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1820, Andrew Nichols.
1843, Leverett Saltonstall. 1821, Abiel Abbott.
1844, John W. Proctor. 1822, Peter Eaton.
1845, Edwin M. Stone. 1823, Frederick Howes. 1846, Moses Newell. 1824
1847, Thomas E. Payson. to No address.
1848, Josiah Newhall.
1849, Asa T. Newhall. 1828, Timothy Pickering. 1850, Caleb Cushing. 1829, No address.
1851, Milton Braman. 1830, James H. Duncan. 1852, Henry K. Oliver. 1831, Henry Colman.
1853, Joseph S. Cabot. 1832, Gardner B. Perry. 1854, Richard S. Fay. 1833, Jeremiah Spofford. 1855, James R. Nichols. 1834, Ebenezer Moseley. 1856, Ben. Perley Poore. 1835, Daniel P. King.
1857, E. G. Kelley. 1836, Nathan W. Hazen. 1858, George B. Loring. 1837, Nathaniel Gage.
1859, James J. H. Gregory 1838, Leonard Withington. 1860, John L. Russell. 1839, Allen Putnam.
1861, Alfred A. Abbott. 1840, Asahel Huntington. 1862, George J. L. Colby. 1841, Alonzo Gray.
1863, Daniel Saunders. 1842, Allen W. Dodge.
1864, Darwin E. Ware. 1865, Nehemiah Cleaveland.
Of the above, Messrs. Colman, Gage, Putnam, Stone, and Russell, were, or had been clergymen. Messrs. Payson, Dodge and Poore had been members of the Bar. Messrs. Fay and Gregory had been in mercantile life. Mr. Nichols is a scientific and practical chemist.
At the anniversary of the Society in 1836, EDWARD EvERETT, then Governor of Massachusetts, was present, and his remarks at the dinner-table are preserved in the pamphlet of that year. Twenty-two years afterward he was again present-an invited guest—and his pleasant little speech may be found in the number for 1858.
POETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANNUAL EXERCISES OF THE
Andrew Nichols, 1835, The Farmer's Song.
1838, Anniversary Hymn.
1858, Giles Cory's Second Dream. Gail Hamilton,
1860, An Ode. John G. Whittier, 1865, Ode. The Peace Autumn.
Among the early and most efficient members of the Society, its second President, Mr. Frederick Howes, deserves a kind remembrance. Colonel Moseley was his successor, and served ably for four years. The name of Mr. James H. Duncan, fourth President, may be seen on many pages of the Society's Transactions; nor has he ceased to attend the meetings, or to speak words of encouragement and wisdom. His successor, Joseph Kittredge, was a successful farmer as well as doctor. Then came Leverett Saltonstall. No one, I am sure, who ever saw and heard him, can have forgotten how pleasant it was to look on his face, and listen to his voice. Mr. Proctor presided seven years, and then, for four years, the practical and sagacious Newell. Mr. Richard S. Fay, whose recent decease this Society has such reason to lament, was its President in 1856 and 1857. Of Colonel Adams (President in 1858 and 1859) I have spoken elsewhere. Mr. Allen W. Dodge presided, 1860 to 1862, but will be best remembered by seventeen previous years of faithful service as Sec
retary of the Society. If any one doubts that Mr. How, the late President, is a working man, let him look over the records of the Society, or go and see him on his farm. Gen. William Sutton, who has managed, for a quarter of a century, the finances of the Association, is now, very properly, placed at its head.
I have seen somewhere, and recently, a statement to this effect :- Two individuals had small patches of ground under similar cultivation and not far apart. Both believed in the efficacy of frequent stirring, and practised accordingly. One of them, who hoed twice a week and with excellent results, was yet surprised to find, after a while, that his neighbor, whose labors in that line he supposed to be less constant than his own, was decidedly ahead of him in the growth and vigor of his plantation. On stating to that person his disappointment, he was informed that the more productive soil which excited his wonder, had received three hoeings for every hoeing which he had bestowed.
THE UNIVERSAL NEED AND EFFICACY OF FAITH.
I think the following statement contains sound doctrine :6. True faith is faith in the truth; and as there is truth in all the other pursuits of life as well as religion-blessings to be foreseen before they are gained, and appreciated before they are sought-hence it comes to pass that faith is the source of practice in all the pursuits of life. in war; in
peace ; in sciences; in taking a journey, or crossing the ocean ; in coloring a picture, or shaping a statue ; in tilling a field, or in
raising a flower ;-wherever the inward idea must go before the outward manifestation, there man is and must be the creature of faith; and it is by faith that he procures his temporal as well as his eternal salvation.”- Rev. Mr. Withington's Address, 1838.
Some fourteen years ago, as I was one day walking along the Strand in London, I read on a conspicuous shop-sign the words, “ WENHAM LAKE ICE.” They carried me home at once, and I must needs go in and have a chat with the man who dealt in an article that had been produced within five miles of my birth-place. After listening to a copious descant on the excellent qualities of his commodity, I asked the voluble tradesman to give me the locality of this remarkable Wenham Lake. “Oh!” said he, “it is a very large lake—it is in a very cold country—and it is a great way off.”
The consequences, direct and indirect, of the French Revolution, so far as they affected the ownership of land in France and in England, were singularly unlike. After the murder and exile of the French nobility and gentry, their confiscated estates were subdivided and sold. The old laws of inheritance and primogeniture were abolished, and all the children, on the death of the parent, became entitled to equal shares of the
real, as well as of the personal property—a principle, which was afterwards incorporated in the Napoleonic Code. Under the operation of this law the land of France has been broken up into millions of small parcels, belonging to almost as many millions of small owners. These little patches, which, in some parts of the country, average less than half an acre in extent, are generally unfenced, and, for the most part, without roads or means of access, unless it be over the grounds of others. It is plain enough that such a state of things, whatever may be its political bearings, is unfavorable to agricultural progress.
A similar change in regard to the subdivision of landed property has taken place in the countries which lie north of France-in Prussia, and some other parts of Germany,—in Switzerland, and Northern Italy.
Very different was the effect, or, at least, the consequence of this great Revolution on the condition and ownership of land in England. There were, at the time referred to, many small farmers in that country-men of moderate means, who owned and cultivated the ground on which they lived. As a direct result of the long and costly war waged by the British government in behalf of royalty and the Bourbons, the taxes of England, and especially on landed property, were enormously increased. The small farmers, whose agriculture was none of the best, soon found it difficult to live. So they sold their patrimonial acres to the rich nobles and gentry around them. With the means thus obtained, they were enabled to lease and carry on farms, much larger and more profitable, than those which they relinquished. In this way the small English farmers gradually died out, and as a class, no longer exist.
It is undoubtedly true that many of those who now occupy, as tenants, the five hundred and thousand acre farms, are men of thrift and substance. Their wealthy landlords are, in the main, wisely liberal, not only giving long leases, but generally aiding in the outlay required for permanent improvements. In draining, for instance, they usually bear part of the expense.