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O Lord God, which despisest not a contrite heart, and forgivest the sins and wickedness of a sinner, in what hour soever he doth mourn and lament his old manner of living; grant unto us, O Lord, true contrition of heart, that we may vehemently despise our sinful life past, and wholly be converted to thee, by our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.


O merciful Father, by whose power and strength we may overcome our enemies both bodily and ghostly; grant unto us, Lord, that according to our promise made in our baptism, we may overcome the chief enemies of our soul; that is, the desires of the world, the pleasures of the flesh, and the suggestions of the wicked spirit; and so lead our lives in holiness and righteousness, that we may serve thee in spirit and truth, and that by our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.


O Almighty and everlasting God, which not only givest every good and perfect gift, but also increasest those gifts that thou has given; we most humbly beseech thee, merciful God, to increase in us the gift of faith, that we may truly believe in thee, and in the promises made unto us, and that neither by our negligence or infirmity of the flesh, nor by grievousness of temptation, neither by the subtile crafts and assaults of the devil, we may be driven from faith in the blood of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ.



Grant unto us, most merciful God, we most humbly beseech thee, knowledge and true understanding of thy word, that all ignorance being expelled, we may know what thy

will and pleasure is in all things, and how to do our duty, and truly to walk in our vocation, and that also we may express in our living those things that we know, that we be not only followers of thy word, good Lord, but also be workers of the same, by our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.


O Almighty God, who hast promised everlasting life to all those which be thy faithful servants; grant unto us, Lord, sure hope of the life everlasting, that we being in this miserable world may have some taste and feeling of it in our hearts, and that not by our deserving, but by the merits and deserving of our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen. O merciful God, our only aid and succour and strength at all times, grant unto us, O Lord, that in the time of prosperity we be not proud, and so forget thee, but that with our whole heart and spirit we may cleave unto thee; and in the time of adversity, that we fall not into infidelity and desolation, but that always with a constant faith we may call for help unto thee: Grant this, O Lord, for our Advocate's sake, and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen.


O Almighty and merciful Lord, which givest unto thy elect people the gift of the Holy Ghost, as a sure pledge of thy heavenly kingdom; grant unto us, Lord, thy Holy Spirit, that he may bear witness with our spirits that we be thy children, and heirs of thy kingdom; and that by his operation we may kill all carnal lusts, unlawful pleasures, concupiscence, and evil affections contrary to thy will, by our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.



(Continued from p. 353.)

I PROCEED, as promised, to copy some extracts from Vehrli's journal, which describe his manner of fulfilling his duties. I do not vouch for all the theology.

"We were employed," says Vehrli, "in hoeing a field of fine wheat, and among the weeds we noticed some of the blue corn-flower. One of the boys, Yorg, remarked, It appears to me that it is the same with men as it is with plants: I mean, that there are some good and some bad. Among the best men there are some that are wicked, as we find noxious weeds among the most useful plants. Among wicked men too, there are many who appear to be good: and one might almost believe them to be so. There is a man of that kind in the village that I came from, and there are many others elsewhere. It is just the same with plants. One would scarcely believe this cornflower, which looks so pretty and is so bright a blue, to be one of the most mischievous weeds. But we root it up, and God will destroy the wicked.'

"When the season no longer allows them to labour in the fields, they are employed in making baskets, in plaiting straw for chairs and mats, in splitting or sawing wood, in making up faggots, in threshing, riddling, cutting up roots for the use of the cattle, and in knitting stockings."

"Yorg[the lad above mentioned] was not accustomed to wash himself, and was astonished at my urging him to wash his hands two or three times in the day. He asked me whether it was M. Fellenberg's order. Certainly,' I replied: why should he look at your hands every morning, unless it were to see that they are clean?' Yorg-But what is the use of it?' Madorli who was

listening answered, 'It preserves our health.' Yorg- How does it preserve our health?' 'Listen, my children, while I explain the reason to you. We perspire continually; a certain moisture or vapour, is at all times exhaling from our bodies: the harder we work, the more you know we perspire; but even when we are not in violent exercise, this moisture escapes in a certain degree. Look now: I placed my hand upon one of the panes of glass of the window: I then asked them, 'What is this white upon the glass, which prevents its being transparent?' Yorg touched it with his finger, and said, 'It is wet.'

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Yes; it is wet with the water or vapour which came from my hand. If we do not wash every day, but suffer the dust to settle upon the skin, perspiration is checked, and this soon makes us ill.'

"At our meals I take care to remind them that it is from God we receive whatever serves us for meat and drink. I explain to them, that man may indeed, by his labour, earn his daily bread, but that the health and ability which make that labour useful to him are the gift of God; and I teach them that the best way in which we can shew our thankfulness to him, is to make a right use of the strength which is afforded us by every meal. The effect produced in this way is, I think, more beneficial than making them repeat a form of prayer before and after eating.

