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two hybrid grapes, and those of Mr. Rogers, possessing qualities superior to those of any others, while other parts of the State have added Dana's Ilovey and Clapp's Favorite pears, the Concord Grape, and the President Wilder Strawberry.
Other fruits and vegetables might well be mentioned. The neighboring State of Vermont has made such rast strides in the improvement of the Potato as to cause those who have lived through the morus multicaulus, Rohan Potato and hen fevers, to stand aghast, waiting for the excitement to abate, to see if Bresce's No. 4 is really two hours earlier than the Early Rose. But all may be assured that great improvement has really been made in the potato. And yet there are persons among that numerous class who, because they lived upon a farm until seventeen years of age—and so, forsooth, “know all about farming”-are asking what improvement has been made in Agriculture ?
Who ever heard, until within a few years, of seventyfour tons of mangel-wurzel being grown upon one acre of land; of thirty-six tons of carrots, or nine hundred bushels of onions per acre ? Such crops as these are facts that can be proved. Such crops have been grown and can be grown again.
Several French and German chemists have estimated the value of English hay in comparison with other kinds of food for milch cows, and they make two hundred and fifty pounds of beet roots equal to one hundred pounds of hay. According to this estimate the above crop of mangolds would equal in value nearly thirty tons of hay; or supposing the chemists' estimate to be only half right, the root crop would then equal fifteen tons of hay per
It has been ascertained by actual experiment
that breeding swine can be kept upon raw mangolds alone from October to May, in good thrifty condition. Can any one doubt, with such facts, the great advantage: of growing this and other root crops ?
Various breeds of Foreign Cattle have also been thor-oughly tested ; and in my opinion the Ayrshire stock has proved the best adapted to our pastures, and for milking qualities, heads the list. Doubtless there are some specimens among our native stock as good as the best of any foreign breed for milk, but the native breed cannot be so generally relied upon; therefore the thanks of the farmers of Essex are due to the Massachusetts. Society for the promotion of Agriculture, and to some private individuals for the introduction of that superior breed of cattle.
I think any close observer of the cattle pens at our exhibitions for the last twenty years will have noticed this fact: that any breed, of whatever size, will, within two or three generations become adapted in size and form to the locality and pastures in which it is placed, although retaining more or less of its own peculiar marks and qualities ; hence the economy of introducing such breeds as correspond pretty nearly in size with our native cattle.
Although two years in succession of severe drought, which occurred four or five years ago, so weakened the fruit buds of the apple trees as nearly to destroy the crop of fruit, and the canker worm, with other insects, has since committed such ravages upon our orchards as to make the cultivation of the apple rather discouraging—yet, let us take heart. By the use of printers' ink and tarred paper, froin November 1st to April 1st, at a cost of from five to eight cents per tree, our orchards can
be perfectly protected from the canker worm; and by securing the small birds from the depredation of their natural enemies, idle boys, cats and crows, and with good cultivation, I feel sure that we may again be blessed with abundant crops of that beautiful, delicious and health-giving fruit. Thus we shall be enabled to return the compliment of presenting to our modern Eve the no longer forbidden fruit, and under such circumstances and conditions that we may realize that the Paradise once lost, is regained.
Who that has planted an apple tree, grafted, trained and cultivated it, protected and cared for it from its nursery growth to its orchard maturity, does not love it with a paternal love? With what pleasurable emotions he recognizes the friendly greeting of its gentle nod on a Whitsunday morning, as he beholds it, one mass of rose and lily blossoms filling the sunny air with fragrance, and listens to the soft murmur of delight issuing from its branches. As he stands thus, what man can avoid thanking his God for being allowed to aid in such a creation. And again in October, with what satisfaction he approaches his tree, with basket and barrels, to harvest those glorious pippins that hang so temptingly within his reach, affording ample means of profit, health and luxury. Who that owns an acre of land can afford to dispense with so much happiness as may be derived from an apple tree? Certainly no Essex County farmer. My own experience is that no part of my farm yields greater income for the labor expended than the orchard. If the crop is small, the price is usually large. Let us then continue to cultivate the apple as a source of profit, of health to our families, and of growth to our social natures.
Besides protecting our native songsters that do so niuch to aid the orchardist, I most earnestly recommend the importation of English sparrows, whose principal occupation is to feed their numerous progeny with insects. The experiment was tried in New York three years ago, and, proving very successful, led to the introduction of these birds last spring into Philadelphia. I know of no way by which a portion of the income of this society can be so profitably expended as by the importation of several thousands of these birds, to be distributed in different parts of the county.
It may be worth the notice of the curious observer, that of the several varieties of apple and pear trees, each grows with form and feature peculiar to itself, and varies as much as do the different kinds of fruit. No one familiar with them can mistake, for example, the Pickman Pippin, Ribstone Pippin, or Killhamhill, among apple trees, or the Winter Nelis, Louise Bonne de Jersey, or Rostiezer, among pear trees. So marked are their peculiarities, however different the stocks these varieties are grafted into, that the quality of the fruit (other things being equal) remains the same. It is also a well established fact that in nursery rows of seedling apple trees, budded at one year old, and taken up at four years of age, each row being budded with a different kind of fruit, the roots of the several varieties will be found to have taken different habits of growth : one variety will have numerous small fibrous roots, growing compactly, while another row of a different variety will have a few large and long roots, with few fibres, the varieties of fruit giving distinct habits of root, although the stocks may all differ from each other; this proves conclusively that the stock exerts no influence upon the variety of
fruit engrafted into it, but that the graft does have an influence in forming the habit of the roots of the stock. The same observer may with propriety ask, how is it that when two scions are engrafted into a limb of an apple tree, one will produce fruit, ripe in August, of yellow color and sweet flavor, while the other will produce fruit, ripe in January, of red color and acid flavor, both kinds nourished by the same sap, supplied from the same roots. Whence the difference?
I think this question can be answered by saying that the material of the fruit is supplied principally from the soil, through the roots, while the quality of it is derived from the atmosphere through the leaves. Ilence, the idea of improving the quality of fruit by double working must be a fallacy.
Let me say a word of the tendency of the sons of farmers to leave the calling of their fathers. I knew a farmer who took his son, a lad of fourteen, into the field to assist him in setting out a young apple orchard. That boy obeyed his father's directions to the letter. If he told him to move a trec to the right or the left, to set it deeper or not so deep, he obeyed; no more, no less; but his heart was not in his work That father saw and keenly felt his son's apathy. He ..said, “My son, I will listen to any suggestions you may offer with regard to the setting of these trees.” From that moment the boy was changed. What! thought he, does my father wish for suggestions from me? And if .so, should they not be made after careful thought and .consideration, that they may be worthy of his attention ?
Thus he argued with himself; thus his mind was turned to the business of the farm; thus he learned to love it, and one boy was saved to the farm, whose mind was