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He said: “Most men are invited to talk as specialists upon sub. jects upon which they are posted. I am not a specialist upon this subject, none of my ancestors having come from Salem, nor I being the seventh son of a seventh son. Some things impress themselves upon our consciousness and upon the slightest provocation are recalled. Other impressions are made which are not noted. Why do children lie? They do not lie viciously. They simply portray to their hearers certain pictures of imagination. They transform the real into the imaginary and the imaginary into the real. Mind-reading is not mindreading at all. It is muscle reading. Hypnotism is not so much the result of a strong will-power on the part of the performer as it is a voluntary absent-mindedness on the part of the subject-an automatic surrender. At such times the performer may make suggestions to the subject which in due course of time may materialize into influences which cannot be resisted. Murder and crime of various kinds may at such times have their inception, and be the time short or long, the suggestion will recur in the form of thought to him who was subject at the time of hypnotism. There is such a thing as thought transference. There is such a thing as apparition-a seeing what is actually occurring elsewhere and at a distance. But I can't explain these things; ask experts to explain. Let Mr. Slade and Mr. Herman explain. They are experts. If you want to get at the comparative intelligence of cities, compare the number of advertisements of fortunetellers and clairvoyants found in their papers."

Prof. Thos. P. Bailey, Associate Professor of Pedagogy in the State University, a new man upon the Coast, a boy in years, yet a well grown and growing man in mental stature, read a most excellent paper upon “Child Study for Naturalists."

Child Study for Naturalists." In essence he said : The object of education is that children may have life and have it more abundantly. The science of education is a part of the larger science of life. Like theology and pedagogy, medicine is a biological science. Modern medicine is positive rather than negative, preventative rather than curative, hygienic rather than pharmaceutical. The aim of the true physician is fast becoming this : That the body may have life and have it more abundantly. Medicine has science as its basis, and it is becoming a scientific profession. Pedagogy is the hygiene of the soul and of the body in so far as it influences soul growth. Like medicine, pedagogy must become both scientific and professional. How? Medicine was neither scientific nor professional when associated with priestcraft and the occult things of life. So'with teaching. Medicine progressed so long as it was empiri. cal; so long as it was based upon observation and experience. It retrograded when it depended on metaphysics and tradition. So in teaching, the intelligently experienced are far more capable than the doctrinaire bungler. Medicine took a fresh lease of life when accurate observations were multiplied and recorded ; but the facts were not those of medicines and their effects, but of the human body and its parts. So teachivg, stimulated by Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel, began to succeed when it studied children. But just as medicine needs to have its data carefully collected, in order that they may be interpreted by the sciences of physiology, anatomy, hygiene, etc., so teaching must carefully collect and record all of the facts of child-life, mainly sayings and doings, and then must interpret them by psychology, ethics and the sciences of mind.

The philosopher gives us character-philosophy, systems of education; the specialist gives us principles of mind and character ; but the philosopher is helpless without the results of the specialist, and the specialist can do little, aud that very slowly, without the facts gathered by the naturalist, the general practitioner

- that is the ordinary school teacher. Therefore, if there is to be a true science and philosophy and rational art of education, let the naturalist teacher get to work as the physicians are doing. Let these teachers study cases and note symptoms, and all of them.

But child study is mainly for the teacher, as tact comes from sympathy, and sympathy from interest, and interest from vital knowledge. Such child study makes each teacher a practical psychologist, makes teaching become a profession, furnishes solid material for teachers' meetings, prevents us from ever threshing the same old pedagogical "patent medicines” aud "favorite prescriptions;" in fact, makes Pedagogy join Medicine in becoming a noble art founded upon noble sciences. But teachers inust primarily work for themselves to gain pedagogical power and insight, to help children to help themselves to grow aright and be right.”

