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.U 5816

The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the provisions of its organic act—to disseminate information concerning investigations made-prints a limited free edition of each of its publications.

When this edition is exhausted copies may be obtained at cost price only through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., who is the authorized agent of the Federal Government for the sale of all publications.

The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau of Mines. His is an entirely separate office and he should be addressed : SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, Government Printing Office,

Washington, D. C. The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the giving of more than one copy of a publication to one person. Additional copies must be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents. The cost of this Bulletin is 20 cents.

First edition. February, 1914.

CONTENTS.

PART 1.--THE ELECTRIC FURNACE IN PIG-IRON MANUFACTURE.

Introduction.

Development of the electric furnace for smelting iron.

Investigations of the Canadian commission..

Investigation of 1904.

Experiments with Keller furnace, Livet, France_

Problems not solved by commission of 1904.

Experiments at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, 1906_--

Development of the electric iron-reduction furnace in Sweden.

Experiments of Grönwall, Linblad, and Stalbane, Domnarfvet,

Sweden---

Experiments of the Jern-Kontoret, Trollhättan, Sweden -

Description of furnace..

Changes after the first experiments_

Summary of working results and analyses.

Report on operation of the furnace from August, 1911, to

May, 1912

Durability of the roof of the crucible-

Commercial furnaces of the Swedish type_

Chemistry of the reduction of iron ores in the electric furnace.

Problems in the electric smelting of iron ores..

Early difficulties -

Electrode problem.-

Unsolved problems

Volume of shaft as compared with capacity of furnace_

Reduction of ore in shaft.

Gas circulation

Method of utilization..

Objections

Other methods suggested.

Status of the iron industry in the Western States.

Iron-ore deposits on the Pacific coast---

Development of the electric reduction furnace in California-

Ore deposit of Shasta Iron Co----

First experimental electric reduction furnace.

Second and third experimental furnaces.

Present type of furnace_

The plant

The furnace

The electrodes

The transformers

Electric control

Operation

Use of charcoal as a reducing agent-

Use of crude petroleum as a reducing agent..

Comparison of the California and Swedish furnaces and processes.

Reduction in shaft.-.

Circulation of gases.

Use of calcined limestone -

Electric furnace as compared to the blast furnace..

Hypothetical case_

Cost of power-

Use of electric-furnace pig iron in the open-hearth furnace-

Introduction..

History of the development of the electric steel furnace-

Early development of the electric furnace..

Early development of the electric steel furnace_-

Development of the Héroult steel furnace_

Experiments of Stassano_

The Kjellin furnace..

Investigations of the Canadian commission of 1904.

Experiments with Kjellin furnace, Gysinge, Sweden..

Experiments with the Héroult furnace, La Praz, France.

Conclusions of the commission..

Later development of the electric steel furnace.

The Girod arc furnace..

Other arc furnaces_-

The Röchling-Rodenhauser furnace-

Other induction furnaces..

General lines of development of electric steel furnaces.

Present status of the electric steel industry-

Electric steel furnaces.-

Arc furnaces

The Héroult furnace_-

Single-phase Héroult furnace_

Three-phase Héroult furnace_

The Girod furnace_-

Single-phase Girod furnace.

Three-phase Girod furnace.

The Stassano furnace_-

The Keller furnace..

The Grönwall furnace.

The Nathusius furnace.

Other electric steel furnaces of the arc type-

Induction furnaces..

The Kjellin furnace_.

The Röchling-Rodenbauser furnace.

Other induction steel furnaces --

An electrical resistance furnace adaptable to steel manufacture_-

Electric steel manufacturing practice.-

Manufacture of steel from scrap iron and steel in the electric furnace_

Société Électro-Métallurgique Française, La Praz, Savoie, France_

Description of plant..

Practice at plant

Final form of product-

Plant of Messrs. Vickers (Ltd.), Sheffield, England.

Description of plant---

Practice at plant

Lakes & Elliot foundry, Braintree, England..

Description of plant-

Practice at plant

Products

Girod steel plant, Ugine, France_

Location

Power supply---

Description of plant.

Refining practice

Products of the furnace

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6. First type of furnace used at Domnarfvet, Sweden..

7. Second type of furnace used at Domnarfvet, Sweden.-

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