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that it is unnecessary, there being service at nine, ten, twelve, and two o'clock in the day, and that it would lead to disorder, and be at variance with the early hours and simple manners of the people. One of the pastors has proposed the institution of theological prizes, to excite the zeal of the students.
The inhabitants of the Canton of Fribourg have given permission for the erection of a Protestant chapel in their capital. This is but reciprocal as the Catholics have chapels at Basle, Zurich, and Lausanne; but it is a novel instance of Catholic tolerance, and it is to be hoped will be imitated throughout Switzerland-and not least among Protestants themselves. GERMANY.
Professor Scholz, in his biblical travels in Europe and the East, has collated more than six hundred manuscripts unknown to Griesbach; and is preparing the result of his collations for publication.
M. de Gouroff, rector of the university of St. Petersburg, is publishing a work on the evil effects of foundling hospitals. He states that in Catholic countries in which such institutions abound (France has no fewer than three hundred and sixty-two), the number of abandoned children is frightful, and far exceeding that of Protestant countries. In London, he says, in a population of a million and a quarter in five years (from 1819 to 1823), one hundred and fifty-one children were exposed, and the number of illegitimate children received into the forty-four workhouses was four thousand six hundred and sixty-eight, one fifth of whom were supported by their fathers; whereas France, with only two thirds of the population, had twentyfive thousand two hundred and seventyseven foundlings, all supported by the state. Again, Mayence formerly had no establishment of this kind; and from 1799 to 1811, there were exposed there thirty children. Napoleon opened one in Nov. 1811, which remained till March 1815, when it was suppressed by the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. During this period of three years and four months, the house received five hundred and sixteen foundlings. In the nine succeeding years, but seven children were exposed.
An interesting address has been published on the education of the Greeks. Their claims upon our regard and sympathies, and the benefits or evils which may flow from them to other nations, according as their emancipation from civil
bondage is accompanied with Christian education, are ably pointed out. Much has been already done by missionary and school societies; and with the cordial concurrence of the national authorities; but far more remains to be achieved to lay the basis for national education. A committee has been formed in London to carry the plan into effect; aided by the valuable services of Mr. Leeves, who is now at Corfu superintending the version of the Old Testament into modern Greek.
Stephanini, the young Greek, who lately published a narrative of his life in New York, has realized 1400 dollars, with which he has sailed for his native land, to redeem his mother and sister from Turkish captivity.
The new Roman-Catholic church in Montreal is calculated to contain ten thousand persons; it is adorned with six lofty towers; nearly as high as those of Westminster Abbey. The eastern window is sixty-four feet in height.
Mr. Robert Owen has been as grievously repulsed in his plans for making Americans happy, as for making Englishmen; as our readers may infer from the following extracts from a reply of the New-York Typographical society, to his overtures. After stating the object of Mr. Owen's proposals, his specification of the enormous grievances under which the "working classes labour," "their industry unprotected, oppressed, and despised," their education impeded by "clerical, sectarian, and aristocratical influence;" and his recommendation to "circulate [deistical and revolutionary] tracts," and to form his well-known NewLanark associations, these sturdy mechanics proceed:
"Your committee would recommend that this insolence be treated with silent contempt, were it not that circumstances induce us to believe that a band of choice spirits,' of foreign origin, have united among us, and, availing themselves of the mild forbearance of our laws, are determined, by the most insidious arts, to sow the seeds of discord and rebellion. These reformers have addressed themselves almost exclusively to that class of citizens among whom they suppose there is the least intelligence, that they may the more readily succeed in their designs. We trust, however, that there is too much intelligence among mechanics and working men in this republic, to become the ready dupes of such pretenders.
"It is true that there is some distress among the labouring classes throughout the civilized world; but it has grown out of circumstances about which the wisest men differ in opinion. It is a fact that labour is not as productive as it has been in times past; that is to say, a man, by the labour of his hands, is unable to provide as well for his necessities as he could have done in times past. But in this country, the pressure arising from this state of things is nothing, compared to the overwhelming poverty, want, and misery which is exhibited in every nation in Europe among the labouring classes. Your committee would beg leave, while on this subject, to hazard one opinion; which is, that the cause of this distress, in a great measure, if not altogether, may be found in the rapid introduction of labour-saving machines, within the last thirty years we are not prepared to say that they ought or can be suppressed; but we do say, that the subject merits the attention of wise legislators. But what do our reformers say? They call upon the labouring classes to rally under them, in defence of their rights, when no right has been molested, nor the shadow of an attempt made from which such an inference can be drawn on the contrary, it has of late been the principal object of all our legislative assemblies to enlarge the rights, and extend the privileges of every class of our fellow-citizens. They would destroy the Christian religion, the pillar that sustains moral obligation, the light of the blind, the solace of the afflicted, the only hope planted in the human heart which carries it triumphant beyond the pale of this, at best, miserable existence; and in its stead would substitute misrule and confusion, to terminate in nothing but the hope of annihilation. Your committee view this interference with indignation. What right has been invaded, suppressed, or molested? We know of none, except the natural right which a quiet, satisfied, intelligent, and free community ought to exercise in silencing such mischief-makers."