"When I propose employing bodily chastisement, it is seldom applied immediately after the fault has been committed; but suspended till the child has had time for reflexion. The following is pretty much the way in which I make them understand why they ought to be punished:

You have committed such and such a fault to-day, my children: (I remind them severally what each may have done wrong :) would chil

dren wise and reasonable conduct themselves in this manner? No, assuredly; children who wish to please God and their fellow-creatures, children who wish to be good and happy, act very differently. It is displeasing to God, who sees and hears every thing: he punishes them by not suffering them to prosper when grown up; and if they do not attend to the advice of their parents or masters, but persist in their ill conduct, God punishes them in the next life also; instead of which he receives the good into heaven. That you may never be as unhappy as naughty children are, I warn and admonish you to behave well; because I am anxious that you may prosper when you grow up but this cannot happen, if you constantly neglect the cautions you receive from me. Nothing will be more likely to remind you of what I have so often told you, than my making use of the ferula, although I do this with great reluctance. You who have already forgotten the caution I gave you last week, are to receive two strokes on the right, and one on the left hand. And you who were to-day guilty of such a grievous fault, how miserable will you be, if you persist in these bad habits! I shall strike you twice on each hand; and when you have any temptation to do wrong for the future, this pain will remind you that God, who beholds, will punish you by the inevitable consequences of your faults."

"When in the summer of 1811, young Garth left school, and was on the point of going home, his companions were quite distressed, and Madorli proposed to do something to please him at parting. They all seized the idea, and begged my permission for each to give him a penny. This Madorli had been brought up as a beggar; but he says that he was ashamed of the occupation, and would have preferred any thing else to begging from door to door, but his mother compelled him. In less than three months he

had learned to write very tolerably, and to calculate mentally with great facility. After leaving Hofwyl, he went into the service of a Hungarian nobleman, Count Abassy, who in consequence of his general good conduct, and to increase the respect of his vassals and tenantry for him, admitted him to his own table.

"Some of our pupils appeared to be quite out of spirits on their first arrival, and Schlafli was the one who found most difficulty in recovering himself. Sometimes he would

weep the whole day; and often while the other children were at work, he would throw himself on the ground, saying he was not used to labour, and could not accustom himself to it. It was also a real grievance to him, to be obliged to leave off his habit of wearing a hat." "One evening when his companions were all gone to bed, he came to me in tears, and said, I see very well that I cannot stay here longer: I shall die of grief: do pray let me go away." "It is not, you know," added he, "that I do not like you very much, but I cannot accustom myself to live here: besides, I am sure I shall be ill if I do not wear a hat." I combated this idea by instancing the others, who had none of them suffered from going bareheaded, but in vain: he always returned me the same answer, that he could never become accustomed to it. I thought it therefore better to make him easy by promising, that if at the end of three weeks he continued to be of the same mind, I would ask M. Fellenberg's permission for him to return to his master. This satisfied him; but at the end of three weeks he no longer wished to leave us."

"John Ammon came here the 7th Oct. 1810. He was only eight years old, and from his earliest infancy, had been among strangers: the poor child had generally been in bad hands, and often ill-treated. At first he would tell the grossest falsehoods, and even when convicted of his faults, persisted in denying

them. Ammon seemed to take pleasure in spoiling whatever came within his reach: he had a small pocket-knife with which he amused himself, carelessly cutting the plants without considering the mischief he was doing. He has not only corrected this perverse disposition, but is become very careful, especially with respect to plants. He has also left off lying. His health is improved: he used to be excessively pale, but has now a good colour." "In the summer of 1812, Michael Hunziger was admitted into the school. His brother Samuel, had entered it in 1810, and welcomed him with transports of joy. We expected that Michael would have some share of his brother's vivacity; but, on the contrary, he was excessively dull, and all his movements were slow and awkward. Samuel takes great care of him, and the first evening after his arrival sat up till midnight to mend his clothes. He shews him how to set about his work, in the best possible manner, and urges him to make himself constantly useful. He plays with him during the hours of recreation, and exercises him in leaping, in order that he may become more active." These memoranda from Vehrli's journal may, perhaps, seem too familiar for publication; but they will serve to illustrate M. Fellenberg's system better than elaborate observations.

to strangers, lest feelings of vanity should be fostered by this kind of exhibition. During the latter part of the summer, the number of visitors at Hofwyl is great: of course the young gentlemen of the Institute, and those of the intermediate school, are not to be interrupted at their studies; and Verhli's boys are generally in the fields the greater part of the day.

