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and Carnation Pinks, $1; Mrs. Robert Bayley, Newbury port, Floral Design, $1.
Gratuities of 50 cents each were awarded to the following persons for Boquets, Plants, Cut Flowers and Hanging Baskets :
Neddie H. George, Mrs. Alden, M. M. Bartlett, Charles Adams, W. A. Stringman, Mrs. W. S. Gerrish, Mrs. S. A. Currier, G. A. Ordway, Martha E. Jackman, Mrs. W. D. Wells, John Sumner, M. A. Colby, Mrs. Samuel March, Jr., Lucy Morse, Viss Mary E. Lunt, Miss A. Smith, Mary F. Jarvin, Annie S. Spalding, Mrs. John Burrill, Mrs. Gowen Dockami, (2 premiums) Mrs. A. S. Pettigrew, Mrs. J. L. Newhall, Mrs. Stephen Green, John C. Smith, Alfred Hale, Annie G. Ilale, Irs. Laroy Currier, Mrs. Lucy Morse, the Misses Brockway and Osgood, Mrs. L Crane, (Night Blooming Ce. rius) Mrs. Amos Pearson, Mrs. Johnson.
The display of plants and flowers, this year, was very fine, far exceeding that of previous years, and indicates a growing interest in this department of culture.
The exhibition of plants, flowers and floral designs by Messrs. Capers, Currier and Iliggins, are worthy of special note, embracing over one hundred and fifty varieties, many of which are very rare.
Some rare plants, flowers and handsomely arranged boquels, were offered by persons of advanced age, while others, equally beautiful anil attractive, were from the hands of quite young childreri, of botlı sexes, indicating the almost universal interest in the floral department of culture. The number of boquets, floral designs, ctc., not included in the contributions of Messrs. Capers, Currier & lIiggins, was 181.
The Committee found the sum placed in their hands for distribution in premiums and gratuitics, quite inadequate to meet the reasonable dem:11:d in offering encouragement to contribulors, and have been obliged to slightly exceed the appropriation in order to make a partial approach to justice, and a fair offer of friendly encouragement. They would recommend an
increased appropriation to this department for the coming year, and also a special appropriation for premiums on the Gladiolis, there being an evident growing interest in the cultivation of this beautiful flower. This year, some very rare and elegant specimens were exhibited by Miss Vary E. Lunt and Martha E. Jackman, which were richly deserving of a higher award than they were able to give.
The display of Evergreens, by Mr. Thurlow of West Newbury, embracing fourteen varieties ; also Native Flowers by Mrs. Isabella S. Ladd of Groveland, and others, embracing nearly one hundred varieties, call for special mention. The committee cannot too warmly recommend to the society the importance of giving increased aid to this prominent and interesting department.
Committee-James F. West, George D. Glover, John Price, John G. Whittier, Charles V. Bailey.
Any thrifty housewife who was compelled by untoward circumstances to drop into the dinner pot an onion weighing one pound, or a turnip beet weighing six pounds, would consider herself unfortunate, and when "boiled dinner” came to the table John would not be expected to go into raptures over the thick, coarse sloughing layers of the onion; the stringy, flavorless beet. Now an onion is grown for table use only, and as a rule turnip beets are grown for table use only ; why then should a false standard be encouraged on our exhibition tables by awarding premiums to specimens of these two vegetables, whose size would render them utterly worthless for the table, the only use now made of them.
The carrot has a double use, being cultivated for the table, and for stock; for our tables we want the sweetest, the finest
grained, and the richest flavored of all the numerous varieties. This we have in the Early Scarlet Horn, the earliest of all. This is a short carrot, growing about threc inches long and two in diameter, but it will bear planting in rich land three inches deep. For feeding stock, the size is of primary consideration ; this we find in the White Belgian and large Orange varieties. The White Belgian will yield a quarter more than any other variety, and growing partly out of the ground, a large part of the crop can be pulled by hand. For horses this is a good carrot, but for the butter and milk of dairy stock, we want the rich color of the Orange varieties, and the best of these is the short top, half long, otherwise known as Improved Long Orange, and locally known as the Danvers Carrot. This carrot has a greater diameter near the surface than Long Orange planted at the same time, while being shorter, it is more easily pulled and less liable to break in the ground than that variety.