We shall think honourably of NewYork mechanics as long as we live, for this sensible and spirited manifesto.
The Governor of New York states as follows in his message to the legislature: "The charity and Sunday schools throughout the state are exerting a great power in the prevention of pauperism and crime. In this country, the greater part of pauperism and crime results from idleness and intemperance, and want of
instruction and bad example are the primary causes of these vices."
There is a school devoted to scientific agricultural education, in Oneida county, under the care of the regents of the university. Students are instructed in scientific and practical agriculture, are compelled to go through all its manual operations, and pay for their instruction by their labour.
The village of Fredonia, in the state of New York, is lighted by natural gas which issues from under a soft foetid limestone rock, which has been bored through for a vent, and a gasometer placed over it.
So rapidly does civilization advance in the newly Christianized islands, that the inhabitants of Huaheine, one of the Society Islands, and Rorotagna, one of the Harvey group, have constructed under the superintendence of the missionaries, two vessels, chiefly of native materials, and capable of navigating the open seas. These vessels will enable the missionaries to visit the various islands, and hold intercourse with the native teachers. JAPAN.
The Japanese are quite intolerant to Christianity. The Catholic priests, who formerly lived in Japan, enjoyed every possible freedom, and converted a great number of the natives; but, at last, the progress of the new religion gave rise to a dreadful civil war. For this reason, after the extirpation of the Christians, the following inscription was placed at the head of the stone tablets of laws, which are fixed up in all public places. “Whoever knows any individual who has taught Christianity, and can convict him thereof, shall receive a reward of five hundred silver pieces." There is likewise a law which prohibits masters from hiring servants, until they receive from them a written assurance of their not being Christians. In Nangasaky, where Christianity had made the greatest progress, there is a staircase, on the steps of which are laid various ornaments and utensils of the Catholic church, and on the first step a crucifix. On new-year's day, all the inhabitants of Nangasaky are obliged to ascend these steps; and, as a proof that they are not Christians, to trample on the articles. It is said, that many Christians who live at Nangasaky comply with this regulation from interested motives.-These facts, we presume, are true; but it is mournful that the intrigues or bad conduct of these Papal missionaries should be identified with Christianity.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Sermons on the Epistles to the Seven Churches, the Millennium, &c. By the late Rev. Joseph Milner, with Preface, by the Rev. E. Bickersteth. 1 vol. 10s. Memoir of the Rev. A. Waugh, D.D. 1 vol. 8vo. 14s.
The Argument from Miracles in Support of Christianity. By the Rev. G. Payne, LL.D. Is.
A Vindication of the Christian Faith. By the Rev. J. Inglis, D.D. 1 vol. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
Practical and Familiar Sermons. By the Rev. W. Thompson.
The Work of the Holy Spirit in Conversion. By the Rev. J. Hinton. 6s.
Sermons by the Rev. J. Stedman, D.D. Hooker's Polity, with his Life, by Walton; to which are now first added, the "Christian Letter to Hooker," Dr. Covel's Defence of it; Cartwright's Life; Introduction, Notes, &c. By B. Hanbury. 3 vols. 8vo. 1. 11s. 6d.
Sermons, by the Rev. T. Griffith. 11s. The Forgiveness of Sin the Privilege of the Redeemed; by the Rev. J. Smyth; in Opposition to the Doctrine of Universal Pardon. 3s.
The Civil Duties of Mankind. By the Rev. J. Smyth.
The Worship of the Serpent traced throughout the World. By the Rev. B. Deane.
The Gairloch Heresy tried, in a Letter to the Rev. J. Campbell, and a Sermon. By the Rev. R. Burns, D.D.
Infidelity confuted on its own Gronnds. A Treatise on the Sabbath (being Dr. Dwight's Five Sermons that Subject). 6d.
A Discourse on Occasion of the Death of Mrs. Maitland. By the Rev. G. Clayton. 1s.
Metrical Sketches, Descriptive and
The History of Scotland.
