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before. Having this, the schools may polish that intellect.

I hope that the commissions you are to receive to-night will mean more than a mere certificate, and also that they are brainy young men and women who hold them.'

"He urged the graduates to have confidence in themselves, to say they were teachers and were going to teach; in fact, consider themselves about the only teachers in the State; ‘for,' he says, a teacher who has confidence in himself is a success; I have no use for one who is continually apologizing to his own shadow.'

At the conclusion of the address, Mr. Pennell, in a very happy and impressive manner, delivered diplomas to forty-four graduates whose names are given below :

Anna Hayes, Nellie G. Smith, Rosa A. Homan, Mac T. Snider, Mary Hygelund, Cora S. Sprague, Alice Legerwood, Jessie A. Starrat, Annie Lowrey, Frances A. Swain, Lillian Wade, Mabel Taylor, Emma Weed, Clara R. Tracy, Emma Woelffel, Zella Van Ornum, A. Cartwright, May Woelffel, Charles Gostick, Ellen A. Lynch, E. Williainson, Louise Matti, Gertrude Allen, Jennette Nason, Birdie Baker, Mildred Nason, Maude Baker, Zetta Z. Nordyke, Susan E. Brown, Maud Page, Kate Cain, Anita Pearch, Luella Clark, Mabel Pendergris, Anna L. Garoute, Mary V. Reager, Clara B. Garoute, Wanda Reichling, Maude V. Garvey, Ida A. Ryan, Della Gray, Grace Schorr, Ruby L. Green, Emma Scribner.

EDITORIAL.

Some Stray Thoughts for Teachers.

PRIMARY TEACHERS. Why are the classes of primary teachers dismissed at half after two o'clock? Is it because those teachers work so much harder than the teachers in the higher grades that they are supposed to have done as much work up to that hour as their co-workers accomplish by remaining in the class-room an hour and a half longer? No, by no means is this true. The classes are dismissed because it is thought, and rightly, too, that the young children of the primary department should not be kept in the school-room later than half past two, provided they enter at nine. Again, is it right for the primary teacher (who is paid the same salary which her friend in the higher grade receives) to consider ber day's work finished when her pupils go home? By no means is it. The very best teachers obtainable should be put in charge of the primary grades ; hence the salary should not be less than is paid the the teachers in the other grades. But, at the same time, such arrangements should be made as would divide the work of the teachers throughout the day. For instance, the teacher of the primary grade, could very easily receive some of the classes of the other teachers after her own go home. She could easily hear two classes, say in reading, during the time left her. Then, after the close of school, she will have no more to do in looking over the work of the day and in getting ready for the next day than will her associates in the higher grades. All honor to the primary teacher ; for if there are teachers who are really “called and sent,” the true teacher who can take the little ones from the apron-strings of their mothers, and deal with them as she should, is first of all most blessed. But while the school day continues, let her divide the work with the other teachers.

PRINCIPALS. What is the work of the principal of the school? Why does he receive a salary exceeding the salary of his assistant or assistants fifteen or twenty dollars or more ? He is expected (and such is his duty) to teach the classes in his own room ; to supervise the general work of the school ; to attend to the classification of the pupils and to determine their fitness for promotion ; to visit the different classes during the week (not omitting one), that he make suggestions to his teachers regarding the work of such classes, the manyer of the teacher and the method of presentation ; and, further, that he may be the better prepared to meet "emergencies” and inquiries when brought to him by his assistants. It is also his duty to keep a personal oversight over the playground, and to hold himself responsible for the deportment of every child there; he must, furthermore, hold himself responsible for the proper discharge of the duties of the janitor. The principal holds a very responsible position, and upon him, much more than the casual observer imagines, depends the success of the school. It is a very unfortunate thing for the school when trustees call a man to this position who is inefficient, unwilling to discharge his every duty, too indolent or too egotistical. Such men there are among those who hold teachers' certificates and teachers' places in the schools of our State. God grant that the time may come, and come quickly, when trustees will employ only those as principals (and, for that matter, subordinate teachers as well) who are not only willing, but anxious; not only efficient, but progressively so; not only industrious, but thoroughly awake.

WORK OF THE CLASS: ROOM.

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No teacher should appear in the presence of his class who has not studied the lesson to be presented until he is familiar with its every detail. This does not mean that he should go before the class representing himself as knowing all about the subject. No, no! In that case he would not be long in finding himself in some very embarassing positions. Children are not long in finding that it is impossible for any man to know all about any one subject, or many subjects; and he, who assumes for himself the importance of kpowing too much, will soon find himself branded for knowing too little; and he who is so adjudged by a community af wide-awake children, is, of all men, most miserable. Why should he study the lessons ? For three rea

First-The transit from one subject to another, as provided for in some of our schools, especially the country schools, is so rapid and so abrupt that it is absolutely necessary for the teacher to "freshen” his knowledge of the particular lesson that he may have it “in hand” as he should. Second-He should study his lesson that he may have the same run of the subject that his students have after they study it, for different text-books deal with subjects somewhat differently (hence their multiplicity); and teachers who, presumably, study many text-books sometimes forget the order in which the authorized author deals with subjects. And, third-He should study the lesson in the light of each succeeding day, that his students may have not only the advantage of what the author taught, but of what the writers at this day teach. The journals, quarterlies and periodicals found upon every well read teacher's desk, contain the most advanced thought upon every subject taught in the schools of the State; and these, with the reference books which abound to-day in such great numbers, should be studied by teacher and pupil.

