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the county lacks. It covers the work of one year in the high school, except the languages, and is optional with the pupils.

The County Board is composed of five young men, all enthusiastic teachers.

They are endeavoring to place this county in the front rank in the sisterhood.

Yuba has added five new Normal graduates to ber teaching force for next year. “Good again!" I hear Brother Coffey say. The work of such men as Kleeberger, Wilson and Fisher among us has done much to make the people realize the value of professionally trained teachers, and their number is increasing with each succeeding year.

G.

County Institutes.

VENTURA COUNTY.—The teachers of Ventura county met in annual session at Ventura by the Sea on September 16th, and remained in session during the week. This was the first Institute under the administration of Superintendent Sackett, and the success of the meeting was due to his untiring, painstaking efforts. On the program were the names of prominent educators, among them being Dr. O. P. Jenkins, of Stanford University; Prof. T. H. Kirk, ex-Assistant State Superintendent of Minnesota, now Superintendent of San Bernardino; Dr. F. B. Dresslar, of the Los Angeles Normal; Prof. William Zimmerman, of Santa Barbara; and State Superintendent S. T. Black. Besides these, papers were presented by local teachers, among them being P. W. Kauffmau, of Ventura; Miss Alice Younglove, Miss Mary Wason, Oliver P. Morton, J. C. Owen, and others. Dr. A. E. Winship, of Boston, was to have been present, but owing to his serious illnessthe teachers were compelled to relinquish the pleasure of being instructed by one whom all California honors. A pleasant feature of the week was the reception tendered by the teachers and citizens of Ventura on Monday evening. The Board of Education has issued, with the beginning of the present school year, a new course of study, mention of which was made in last month's JOURNAL. This subject was naturally foremost in the minds of the teachers, and consequently two different periods were given for the discussion of the subject. Professor Kauffman, of Ventura, and Professor Haydock, of Hueneme, led these discussions. Superintendent Black, always a favorite in this, his home county, was present during three days of the week, and by his earnest efforts to aid and his hearty approval of the work of the teachers of the county, proved the interest he takes in educational affairs, and if such a thing were possible, made more friends than ever before amongst the teachers. Mr. Black's lecture on Tuesday evening, “A Talk with Teachers and Patrons,” filled the M. E. Church to overflowing, the whole populace having turned out to greet their old-time Superintendent. Dr. Jenkins lectured on Wednesday evening, his subject being “How we came to See.” On Thursday evening, Professor Kirk lectured on the “ Future Man and His Teachers." These lectures proved very interesting and were delivered before large and appreciative audiences. Literary exercises preceded the lectures of each evening. Dr. Jenkins spoke upon “Physiology, Biology and Nature Work” during the week, while Professor Kirk handled the subjects of “ History," " Psychology," "The Boy we Teach, Both of these gentlemen were strangers to Ventura county teachers, but they became very popular before the end of the week. Dr. Dresslar, an old friend of the teachers, spoke upon "Vertical Script," "The Recitation," " Psychology," etc. He also made a strong plea for professional work, as a result of which, and upon motion, a committee of five was appointed by Supt. Sackett to confer with Dr. Dresslar. This committee has districted the county, and within a few weeks the teachers will take up the work, in connection with Dr. Dresslar and the Los Angeles Normal instructors. Among the papers read during the week were two which presented teaching work as viewed by outsiders. These papers were by Mrs. Pierpont, of Nordhoff, and Mrs. E. S. Hall, of Ventura, both of whom are school trustees. Professor Zimmerman, of Santa Barbara, read an interesting paper on “ Language in the Public Schools;" Miss Inez Tarr gave a talk on “Spelling;'' A. D. Kyle, on “Drawing;" J. C. Owen, on “Our Country Schools and our Institute;" Miss Emma Younglove, on “The Elastic Child and the Inelastic Teacher;" Miss Emma Casey and Miss Ada Reynolds, on “Kindergarten Work." Prof. O. P. Morton, of the Ventura High School, presented a carefully prepared paper on the “Rights of Children as Seen by Themselves." Mr. Morton has made “Child Study" his work for several years, and his researches and conclusions proved very interesting. Professor Kauffmann, of the Ventura High School, talked of “The Girl we Teach” in such a way as to meet the hearty approval of every teacher, and it was the unanimous request of the Institute that the paper be sent to the JOURNAL for publication. Among the resolutions passed by the Institute was one indorsing the action of the directors of the N. E. A. in deciding upon Los Angeles as a meeting place for next year, and urging the Executive Committee to decide in accordance with the action of the directors. The five days of the Institute were spent pleasantly and profitably, and the sentiment of all was that this was the best Institute ever held in Ventura county.

