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Tows of four rows each, in the forenoon, and in the afternoon -carted to the cellar. Cost of harvesting crop, $15. Product of 147 rods ; 29 tons, 140 pounds.

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STATEMENT OF H. F. LONGFELLOW. The land on which the turnips were raised that I entered for premium, was broken up in 1867 and planted with potatoes ; in 1868 a crop ofcorn was raised upon it. Each


it received about 30 loads of manure to the acre. The piece which I enter is part of my field of three acres, and was manured with 33 loads of barn yard manure, spread broadcast and ploughed in to the depth of four inches, and then thrown into ridges, 30 inches apart, with a double mould-board plow. A heavy brush harrow was then passed length-ways over the ridges, leaving them so smooth that the seed was easily sown with a common brush seed sower, on the 24th of June. The plants were thinned to the distance of about 9 inches. The seed used, was Skirring's King of the Sweedes and Carter's Improved, at the rate of 1 1-3 pounds to the acre. Both varieties are good. After hoeing once, the weeds were pulled by hand. The three rods selected as an average, by a member of your committee, Mr. Perkins, were harvested on the 2nd of November, and the turnips, after being relieved of tops, dirt and roots, weighed 1060 7-8 pounds — 56,580 pounds, or 943 bushels to the acre, which I think is the largest crop ever offered for the Society's premium, and if it had not been for the drouth of July and August, I think I should have raised 1200 bushels to the acre.

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Manure, hauling, and spreading,
Ploughing, ridging, and harrowing,
Seed, hoeing, weeding, thinning, and harvesting,
Interest on land,


3,50 23,33 6.00


Cr. by tops and small turnips,

Making the cost per bushel, at previous estimate, 8 1-% cents. The price of Ruta Baga varies from $1 to $2.25 per barrel.

STATEMENT OF J. L. NEWHALL, Of a crop of Ruta Bagas raised by him in the year 1869. The crop of 1867 was grass without manure; the crop of 1868 the same as 1867. Ploughed in the fall of 1868 about eight inches deep, again in the spring of 1869 six inches deep, and just before sowing, about six cords of manure was ploughed in to the depth of six inches, the ground harrowed and about 200 pounds of superphospate applied broadcast, the surface was then thrown into ridges, and 1 1-2 pounds of seed, cost $1.05, sown on the top of these ridges. Value of manure on land, $54 ; cost of ploughing and planting, $12 ; the crop was cultivated three times and weeded twice ; cost of weeding and cultivating, $15; the crop was harvested the last of October, the roots were pulled and topped and thrown into piles in the morning, and carted to the cellar in the afternoon. Cost of harvesting, $10. Product of 136 rods; 17 tons.

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A person who has attended our Fairs for forty years, and carried in his mind individual animals of excellence, that have been exhibited during that time, asks himself not how much improvement has been made in the horned stock of the County, but whether the stock at this time is equal to that exhibited twenty-five, thirty or inore years ago.

If we take our premium list in its order," Fat Cattle” come first. Looking back twenty-five years, we call to inind the oxen exhibited by John Marland, of Andover, and Mr. Verriam, of Tewksbury, and we must confess they have not been excelled or cqualled the past few years, not even by the superior steers of Mr. Todd, of Rowley. When we take the different breeds of Bulls and compare the Ayrshires, of Mr. Ilurd of Ipswich an William Marland of Andover; the Durhams of Gorham Parsons, of Byfield; Col. Newell of West Newbury; Enoch Silsbee of Bradford), and Josiah Crosby of North Andover, and the Jerseys of Mr. French of Andover, ind Mr. Fay, not to mention some of the extraordinary grade bulls, we are obliged to confess that in no single

breed are the animals exhibited for the few past years, equal to the best specimens of those twenty years ago. Passing to the Milch Cows, the old Oake's cow stands yet at the head of the list, and I think he would be a bold man, who would say that the average of cows is better than thirty years ago. Passing on to Working Oxen, and calling to mind the splendid teams of Messrs. Perley Tapley of Danvers ; Rogers of Salem; Porter of Bradford ; George French of Andover, and many others, and comparing them with the premium oxen of the few years past, we find a greater falling off than in the other classes. Passing again to Heifers and Steers, we find the falling off in these classes, as marked as in the others.

If I am right in iny opinion, that in scarcely any branch of stock has the County held its own, and that in some classes there has been a decided falling off, the question arises, “why is it so ?" There is scarcely a village in which pure bred animals of every breed have not been introduced, and brought within the means of every one, but the fact is patent that the stock has not improved. It has occurred to me we are working in a wrong direction.

We have abolished offering premiums for the best bulls, and award them for the best of the different breeds.

In the northern part of our County we have had Ayrshire, Jersey and North Devon Bulls for thirty years, and if there has been a single superior animal, either cow or ox, that has ever resulted from the cross with either of them, I have not been able to find it. With the Durham, it has been different. In Bradford, Enoch Silsbee introduced Durhams forty years ago, and descendants of them remain to this day, kept on an adjoin

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ing farm without extra care ; and I have heard of more extra cows that have been sold from that stock within the last few years than from any other. In fact, I have scarcely heard of the sale of a cow in that part of the County, for $125 or $150, without learning that she was raised by Mr. Silsbee, or from stock bought of him. Mr. Crosby, of North Andover, twenty years ago introduced a Durham bull into that place from which were raised oxen, weighing from 3,000 to 5,400 pounds a pair, ex. cellent for work and grown without extra care, and cows giving from 16 to 18 quarts each. I would also add the testimony of Col. Moses Newell, of West Newbury, who told me that the best oxen and cows he had ever known in his neighborhood, descended from a pure Durham bull, sent him by Henry Coleman. Within the past few years,

Mr. Russell of Lawrence has introduced the Dutch stock. IIis famous bull and some of his young stock were exhibited at Ilaverhill; and at Newburyport last year, and attracted great attention. It has not been sufficiently introduced, as yet, to judge of its adaptation to to our county, but I have heard of a few half blood heifers that have been extra inilkers. I have also noticed, the past two years, a few Black Kerry cattle, but I cannot believe that such inferior looking animals can ever engage attention enough to be worthy of notice, and can only hope they will be of more benefit than their looks wonld indicate. But whether any of the imported breeds are to prove beneficial, I much doubt. Certainly, the best looking bull exhibited at our fair the present year. was labelled a Native, and was not induced to come by a premium.

I know the above will be read with surprise by many, and pronounced "old fogyish," by others ; but it does

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