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and "preach the faith" which his book has a tendency to "destroy." Such a course would gain him the reverence of every honest and Christian mind.
Of Professor Faussett's sermon we have just stated that it is "able and interesting." The learned author shews most convincingly the error of Mr. Milman in professing to separate the political history of the Jews from theological considerations; his low and inadequate views of Divine inspiration; and the erroneous and dangerous cha racter of the theory which would accommodate religious truths to the progress of civilization.
those of our readers who have read the work animadverted upon, we strongly recommend the perusal of the whole of this pulpit review and refutation of its errors. We should have preferred that the reverend
preacher had not so personally alluded to Professor Milman in the pulpit; as the refutation would have been equally forcible by reprobating the principles of the book, without designating the anonymous author. The audience would have made the application; and the preacher would have kept farther from the range of the fifty-third canon, against "public opposition between preachers." If Professor Milman were to reply from the same pulpit, and the practice were to become common, our academical groves would cease to be a calm arena for discussion. Our remark extends not to the faithfulnesss and appropriateness of Professor Faussett's address, for which we cordially thank him, but only to the personal references; which however are not disparaging, but quite the contrary.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
In the press or preparing for publication: -Sermons preached before the University of Cambridge; by the Rev. Professor Lee; -God's Mercy to his Church, illustrated in Twenty Sermons; by the Rev. F. G. Crossman;-English Prisoners in France; by the Rev. R. B. Wolfe.
The Christian-Observer "Forty Family Sermons," just published, are on the following subjects:-"Spiritual Benefits of sanctified Affliction; Character of Abijah; Defections in Religion; Christ's Poverty, the Christian's Riches; Vain Prayers; The Crime of Judas; God's Power beyond the Christian's Conceptions; Job's seeing God; Character and Benefits of Brotherly Love; Doing the Will of God; The Mystery of the Fellowship of Christ; Job's Acknowledgment and Prayer; Changing our God; Dying in Faith; The Origin, Sinfulness, and Punishment of Falsehood; Communion with God; God's speaking to Man; The Heavenly Inhabitants; Herod's Wish to see Christ; The Journey to Emmaus; The Prodigal Son; The Works of the Devil; Christ made unto us Sanctification; The Mercies of CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 340.
God in Christ; The Goodness and Severity of God; The Resurrection of the Body; The Joy in Samaria; Our Lord's Weeping over Jerusalem; The Righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees; Christ our Example and Sacrifice; Importance of keeping God in our Thoughts; St. Paul ready to be offered; Grieving the Holy Spirit; The Sin, Affliction, and Restoration of Manasseh; The Choice of Moses; Acquainting ourselves with God; Faith purifying the Heart; Spiritual Meditation; Debt and Grace; The Last Words of the Saviour." The Preface to the work contains an account of the origin, progress, and principles of the Christian Observer, with notices of some of the writers who have contributed to its pages. Our publisher has had the volume handsomely printed and done up in cloth, (price 12s.) to fit it the better for the purpose mentioned in Mrs. Hannah More's letter, of "presenting to families in which the Christian Observer is hitherto unknown."
Sir Humphrey Davy argues from analogy, in his "Consolations of Travel," that the human soul will have no reminis 2 L
cences of earthly scenes in a future state. There runs, he says, throughout the works of the Creator, a principle that only those organs, habits, and instincts are reserved to a living being after a transformation which are necessary to its new state of existence. The butterfly, he considers, knows nothing of its larvæ, or aurelia state; its faculties and enjoyments being wholly conformed to its new condition. From this analogy, Sir Humphrey concludes, that nothing but intellectual power, or the love of knowledge will survive the dissolution of soul and body. He speaks as a philosopher; but speaking as Christians we should say, without however admitting the truth of the alleged analogy, that the surviving faculties of the soul will be spiritual, rather than intellectual. Newton could not take the Principia to heaven; but the humblest Christian will take his regenerate nature, made meet for the inheritance of the saints in light.
The blast furnaces at the Clyde IronWorks, are supplied with hot air, the saving caused by which is stated to be very great. The air is heated rather beyond the point of boiling water; but a higher temperature, it is thought, might be employed with advantage.