The Fall of Nineveh, a Poem. By E. Atherstone. Vol. II. 10s. 6d.
Criminal Executions, the Penal Code,
The Scottish Communion
SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGA
TION OF THE GOSPEL.
FROM the last Report of this venerable and useful Church-of-England institution we collect the following outline of its proceedings:
Diocese of Nova Scotia.-The communications received from the several missionaries exhibit the beneficial effects arising from the personal inspection of the bishop, as having been the cause of greater exertion on the part of the clergy, and of a closer bond of union among the members of the church. More than 7000 persons availed themselves of the rite of Confirmation administered by the bishop during his last visitation. This is only one of the many advantages arising from these periodical visitations: but when it is considered that the several parts of this diocese embrace a circuit of many thousand miles, to be reached only with much toil and exposure to danger, a division of the diocese is scarcely less required in this case, and in the other North-American portion of the empire, than in India; and the society hope that his Majesty's MiCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 339.
nisters will so far be persuaded of the utility of the measure, that no long time will be suffered to elapse before sufficient provision be made for this essential increase of the ecclesiastical establishment.
Newfoundland.-In St. John's the principal town in the island and the seat of government, the means adopted last year for the introduction of the national system of education have been found abundantly effective; and the several missionaries in the province, it is stated, have all been active and zealous in the performance of their duties.
Nova Scotia. The schools at Halifax continue to afford the benefits of education to nearly 400 children. There are parts of this province, as well as of the other colonies in North America, where the settlers stand as much in need of religious instruction, and of the administration of Christian ordinances, as if they were entirely separated from the civilized world; and their children, adds the Report, "would have grown up in utter ignorance of the saving truths of Divine revelation, had not an affectionate concern for their 2 B
welfare, prompted pious and zealous persons to encounter difficulties and dangers, in order to impart to them the knowledge of Christianity, and the comforts of its sacraments." "There cannot be an object of greater compassion," continues the Report, "or one more deserving of our best exertions, than the parent driven from his native country by the difficulties of maintaining his family, struggling in a remote district to support a bare existence, himself feeling alive to the duties of a Christian, and the privileges of the Gospel covenant, and seeing his family grow up to maturity unconscious of their obligations, and in utter ignorance either of the necessity, or of the existence of a Redeemer;"-and yet in this state numbers are found dispersed over the wild and desolate country, little superior in their information or their habits to the native tribes of the forest.
New Brunswick.-The church in this province keeps pace with the increase of the population; and in some of the more distant places additional provision has been made for the administration of its ordinances. Through the munificence of his Majesty and the bounty of the legislature, a collegiate institution has been founded in the vicinity of Fredericton, to which a charter had been granted, placing it under the government of a president, vice-president, and council, in connexion with the Church of England. The society have signified their readiness to endow the institution with a certain number of divinity scholarships. An increase has been made to the missionary establishment of six ministers.
Canada. In the diocese of Quebec many new missions have been opened, and additional strength has been given to the ministry, by the ordination and employment of several young men. The Bishop of Quebec has devoted a considerable portion of the year to a visitation of part of his diocese; and the good effects have already become visible in renewed application for the establishment of missions.
Calcutta. The missionary cause in this part of the world has again to lament the injurious effects of the suspension of the Episcopal authority by the death of the late bishop. The loss thus sustained has proved a serious impediment to the progress of the recent establishments of the society. The lamented death of the Rev. Thomas Christian, the judicious and indefatigable missionary near Bhagulpoor, has occasioned the disappointment of the hopes in that quarter, cherished by Bishop Heber. No successor could be found to
replace Mr. Christian in his perilous task; and the children who had been intrusted to his care by the chiefs, for the purpose of instruction, whose confidence also he had gained by his simple manners and benevolent character, have become again the victims of ignorance and superstition. The Rev. W. Tweedle, and the Rev. M. Mello, continue the superintendence of the large circle of native schools. Rev. W. Morton has brought to a termination a Bengalli dictionary, and he is now translating the Liturgy into that language. It is an object of earnest desire with the society, to give every possible aid to, the missionary cause in the Madras presidency. "The same fruits," adds the Report," that attended the exemplary career of Swartz, and others his predecessors and contemporaries may, with the blessing of God, be expected, if the same energy of character and pious dispositions are exhibited in the present generation, Indeed, the impediments to success in the scene of their labours may be said to be in a degree removed, as an impression has already been made upon the native mind, and the convert sees a numerous body of his fellow-citizens prepared to receive him as a brother."-To Bishop's College, Calcutta, the society look forward as the best means of ensuring, with the blessing of God, ultimate success to their endeavours.
