hopelessly stupid than the atposed changes in the tariff, and the relief of

tempt to reconcile the American tariff system either the unemployed. At no previous time in the history

with doctrinaire protectionism or with doctrinaire of the United States have so many people been out of free-trade. Practical men ought to be able to conwork. Thousands of factories are closed altogether ;

struct a workable tariff, and party zeal ought to borand thousands of others are running with reduced

row patriotism enough to let that tariff alone when it forces. The depressed condition of trade has so

is constructed. lessened the volume of traffic that the railroads have been compelled to dismiss thousands of employees,

If a country is to have a general and while many roads have cut down the wages of the Tariff highly complicated system of combined

Revision. men retained. The curtailed purchasing power of

revenue and protective tariff imposts, the the working people, due to the diminished proportions one clear maxim to be asserted over and over again of the total wage fund, has affected merchants and concerning it is this: Change it only for the best of middlemen of all classes, and they in turn have been causes, and do not change it too frequently. And compelled to reduce the number of their employees. the reason for this maxim lies in a principle which The causes that have produced this condition of we may express as follows: It is upon the whole things are doubtless very complex. Probably the easier for business to adjust itself to the tariff than greatest cause has been the timidity and hesitancy of for the tariff to adjust itself to business. Herein is capital, on account of the protracted agitation of to be found the chief objection to the new Wilson monetary and tariff questions. Evidently, the col tariff measure. Like the McKinley measure, this lapses of credit in Australia and Argentina, which also is a general and highly complicated system of compelled European investors to withdraw great combined revenue and protective tariff imposts. It quantities of capital from the United States, played is just as truly a protective tariff in all its principles their part in disturbing the business situation here. and methods as any of its predecessors,-providing What is wanted now, more than all things else, is a one is willing to admit that a fence remains a fence cessation of tariff tinkering and currency tinkering even when some of the top boards are knocked off. for partisan ends. An afflicted nation would shed The Wilson bill in no sense involves a reversal of the tears of gratitude if a non-partisan tariff commission plan of Republican tariffs ; it is simply an elaborate and a non-partisan currency commission could be ap revision of them. The practical difficulties met by pointed to report a tariff measure by February 1, and the Wilson committee have been enormous. Notha currency measure by April 1, both reports to be ac ing illustrates them better than the mere statement cepted unanimously by Congress and signed by the that within some two weeks after Mr. Wilson and his President,—with concurrent resolutions by Congress, Democratic colleagues had finished and announced by State legislatures, by Boards of Trade, and various their work, they made more than two hundred addiother public bodies, to the effect that the two meas tional changes in it. Business had begun to adjust ures ought by common consent and understanding to itself to the tariff of 1890. If the Wilson bill is remain substantially unchanged for ten years. The adopted, -as, after much discussion and amendcontinual agitation of the tariff question in this coun ing, it is likely to be,- business must begin try can be compared to nothing but the continual re some months hence to shape itself to the altered currence of revolutions in some South American coun schedules, with no warrant for a feeling of permatries. The existing partisan treatment of the ques nence and security. For, if the Republicans should tion is as disastrous to business as a civil war, and it be returned to power in 1896, they would probably is absurd beyond the power of words to characterize rebuild the tariff fence in a different enough way to it. Since the days of the endless metaphysical dis- require general readjustments once more. Would it cussions of the schoolmen, there has been nothing not have been in better keeping with announced

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alone until that date, the country would be satisfied. The six years would give trade and industry the necessary chance to prepare deliberately for the change, and the transition would not be violent when it came. The free-trade ideal, which the Democrats espoused with such enthusiasm at Chicago, would by this means be ushered in completely and triumphantly in a short period. But, in our candid opinion, the plans now decided upon by the Wilson committee, far from doing anything at all towards proinoting the transfer from a protective to a purely revenue policy, will have just the opposite effect by provoking a reaction that will restore the Republicans and perpetuate the Republican tariff policy. Resumption of specie payment was accomplished by the simple and obvious plan of annoumcing a date far enough ahead to allow the country to accommodate itself to the approaching fact. The question to-day is not whether the Wilson bill is better than the McKinley bill, but whether it is worth while to further disturb business by substituting one makeshift policy for another. Why not tolerate the existing makeshift, which has the advantage of being a known quantity, upon the understanding that in the year 1900 we shall enter upon an era of free trade ?

The principal communities of the United Relieving the States are entering upon the business of Unemployed.

providing relief for the unemployed with a thoroughness of purpose, and a practical wisdom as

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HON. WILLIAM L. WILSON, OF WEST VIRGINIA,

Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee.

Democratic principles if the Wilson bill had been framed upon more permanent and radical lines, with a view to a material change of policy several years hence? What possible objection could there be to a long notice? Some of the McKinley schedules were arranged to go into effect several years after the bill was adopted. It would be entirely feasible for Congress to declare that the new tariff would go into operation in 1895 ; making the date exactly five years after the McKinley act took effect. This would serve at least three good purposes. It would, first, enable the Democrats to prepare a measure much more faithfully in accord with their platform ; second, it would relieve the existing uncertainty that paralyzes industrial activities, and, third, it would form a valuable precedent against rapid and haphazard tariff changes. The country is in no haste for a myriad of puzzling and embarrassing changes of detail in the tariff schedules, while the main outlines of the system remain.

If the Democrats had the statesmanWhy Not Wait Until the ship to pass a measure absolutely disYear 1900 ?

carding every vestige of the protective system, and substituting a clear, simple, unmistakable plan of national taxation for revenue only, fixing January 1, 1900, as the time for this new policy to take effect, and agreeing to let the McKinley law

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