Dr. Wollaston, it is observed in Dr. Lardner's Cyclopædia, obtained very fine wire for the object glass of his telescopes for observing the relative places of the stars, by inserting a platina wire in a cylinder of silver, wire-drawing the whole, and then melting the silver coating. Silver wire may be drawn tea three-hundredth of an inch diameter; so that if the platina wire was originally one tenth of the thickness of the silver, it now becomes only a three-thousandth of an inch. Wollaston procured some only an eighteenth-thousandth, which did not intercept the smallest star. A piece of platinum, of the size of the tip of a man's finger, would stretch out across Europe. Yet what is this to the minuteness exhibited in some of the works of creation? Animalcules have been discovered, whose magnitude is such, that a million of them does not exceed the bulk of a grain of sand; and yet each of these creatures is composed of members as curiously orga. nised as those of the largest species; they have life and spontaneous motion, and are endued with sense and instinct. These creatures have heart, arteries, veins, muscles, sinews, tendons, nerves, circulating fluids, and all the concomitant apparatus of a living organised body.
Dr. Hibbert has endeavoured to prove that that remarkable animal, the fossil elk of Ireland,known only by its bones and horns, found among the fossilized bones of ancient extinct animals, actually existed in Europe as late as the sixteenth century. His argument is an account of an animal stated to be found in the recesses of the forests of Prussia, in a scarce work by Munster, printed in the year 1550, with a curious portrait of the animal, the horns of which certainly resemble those of the fossil elk; but whether they are identical, and whether Munster's plate may not be fabulous, or at least exaggerated, we leave to the inquiries of geological naturalists. FRANCE.
M. Arago is diligently registering observations upon spots in the sun, with a view to verify the truth of M. Herschell's hypothesis, that spots are the result of active incandescence; in proof of which it is urged, that the crops in England are uniformly more abundant when there are numerous spots upon the sun.
A memoir was lately read at the Academy of Sciences, recommending as the best and cheapest way of cleaning the black crust from old stone buildings, to wash them with weak diluted muriatic acid.
The important office of professor of moral philosophy and pulpit eloquence in the Protestant University of Montauban, is vacant by the death of M. Frossard, and great efforts are being made to procure a successor of thorough Neologian principles, to which unhappily the majority of the professors and students are attached. Let us have a rational religion, say they, such as modern enlightened France requires, and above all "no Methodism;" (for our French neighbours have adopted this word as familiarly, and use it as vaguely, as do many persons in England.) M. Stapfer of Paris, and M. Vincent of Nismes, have been invited to become candidates. On the character of the person who shall be elected may depend for years to come the character of the next race of French Protestant ministers. Of the sentiments of the late M. Frossard, we are not sufficiently informed to give a correct statement. He was born in 1755; pursued his theological studies in Geneva; became a Protestant pastor at Lyons; was expelled at the Revolution; obtained so much celebrity that he received the high honour of the degree of Doctor from the University of Oxford. In 1789 he published a powerful treatise against the slave trade; and some years after
translated Blair's Sermons into French; and more recently Mr. Wilberforce's Practical View of Christianity. He rendered many services to the French Protestants with the government, especially in procuring permission for the establishment of the Protestant faculty of theology at Montauban, of which he was dean, pastor, and professor, till the well-known disturbances in 1815, when he was expelled from the deanery, but afterwards resumed his professorship.
Newton's "Omicron's Letters" have been translated into French, and are widely circulating; and a translation of his Cardiphonia is in progress. Bishop Heber's Journal, notwithstanding its great length, has been translated into French, and is being published in Paris.
The council of Neufchatel, which lately prohibited religious meetings of dissenters, has revoked its decision, so as to allow of them under some restrictions, and with a recommendation that the service should not be in the hours of divine worship in the established church.
The company of pastors of Geneva have instituted two prizes for students in theology.
The first volume in quarto, of the long announced, and by biblical scholars ardently expected, edition of the Greek Testament, with various readings, collected by the learned Dr. J. Martin Augustin Scholz, has just been published at Bonn, upon the Rhine. Ten years have elapsed since this great work was announced. In that interval, Professor Scholz has travelled over the greater part of Europe, Greece, and Palestine, and visited Egypt for the purpose of collating manuscripts. The first volume, besides copious and learned prolegomena, contains the Four Gospels, with various readings, amounting to very many thousands, collected by preceding editors or by himself, besides those which are to be found in the various ancient versions, and in the writings of the fathers of the Christian church, and the acts of the early ecclesiastical councils. The total number of manuscripts collated amounts to six hundred and seventy-four, including Evangelisteria, or Lessons extracted from the Four Gospels. Of these, not fewer than three hundred and twenty-two have for the first time been collated by Dr. Scholz, who also re-collated some of those which had been examined for various readings by or for preceding editors. When this stu
pendous undertaking (which is advancing as rapidly at the press as its nature will permit) shall be completed, we propose to lay before our readers a more detailed account of its plan and execution. At present it may suffice to state, for their satisfaction, that the result of Professor Scholz's labours, so far as they have proceeded, only tends to furnish an additional and irrefragable proof (if further proof were wanting) of the integrity with which the New Testament, has by the Divine blessing, descended to our times.