Codrington College. — After many delays, the society have been enabled to adopt preliminary measures to place the establishment upon that footing, which was principally in the contemplation of the munificent founder. To render the college more available for the purposes of a sound theological education, the constitution is so far amended, as to admit of the appointment of a principal and tutor, with a view to the preparation of a certain number of students for holy orders, twelve of whom will be maintained and educated free of any charge. These may be chosen from any part of his Majesty's West-Indian possessions. A medical professor is appointed to give lectures to the students in physic and chirurgery. In connexion with the college, a seminary is to be opened at the residence of the chaplain, where a limited number of boys may be admitted for gratuitous education, and prepared as candidates for future admission into the higher departments. Mr. Pinder is appointed principal, with a salary of 10007. per annum.
The statements in the Report next refer to the society's slaves. The reporter adroitly avoids this odious word, calling
them by every other better sounding de. signation he can devise; though, if it be no shame for the society to retain slaves, we see no shame in calling them by that name. They are slaves; and the society are slave-holders—why disguise it? The statement contains, in effect, two declarations, that the society have been very anxious for their slaves, but that their wishes have been miserably disappointed. The reporter states,
"It will not be surprising to find, that some of the criminal indulgences and habits of the Black population still continue to resist the power and force of every admonition of the minister, whether given in public, or renewed in his private conversations, and remains as a proof that they are not yet fully sensible of their Christian obligations. The society have repeated their exhortations to all in their service, on whom the Negro is in any measure dependent, whether lay or clerical, to use every possible means of inducing them to comply with every Christian ordinance. That with this view they have called the attention of their excellent attorney, to the encouragement of marriages among the Black population of the estates; suggesting that much good effect might arise, from offering to such persons as continue to live strictly in the connexion thus formed, some superior advantages, either in their babitations or their clothing, as a mark of distinction, and a proof of their sense of Christian obligation.
"The society are sensible that it has ever formed a subject of urgent remonstrance with the chaplain, to point out the sin of continuing to form connexions without the sanction, of matrimony; but they have observed with sorrow, how little effect these remonstrances have produced, either public or private. They have again entered upon their journals a strong expression of their regret, that the efforts of the chaplain to promote marriages among the Negroes have been attended with so little success; and, considering it to be of the utmost importance, that no practicable method of effecting this desirable object should be spared, the society have requested the Bishop of Barbados to consult with the attorney of the estates, as to the most efficient means of encouraging marriages among the Negroes, assuring his lordship of their readiness to co-operate with him to the very utmost of their means, even if it should be found necessary at considerable pecuniary sacrifice, in the prosecution of so pious and charitable a design.
"While the odious traffic in slaves was permitted, and continual importations
from Africa tainted the native population with the vicious practices and habits of that barbarous and uncivilized land, the difficulties of encountering with success the prejudices of the Negroes might be found insuperable; but as the baneful influence arising from the introduction of this class no longer exists, it is reasonable to believe, that their minds may be opened to the full influence of Christian principles, and a conviction that while they are admitted to the hopes and privileges of the Christian covenant, it will become them to submit to the restraints of that ordinance, without the observance of which they cannot be deemed a Christian community, and the breach of which has ever been considered as one of the most serious offences against God and man."
So much for the reporter's hopeful anticipations: our own, we confess, are by no means sanguine. Our chief comfort in this melancholy affair is, that the best friends of the society begin to understand the circumstances of the case, and are anxious to apply some remedy. No remedy at all effectual, we are convinced, is yet in operation. The reporter may feel ashamed of the name of slave, and avoid it on paper; but while slavery exists in fact, the inherent vices of slavery cannot be extirpated. Surely the blessing of God is not on this department of the society's labours. We feel strongly, and might say much-but we forbear.
We had almost forgotten to notice the Bishop of Winchester's Sermon prefixed to the Report. We regret that we have not space left to quote from this truly pious, affectionate, and appropriate dis
ANNIVERSARIES OF CHURCH
National Society, at Central Schoolroom, May 12, at two o'clock;-Sons of the Clergy, at St. Paul's, May 13, and dinner in Merchant-Tailors' Hall on the same day; the Anniversary Dinner of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, May 25, at Free-Masons' Tavern ; -the Examination of the Children of the Clergy Orphan Society in St John's Wood Road, May 27;-the Meeting of the Children in St. Paul's, June 3.-The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts will not have a public meeting this year.
HOME MISSIONS IN IRELAND.
We have several times alluded with much pleasure to the Home Missions conducted under Episcopal authority in