The parsnip is at present, grown almost entirely for the table, and at the best, we do not ordinarily, by October grow a very large root, other conditions being equal; to the largest root, I would award the highest premium. I think that the day is uot far distant when our Jersey Cows will be treated in winter to the root on which they are almost reared in their native island, the parsnip. Shallow, dry, stony, or anything but the richest of soil is unpropitious for a good growth of the parsnip; but peat mea:lows, to the reclaiming of which so much attention is given of late years, are most excellent for growing the parsnip, and all other roots to the largest size; and when the best possible result is sought in our Jersey Cows, in the condition of the stock, and the quality of butter and milk, then the rich, sweet parsnip will have its day. For family use, on deep soil, the improved varieties such as Abbott's and the Student's which taper quickly from the top, are preferable, while for shallow soil the little turnip rooter, of nearly the shape of a flat turnip, is a gem.
I believe of beets, as of parsnips, that a day will come when
the condition of quality will so far enter into our consideration that we shall grow the turnip and long blood beet to feed to stock. By planting early in the season in rich soil and thining to a foot apart, a growth of from ten to twelve pounds can be attained, and I have had isolated specimens weigh over twenty pounds. While the Mangel Wurzel affords us but little else than water, the common beet is a saccharine vegetable, and the sugar, besides, improving the quality of the milk, adds fat to the animal. Let me here make a seedsman's suggestion to my brother farmers, — when you see Sugar Beets, or White Sugar Beets advertised in catalogues, remember it means a variety of Mangold Wurzel, used largely in Europe for the manufacture of sugar — preferred to other sorts because it has but little coloring matter in its composition, and utterly worthless for table use.
As an early, short top, the Early Flat is desirable, while for a handsome round beet, excellent for the family, or the market, Deming's is an acquisition. Simon's Early is a favorite with the Philadelphia marketmen. The half long varieties, such as Henderson's, Pine Apple, Castelnandary and Crapandine, are rather small in size, but of excellent quality.
In Mangold Wurzels, what we want, is size and quality, though as ordinarily grown, have in view quantity only. If the variety of Vangold Wurzel, alluded to above, had no more sweetness in it as grown in Europe, that most of those fed to our milch cows, “the bottom would be knocked out” of their sugar enterprise in a single season. Let the experiment be tried of growing under the same condition, a piece of Mangolds, one on high and one on low land
When the crop is gathered, those on the low land may be larger, but those on the upland will be sweeter. If the farmer is only desirous of increasing the quantity of milk, he will feed Mangolds from low land ; if he has regard also to the condition of his animals, he will fced mangolds grown on upland, and I will add if he aims at producing butter, he will feed carrots rather than mangolds. I know of no more common error in dairy mat
ters, than in the time at which mangolds are fèd to cows. Most vegetables undergo a change in their nature, after they are gathered and stored, — some potatoes undergo a ripening process, so that the characteristics of October are not the characteristics of March ; in a few months our turnips become
corky” and the seed of our running squashes do not fully mature until from one to four months have elapsed from the time they were gathered; so of the entire beet family of which mangolds are a class. In the sugar making countries of Europe, it is found necessary to store the sugar beet awhile, until certain changes shall have taken place in its nature, before it is in a condition suitable for use. So in the mangold, it is necessary that some important change should take place in its nature before it can profitably be fed to stock; if fed liberally, early in the season, it will scour the cows; feed ruta-bagas, carrots or cabbages carly in the season, and tecd the mangolds. towards spring
If planted before the first of June, the Long Red Mangold is apt to have a long, woody, hollow neck by harvest time. I would recommend the ovoid varieties as preferable in this respect, besides being of more compact growth, and having fewer lateral roots. The yellow Globe is an excellent sort for a sandy soil. If our farmers would be brave enough to have their rows thirty inches, and thin their plants to fifteen inches apart in the row, when young, they would find that they could do about all their tillage with the cultivator and hoe, while they would have just as much weight in the crop, and the pleasure of handling mangolds as big as their thigh, instead of as big as. their arm.
As turnips are grown both for family use and for stock, we need to encourage good specimens of all sizes at our annual exhibitions. Of the Ruta-Baga or Sweede class, the best for family use is the white variety, known as “Sweet German.” This excels in its sweetness, crispness and keeping qualities. It is also an excellent turnip for stock. The demand for this variety has increased wonderfully within a few years ; whereas