The gratifying official intelligence has at length arrived of the prohibition by government of burning widows. Tens of thousands of human beings will live to bless the present benevolent and enlightened governor-general of India for this enactment. We trust that humane attention will be directed towards the poor creatures thus rescued; for, till the native prejudices have a little subsided, they will probably be viewed as degraded outcasts: nor is any suitable provision made for their support; and they are little better than menial dependents in the abode which was once their own. But the law being now on the side of justice and humanity, the feelings of the people may be made gradually to conform to it. This great act of Christian duty being at length accomplished, we trust that it will be followed up by various other beneficial measures. The extinction of lotteries is imperatively demanded, especially since their The native abolition by the parent state. usages in various parts of India relative to slavery, need a thorough investigation, with a view to introduce judicious measures for the abolition of this opprobrium of human nature; for though involuntary servitude, where it exists in India, is of a comparatively mild and domestic character, and not for a moment to be likened to the atrocities of West-Indian slavery, yet it is of necessity an unjust and impolitic institution, and ought to be exterminated. The exposure of the sick and aged on the banks of the Ganges ought to be prevented; and also the practice of infanticide, still too prevalent in various parts of India, notwithstanding its legal prohibition. The British countenance, directly or indirectly given to various native superstitions, and particularly to the appalling idolatries at Juggernaut, ought promptly to be withdrawn. We have no right to coerce the natives into our laws, or customs, or religion; but as Christians we ought to do all we can to enlighten
their minds, and above all not to be partakers of their sins.
Among recent American reprints, we are glad to observe the Rev. D. Wilson's valuable Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity.
The Jesuit, a Roman-Catholic weekly publication in Boston, states, that the number of persons of that persuasion in that city some years since was only 160, that it had increased in 1820 to more than two thousand, and in 1829 to more than seven thousand.
The following method of making small maps has been employed at Boston. The names of places are set up in types where they are to stand, the interstices being filled up with quadrates of the height of the types. Stereotype metal is then poured on; and on the plate formed by it, the lines, mountains, &c. are engraved. Thus a mould is formed, on which metal being poured, a plate is procured with the words and lines in relief, so as to admit of being printed instead of being rolled; and the letters are better formed than those which are etched or engraved.
A patent has been taken out for branded letters on guide posts, mile-posts, &c. The branded letters are more legible and more durable than painted letters, and may be traced in the dark; a great con
venience in the remote parts of the country. An alphabet of brands costs only a few dollars and will last for many years.
The Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road Company, employing more than three thousand labourers, of all countries, have made it a condition in their contracts, that no spirituous liquors shall be introduced among the workmen. There is labour, it is stated, in every variety; bridging, ditching, blasting, excavations; wet and dry, hot and cold, and all without spirituous liquors. The regularity, dispatch, good order, and health of the workmen, and the peace of the neighbourhood, are said to be remarkably promoted.
Professor Stuart of Andover College has published a letter on Free Masonry, in which he explodes the absurd pretence that this institution is very ancient, and existed at the building of the temple of Solomon; and he justly reprobates the trifling with oaths and the awful name of God, which are involved in the proceedings of the order.
There are not less than 50,000 tons of steam-boat freight on the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi The number of boats is 200; and the largest rate is 500 tons. The fuel employed is wood.
The excellent prison at Auburn, New York, more than supports itself by the labours of the convicts.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The second and concluding vol. of the Rev. D. Wilson's Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity.
"Hear the Church," Ten Sermons. By the Rev. W. Hancock. 2s.
Discourses on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul. By T. Allin. 6s. Sermons on the Dangers and Duties of a Christian. By the Rev. E. Neale. 8s. 6d. Sermons. By the Rev. E. S. Appleyard. 43.
Sermons. By the Rev. C. Townsend. A Guide to the Reading of the Bible. By W. Carpenter. 5s.
A Sermon on the Cause and Remedy of National Distress. By the Rev. E. Elliott.
Two Essays on the Assurance of Faith, and on the Extent of the Atonement and Universal Pardon. By R. Wardlaw, D.D.