On Friday evening Dr. David Starr Jordan delivered a lecture upon “'The Woman of Pessimism and The Woman of Evolution.” The lecture was characteristic of the Doctor. He read largely from the cynical German author, Schopenhauer, commenting as he read. He urged that by evolution the sexes are equal, that man is as much a home maker as woman, and that the relations to coming generations must be equal:

All the world loves a lover, and the woman of the future will be even less like the man of the future. Nature studies striking effects in lavishing beauty on the young girls, so that they may capture the fancy of man, who undertakes the honorable care of them in sonie form as long as they live, a step, which, if reason was the guide, he would not take. Man is not fitted for close friendships. He has no sense of respousiblity of his own. He is not willing to restrict himself to what he is capable of doing. He wants to govern the whole country, when incapable of governing his own household.

The evolution of man from the brute has been slow and painful. We cannot make perceptible changes in the senses ia a thousand years or in a thousand generatious, but we can develop the senses so they will be infinitely more useful.

The time is coming when women will not be compelled to tie themselves to men to make their way in the world; when people will not be compelled to marry for protection or property. Marriage will be for love only. The ideal

queenly woman will marry the ideal kingly man, simply for pure love. There is a growing demand for companionship in marriage. The best matches I have ever known were not made in heaven, but in Cornell. The best matches are made where people are developed—where the greatest progress is made.

On Saturday morning “The Relation of the Press to Education" was discussed by E. W. Holmes of the Riverside School Board.

Prof. Earl Barnes then spoke upon the subject : "Religious Education in the Schools." He said :

The history of Education in Christendom for 1200 years, down to the present century, has been the history of the church. The church supported, directed, and taught the schools. The first schools of our country were for the saving of souls or for the education of teachers for that purpose. In England, for hundreds of years, two churches have dominated the schools—the Church of England and Dis. senters. But in 1892, a move was made toward establishing the public schools free from the domination of the church. When the State, under the influence of modern republican, democratic and socialistic ideas, took possession of the schools, it pad no desire to do away with religious instruction, but each sect fought the religious instruction of every other sect, and so, as a compromise in America and in France, schools have been secularized. Thus secularization exists to-day as a compromise.

It is already leading to two or three most undesirable results. In the first place, it leaves uncultivated some of the truest and finest instincts of childhood. For the God and Clirist and Mary and the prophets who filled this craving in children's souls in the past, we have substituted patriotism, the flag, Abrahamı Lincoln, and nature studies. This is all good, but we need something more. Even the love of humanity cannot satisfy the heart of an emotional boy of twelve. In the second place it is leaving our children iguorant of those fundamental conceptions of the Christian theology which give the key to much of modern history, literature and art.

To rectify this we must work for that day when teachers shall be so fairminded and generous that they can be trusted to use all knowledge in their schools with wisdom for large ends, and when the public shall be so intelligent that it will not be frightened at the sound of a theological word, even though the accent be slightly different from their own. Meantime the compromise must be respected. No religious instruction, as such, must be taken into the school; but all the subjects must be so taught as to cultivate the religious spirit, and in the history and literature work instructions may be given and must be given concerning the great theological conceptions of the world--God, Allah, Christ, Mohammed, Buddha, Confucius, Mary, apostles, prophets, and priests.

All this can be done without breaking, in letter or spirit, the necessary but undesired and unfortunate compromise which makes our schools secular to-day. Isn't it possible that we have been taking the apparent for what lies behind phenomenon and bunches of phenomena iustead of the nuclei? Why may we not teach the great fundamental principles of the Christian theology?”

Professor Barnes had hardly taken his seat when Professor Kirk

was recognized by the chair and said: Mr. President, I have a wild desire to speak upon this subject. I wish from the bottoni of my heart to express my hearty approbation of what Professor Barnes has said." The same feeling was concurred in by Professors Pierce, Dickinson, and others. An objection was offered by a young man who ruined his cause by the manner in which he espoused it. He was followed by one or two very pertinent questions propounded to Professors Barnes and Dickinson.