In my attempt to give an outline of M. Fellenberg's principles of education, as connected with his practice, I have noticed only the Institute, and Vehrli's school. The reader will scarcely fail to distinguish what regulations and maxims apply only to one, and what to both; in common with the intermediate school, and that for girls. The employment in this last must necessarily be different from those in that for indigent boys; but its supporter, anxious that nothing prejudicial to the formation of the character should be permitted, does not ordinarily allow it to be shewn

One of the most efficacious instruments of discipline and moral suasion used in M. Fellenberg's establishment is what is termed The Recapitulation. Before retiring to their dormitories the pupils of the respective schools assemble of an evening, either at once, or according to their ages; and a review is taken of the events of the day, as they may have arisen, including whatever may have been reprehensible or otherwise in the conduct of any. It is not the custom to be too minute in censure, or to administer that reproach, tender that advice, or bestow that approval publicly, which had better be reserved for some private opportunity: but there may be a variety of delinquencies which are generally known, and these can be made the topics of inquiry, of animadversion, and of counsel. Each pupil is encouraged, with a regard to veracity, freely and respectfully to reply to alleged charges, and this gives an interest to these occasions. M. Fellenberg, as the head and father of the whole family, presides at them in the Institute, and then closes the day by offering up a prayer, which embraces the subjects on which he has had to descant. When no special subject calls for scrutiny or observation, M. Fellenberg urges some general point, such as attention to duty, the motives to diligence, the responsibility of rational beings, and the concerns of religion.

Remonstrance and approbation are more likely to have their legitimate force, where none of those stimulants to exertion and propriety are pressed into the service of the preceptor, which confuse the in

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fantile mind, and prevent its clearly discerning the distinctions between right and wrong. M.Fellenberg is very anxious on this subject, as well as in watching over those associations of thought which stamp the most durable impressions on the minds of children. He would not, for example, make the Bible a task-book, or even one by which prizes may be gained through the exercise of the memory. This is a ready way to render the scholar a parrot in divinity, and inattentive to the invaluable contents of the Inspired Volume. Every child should know the Holy Scriptures, "which are able to make wise unto salvation;" they are for our guidance and consolation, and to study them should be represented as a necessary and delightful employment; but the minds of children should not be worked upon by marks of ambitious distinction, rewards, or chastisements, in learning the Gospel of Jesus Christ our Lord God and Saviour.

But it is time that I should proceed to give my readers some account of MAYKIRK, and the colony of the Linth.

M. Fellenberg, perceiving me to be deeply interested in his experiments, proposed to me a ride to his colony of Maykirk. The system of education pursued there, similar in principle to that adopted at Hofwyl, is an illustration of a remedy which he believes would greatly aid in countervailing, amongst other evils, those of our English poor laws.

This little colony, which is seated on the side of a mountain above the village of Maykirk, distant six miles from Hofwyl, is a remarkable, but not in any respect an extravagant, speculation of an active philanthropy.

The afternoon on which we arranged to visit this rural seminary threatened rain: but I was anxious not to lose this opportunity, the only one I might have, of accompanying him thither; and he kindly mounting me on one of his horses,

we set off as appointed. The reader may fancy me musing in my excursion on the character and circumstances of men who, like M. Fellenberg, have been lifted into notoriety. Plutarch relates that Philopomen, being ever intent on his profession of war, was accustomed to consider with himself, and even to point out to those about him as he travelled, the difficulties of steep or broken ground, and how the ranks of an army should be extended or closed, according to the difference made by ditches, rivers, and defiles. This celebrated general seems to have well understood the importance of sedulity; and Ecdemus and Demophanes, as having rendered him, by the principles of philosophy, a common benefit to Greece, valued themselves more on having finishing his education than for all their other great actions. What Philopamen gained in the wars he laid out upon horses, or arms, or in redeeming captives; and he endeavoured to improve his own estate by the fairest possible means, that is, by agriculture. M. Fellenberg, likewise, is incessantly bent upon his vocation, not that of war, but of ameliorating_society, and agriculture is one of his greatest expedients. The reader may fancy him either in the calmness of his solitary meditative rides, holding his right hand lightly over his bridle hand, while he is deeply reflecting upon his benevolent projects, or explaining them to a friend with a zeal not short of that of Philopamen lecturing on war.

Whilst our horses were labouring up the narrow road, lying through a coppice, on the side of the mountain which rises over the village of Maykirk, the steepness of the ascent here forcing us to proceed at a pace favourable to conversation, he observed, that "as there are some fathers who have raised themselves from obscurity to affluence, so there are many good fathers who have to struggle severely even to maintain their families; while there are some

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