INDIVIDUALITY OF CHILDREN. And, by children, we include those of larger growth. No two people, whether young or old, study alike, with the same ease, with the same ready grasp, and with the same retaining powers. Nor should they. As well may they be expected to run with the same degree of rapidity, leap to the same height, lift the same weight, and swim with the same ease. Yet, the slowest boy in the race, if given his time, will ultimately reach the goal; and the weakling, by dividing

the load, may lift a ton. So the child, if carefully studied, may have his powers so developed as to make him an all round, fleet, strong, and enduring man. Fellow teachers, study your children to this end.

JANITORS should, if possible, be men or women, not children. Much of the comfort, much of the discipline, and much of the success of the school, depends upon the janitor. Complaint has reached us, more than once, of the conduct, of the incompetency, and of the indolence of boy.janitors. By all means, select adults, unless the teachers are to be present while the janitor-work is to be done. Even then 'tis better.

OUR CHIEF, Mr. Fisher, is rusticating, mountaineering, lakelizing (forgive the word), and sporting. He is spending a month among the lakes of the Sierras; took with him a rifle, a shot-gun, and about $75 worth of fishing tackle, which a friend was kind enough to let him use. We shall not anticipate him by describing the beauties of that delightful region to which he has gone; but we will remark, parenthetically, that if he fails to appreciate the grandeur, sublimity, and beauty of his surroundings there, he will not sustain the reputation earned by him in his admirable selection of a goddess to preside over the recent Fourth of July celebration in this city. Neither must we foretell his exploits as a nimrod; but, leave that to his own vivid imagination, his unique pen, and his inherent modesty. We fancy that life would be unbearable, on his return, but for the fact that we have confidential information from a fisherman on the shore of Lake Independence that "the prices of fish and game have advanced 20 per cent. since Dr. Lee, Mr. Samuel Ewell, dry-goods merchant, and G. W. Hall, book-merchant, all of Marysville, and Mr. P. M. Fisher, editor of the PACIFIC EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL, reached here." We make no comment.

MR. A. MEGAHAN, of the JOURNAL, has made a tour of the Eastern and Middle Atlantic States among old friends and associations. He reports a delightful time. He says “Let Californians cease to talk of the beauties of home on reaching Kansas City, and on going farther." He is a man who has a delightful appreciation of the beautiful (he didn't ask us to say so, however); and we had come to regard him as a kind of mentor in that respect until he told us this morning that he passed through Missouri in the night. Meanwhile, we have had

" Full swing fur to try the thing,

And practice a little on the wing;” and if any of our readers find aught to condemn in this issue of the JOURNAL, let them “lay it to the charge" of the Associate Editor, a pair of dull scissors, and very poor paste.

Institutes.

Centralian, have you visited the Institute? If not, go and be inspired, see gathered together the salt of the earth, the hope of the land, the representatives of the noblest calling of man, the workers in God's vineyard. Witness the careful preparation for the training of youthful minds and gather from the lessons here taught, a higher appreciation of the hope of civilization, the power of knowledge. Parents, go and there learn more of your duties and responsibilities. Teachers will welcome you, as their work and yours must be hand in hand.–Centralia (Mo.) Courier.

The foregoing, from the pen of our esteemed class-mate, J. K. Pool, has the gospel ring. Let the citizens of California profit by the injunction. Friends of teachers, patrons of the school, parents of children, promoters of the public good, seekers after knowledge, should all attend the institute. Teachers will be encouraged, a most worthy institution fostered and strengthened, and much personal good derived.

“Ye Pedagogue” of the frontispiece is a “tenderfoot” unacquainted with Section 1667 of the Political Code, but ever on the defensive against mosquito attacks.

[EDITORIALS From LAKE INDEPENDENCE.)

The Election Contest for the Superintendency of Siskiyou.

George A. Tebbe was the Democratic candidate; C. S. Smith, the Republican. By the official canvass of the Supervisors, Smith was declared elected by a plurality of one vote. Tebbe began a contest, and in the judicial count his vote was increased by tbree, thus giving him a plurality. An appeal was taken, and the Supreme Court, (Judge Henshaw writing the opinion), overruled the decision of the lower court. Smith is thus confirmed in the position he has held since January

It seemed that nine ballots were received and counted for the contestant, which were marked thus :

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