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SOLANO COUNTY.—The thirty-second annual Teachers' Institute was held at Suisun September 23–27 inclusive. County Superintendent A. P. Sanborn can pride himself on the success of his first Institute. A. B. Coffey, of the PACIFIC EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL, was the conductor, assisted for two days by Prof. T. B. Bailey, of the State University. Mr. Coffey was the man for the place, and before the first half day's session was over had removed all restraint to such a degree that instead of its being a difficult matter to get the teachers to talk, there always were several who wanted the floor at the same time. Monday forenoon was devoted to organization and brief addresses by Superintendent Sanborn and Mr. Coffey. In the afternoon W. S. Cranmer, of Benicia, gave an address on “Teachers' Institutes,” which provoked a spirited discussion. It was upanimously decided that the value of institutes could not be reckoned in dollars and cents. Principal G. S. Connor, of Dixon, delivered an address on "Silent Forces,” which was considered one of the best things of the Institute. Tuesday Principal W. F. Hall, of the Vacaville High School, discussed mathematics, using as a basis the following questions : 1. We teach arithmetic nine years. Are the results commensurate ? why not? 3. Can we secure better results in less time? 4. How ? 5. What part of the instruction in this subject should be mental ? Principal G. C. Russell, of Dixon High School, spoke on language preparation for high school work. Professor Bailey spoke on the same subject. A. Huckins, of Vallejo, spoke on “Teaching History," and Mr. Coffey on “Some Essentials in the Teaching and Study of History.” Prof. C. Wetmore spoke on “Grammar," and C. B. Towle, of Vallejo, on “Science in the Grammar Grades.” Tuesday night Professor Bailey delivered an excellent address to a very large audience of teachers and citizens, on "The Study Quadrilateral.” Wednesday morning was taken up in general discussion as to the amount of time that should be given to each subject. Mrs. A. Huckins gave a spirited address on “Geography," and Miss Margaret Tobin read a splendid paper on “Memory." Wednesday night David Starr Jordan

2.

If not,

lectured on “Altruria and Altruism.” It is needless to say that it was up to his usual standard. Thursday, Professor Bailey, Mr. Coffey and State Superintendent Black vied with each other in giving good things for the teachers to consider. Thursday night Superintendent Black delivered a practical talk to patrons and teachers. He was listened to with interest, and gave some valuable facts. Friday morning was given up to the discussion of music and drawing, followed by a final resumé by Mr. Coffey. In the afternoon the Committee on Resolutions read its report, and the Institute adjourned, the teachers voting it one of the best they had ever attended.

Descriptive, but not Strictly Physiological.

An Iowa school ma'am, at the Iroquois County Institute, is credited with the following not strictly physiological reply to the query, “How would you describe the mouth?” “The mouth is the front door of the face. It is the aperture to the cold storage of the anatomy. Some mouths look like peaches and cream, and some look like a hole in brick wall. The mouth is a hotbed of toothaches, the safety valve of oratory. It is the crimson gateway to the liver. It is patri- . otism's fountain and the tool-chest for pie. Without it the politician would go down to an unhonored grave and the office-seeker would have to work for his living. It is the grocer's friend, the stumpspeaker's pride and the dentist's only hope. It puts some men on the rostrum and some in jail. It is more tempting than strawberries and cream when attached to a woman, and the tobacconists' dearest friend when attached to a man. Without it the teachers' institute would be a dream, and a schoolma'am would lose her attraction."

The Supreme Court has decided in the suit of Augustine Keller against the Sutter County Board of Education that the plaintiff was entitled to a writ of mandate from the lower court to compel the defendants to grant him a teachers certificate. The Supreme Court holds that the plaintiff, having complied with the provisions precedent to the granting of a certificate, the refusal to grant him one was purely arbitrary. The Court declares that Boards of Education have no discretion to refuse a certificate when the applicant has complied with all the requirements as to fitness and qualifications.

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EDITORIAL.

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The first teacher to receive a pension under the Teachers' Pension Law, so far as we have learned, is William White, formerly of San Francisco, now of Watsonville, Cal.

The season for the renewal of subscriptions to magazines will soon be here. The JOURNAL has arranged for clubbing with the leading magazines, and we can furnish our subscribers with the Century, Scribner's, Harper's, Cosmopolitan, Atlantic Monthly, and in fact any magazine you want, at a reduction.

We acknowledge obligations to Messrs. David J. Reese, of Santa Paula, and G. S. Conner, of Dixon, for the proceedings of the institutes recorded in this number of the JOURNAL. We are also indebted to the courtesy of the Overland Monthly for the illustrations in the article on "The Relation of Kindergartens to the Public Schools."

A CORRESPONDENT in the New England Journal of Education says that the defeat of Superintendent Search at the end of his first year's service in Los Angeles was due to many causes, chief of which was the fact that he had not secured the coöperation of the teachers. This is a short, but true, story, with a momentous moral for the consideration of superintendents and principals generally.

A SCHOOL trustee, who seems to know what the JOURNAL is good for, writes: "I am still clerk of the school district. You will please forward JOURNAL to me ; our school is running, we need it." That is just what the JOURNAL aims to be--an aid in running the school; and if teachers and trustees will read it more thoroughly and put into practice the suggestious it contains, our public schools will soon show symptoms of unprecedented advancement.

A CURIOUS situation is disclosed in Louisiana, where there is a constitutional amendment pending, which imposes an educational re

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