The Writings of Tindal, Frith, and Barnes, British Reformers. 4s. 8d.
Sacred History in Letters. Part I. Memoir of the Controversy respecting the three Heavenly Witnesses of 1 John v.7. A Catechism of Scripture History. 6d. A Sermon on a recently discovered Murder. By the Rev. W. C. Bennett.
The Security and Influence of the Church of England augmented. By the Rev. J. Riland. 6s.
Supplement to the Examination of the
The Injurious Effects of Tithe, &c. By a Magistrate.
The Cabinet Cyclopædia on Mechanics. Part V. 6s.
On the Law of Wills, with Advice to Executors. By R. Dickson. 5s. 6d.
A Vindication of Dr. Paley's Theory of Morals. By the Rev. L. Wainewright. The Last Days of Bishop Heber. By the Rev. T. Robinson. 9s.
A Christian View of the State of the
Serious Inquiries. By Rev. J. Campbell.
Hours of Devotion. Translated from
Pilgrim's Progress, with a Life of Bunyan. By R. Southey, D.LL. 17. Is.
PAROCHIAL VISITING SOCIE
WE rejoice to witness the increase of Parochial and District Visiting Societies. The benefits of such institutions, particularly when conducted under the auspices of the clergy of a district or parish are incalculable. One of the most important of these institutions, and which may serve as a model for others, is that established in the parish of St. Giles's London, under the active pastoral superintendence of the Rev. J. Tyler, the rector, who has recently circulated an interesting address to his parishioners on the subject. "The chief object," he remarks, " of our society, is the religious and moral improvement of our poorer fellow-creatures ;—among its many concomitant and subsidiary benefits is the alleviation of their sufferings in sickness and extreme poverty. The mode by which these ends, under God's blessing, are attempted is very simple: The whole parish is divided into districts, each district is subdivided into sections, and each section is assigned to one or more visitors, according to the density and other circumstances of the population. These voluntary labourers, who engage to be assistants to the parochial clergy, and to act under their superintendence, visit, the abodes of poverty, as their leisure may allow, or opportunities offer. In their visits, they endeavour to become acquainted with the real state of a family, or an individual, with a view to their best interests as members of the community, and as responsible agents, possessed of souls fitted for immortality.
"With regard to their spiritual wants, all are invited to study the word of God, as the glad tidings of reconciliation with Him to learn their duty to their Maker and their fellow-creatures there, and the means of grace and the hopes of glory which the Gospel offers. The obligation is pressed upon their minds of attending public worship, of being constant in daily prayer, of exerting themselves to secure their own livelihood by honest means and industrious habits, and of training up their children to lead a godly and a Christian life. In furtherance of these points of advice, short treatises of a religious and moral character, previously selected and approved by the parochial minister, are either given or lent, as the case may require.
"With regard to bodily disease, the poor sufferers are in many cases provided with advice and medicine, afforded gratuitously by the kind attention of fellowlabourers in our work. In relieving the wants of poverty, great care is taken to select the most deserving objects, as well as the most distressing cases. Relief is generally conveyed in food and clothing, rather than in money."
The reverend writer concludes his urgent address to his parishioners to assist in this excellent design, by reminding them in a tone of solemnity and affection, that "the time is short; the day is hastening to us all, when we shall be removed from these scenes of sin and suffering, and when we must give an account of our stewardship. We are stewards of our time, our knowledge, every faculty of our soul and body, all means within our reach of improving the condition of our fellow-creatures by our property, our example, our influence, and our personal exertions. All these things are talents intrusted to our care. They are not our own. Nothing we have is our own."
Other metropolitan parishes, we trust, will follow this excellent example, either by forming visiting societies, or improving their plan and rendering them more efficient where they exist. The rector and other parochial clergy of St. James's have issued an address, in which, though they do not propose a visiting society on the plan of that in St. Giles's, and other places, (the chief objects they think being attainable under the present system of parochial management,) they urge many excellent suggestions, especially the following:
"We feel it our duty to call the attention of all classes of parishioners to that crying evil, the very prevalent neglect and lamentable profanation of the Lord's-day. Very many of the temporal distresses of the poor are created (or at least greatly aggravated) by the excesses committed on that day which God ordained to be set apart for holy rest and spiritual improvement, but which is too commonly profaned by the grossest immoralities. At all events, the blessing of the Lord can never be expected to descend on their weekly labours, who despise his ordinance, and will not draw nigh to him even on his own day. We implore the heads of families, both masters and mistresses, to examine into