The subject of "Sloyd : What it is, and what it Proposes," was most ably handled by Mr. Charles A. Kunou, of Throop Polytechnic Institute, and Miss Edna Rich, of the Blake School of Santa Barbara. We hope to publish the papers in full in the near future.

This closed the discussions, some of which we regret to say we did not hear; hence we are unable to report. So well pleased were the members of the Association with the success of this session that when the time came for the election of officers, they broke over every restraint, set aside the constitution, and reëlected the same officers by an explosively exclamatory acclamation.

This was a fitting tribute to Professor Keyes and his associate officers, who had laughed at every discouragement and surmounted every obstacle.

The session was eminently successful, nearly three hundred teachers being enrolled. This number was augmented by so large a concourse of earnest friends as to fairly crowd the large auditorium in which the session was held.

The Association adjourned, to meet in Los Angeles again next year.

After the adjournment, quite a number availed the mselves of the opportunity of a visit to Pasadena, to Mount Lowe and to the Echo Mountain House, on which occasion the writer had the happy pleasure of being the guest of Professor and Mrs. Keyes. Of that trip we will have more to say at another time.


County Institutes.

A TEACHER'S ASSOCIATION FOR SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY.-At the recent session of the Kern County Teachers' Institute the following resolution was unanimously adopted :

Resolved, That it is the voice of this Ivstitute that there be formed a San Joaquin Teachers' Association, and a conference committee of three be appointed by the County Superintendent. On the authority vested in the appointed committee, we desire at the earliest possible date to present this matter to the County Superintendents, teachers, and other school officers, for the purpose of securing their coöperation. If this proposition meets with your approval we offer the following as a feasible plan of organization : Let a convention be called consisting of the County Superintendent aud three delegates to be appointed by him or by the County Board of Education from each of the following counties : Kern, Tulare, Kings, Fresno, Madera, Stanislaus, Merced, San Joaquin, Tuolumne, Calaveras, and Mariposa. Said convention to meet at some central point, say Fresno, on some date to be hereafter designated. We trust that this movement, having for its object the advancement of the educational interests of the Valley counties, will receive your enthusiastic support, as we recognize that without the hearty coöperation of the several Superintendents nothing can be done towards effecting an organization. May we ask you to give this matter your early consideration and to advise us without delay of your opinion of the proposed movement and your action in the premises.

Kitty M. CRUSOE, Committee.


Los ANGELES County.-In the State Normal School, April 15 to 19 inclusive. Instructors and lecturers-President Martin Kellogg, State Supt. Samuel T. Black, ex-Assistant State Supt. of Minnesota T. H. Kirk, P. M. Fisher, of the JOURNAL, C. E. Hutton, F. B. Dressler, and Ada M. Laughlin of the Normal School Faculty, Professors Slate and Stringham, of the State University, C. H. Keyes and Charles A. Kunou, of Throop Polytechnic, Prof. John Dickinson, and C. J. Flatt. In addition to these, sone excellent work was contributed by teachers of the city and of the county outside. It was Fiesta week. The town was filled with visitors; the streets were gaily decorated; there was music in the air; and the fever in the blood of the crowd was contagious, so that the professional spirit and common honesty of the teachers were taxed to the utmost to prevent truancy. Superintendent Riley, however, was the personification of duty, and he held his teachers with a firm though not uvkindly grasp.

At the opening session Superintendent Black and Principal Pierce, of the Normal School, were both unavoidably absent, so that the address of President F. A. Molyneaux, of the County Board of Education, and the address on “Fads' by T. H. Kirk, occupied the attention of the audience, a fair share of which consisted of Normal Students. In addition to the suggestions which his official relation made proper for him to give, Mr. Molyneaux interested his auditors by a reference to the “Individual Instruction” now being tried by Superintendent Search in the schools of Los Angeles City. His illustration of the situation, by the story of farmers Jones and Smith, was to the point. One, a genius in experiment; the cther, conservative but watchful, avoiding the expense of experiment, but quick to profit by its success.

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