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spirit which the Scriptures attach tò grand step towards Christian unity : those who are in authority. And the what mountains of difficulty and dissenting Churches, if they cannot mischief will it not effect ! If all accredit a dominant or endowed would resolve to bear and forbear Church, yet, finding it in existence, in Christian brotherly love, we should and supported and selected by the need little more. We cannot get rid majority, and themselves in an infe- of the condition of trial : God wills it rior position, nationally consider, it is for his Church on earth: and his evidently their duty and their interest Church needs it; it is the discipline too to exercise humility, and sub- which alone can bring her safely mission, and forbearance. We do through her militant to her triumnot call upon them to abandon their phant condition, but the principle of views of church government; we

mutual forbearance disarms the trial cannot expect that they should of its sting, and in the luxury of the all at once yield to our arguments, or peaceable fruits of righteousness see in all things with our eyes: but if which result, we quarrel not with the Bible is to be the rule of action, the irksomeness of the discipline there can be no difficulty in deter- that brings them. mining what should be done. Let Forbearing one another in love." them progress with all diligence and then, is a grand feasible means of zeal in an untiring effort to save their effecting Christian union. We have own souls and those of others, but said that we do not see our way much let them forbear towards those who beyond this ; but the practical exhiaim at the same object, though in a bition of this precept will open the different course.

door to extensive blessing. Allay And, ah ! if they could but see it, the bitter invective, the rancorous they would discover, that in any sup- hate, the fretful jealousy, and we posed inferiority of condition, they have at once the ground cleared for stand on no disadvantage for spiritual pleasant and profitable intercourse attainment. Our lowly Saviour has amongst differing Christians sanctified and ennobled the “ lowest have at once the primitive

spectacle place.” He took it himself, he re- exhibited, how these Christians commended it to his disciples. He love one another;" and thus we have knew what is in man, and conse- removed the grand barrier to the proquently, what was best for his highest gress of the Gospel at home and interests. Our dissenting brethren abroad.

We may not be able to may rest assured, that while they accomplish more: but let not a dethankfully cling to what they consider spair of accomplishing all that we their distinctive advantage, they will could wish, discourage us from atlose nothing by humbly submitting tempting to do what we can. We to any thing which they regard as of confess that we read much on the à subordinate character. That very subject of Christian union that apsubordination forms the discipline, pears to us Utopian and visionary; we the trial of the Christian life to them. may be far removed from many things Let them go forward intent upon that are advanced as essential, and we doing good in their own way, re- may question their expediency, but joicing if others are coming to a here let us take our stand. Let us similar issue though it be by a differ- seek to be so occupied with our own ent course, and forbearing to be concerns, as to have little time or inbitter towards those who seem to be clination to comment upon those of ever so erring, recollecting, that but others. Let all that we know to be for the sovereign, unmerited grace of so faulty and wrong within ourselves God, there is no error, or negligence, and our own communion, lead us to or provocation into which they would be tender toward the defect of others; not themselves fall.

for mutual forbearance is best groundNow beyond this, we fear, in the ed on a heartfelt conviction of our present state of things at least, that own manifold sins, negligences, and we shall scarcely get. Yet this is a ignorances,

- we

see

And shall we not, bəfore we lay many excellent societies which are exdown our pen, urge one more point

clusive in their constitution, every on the consideration of all who are honest effort at Christian union panting and longing for greater Chris- should lead us to hail with a hearty tian union; and that is, the duty of welcome, and to support with a ready meeting those who differ from us, as co-operation, those societies in which far as we can, in works of benevolence all Christians unite to spread the glory and charity. We really do not under- of their Lord and the best interests of stand how there can be a difference their fellow-creatures. There never of opinion on this point, amongst was a period in which, in this point those who are sincere in their desires of view, we regarded the British and after Christian union. We may not Foreign Bible Society, and the Relibe able to admit the ministers of gious Tract Society, and some other other denominations into our pulpits, similar institutions, with so much and many

other approximations may interest as we do at present. In the be at variance with our present eccle- lack of opportunities for drawing siastical discipline, but here, at least, closer together, we value those that without any compromise, we can ma

do exist. We long to see a growing nifest the genuineness of Christian disposition to do so ; and, oh! let our brotherhood, and make it evident, prayers unceasingly be offered up to that we are not considering how far Him who alone can order the unruly we can be removed, but how near we wills and affections of sinful men, that can properly advance towards those he would be pleased to engrave upon who differ from us. Hence we can- our hearts, and to enable us more and not but maintain, without thinking more to exemplify in our conduct the one disparaging thought or uttering rule of his own word—" forbearing one disparaging word towards those one another in love."

IRELAND_AND HER CHURCH. By the VERY Rev. RICHARD MUR

RAY, D. D., Dean of Ardagh. 2nd Edition. If any one would really desire to sively into its bosom, become a dark know the truly evil character of the bog of ignorance, and superstition, Romish Church, they must read it in and crime, and beggary, and sorrow, the history of Ireland. If they would and may remain so for six hundred know the certain connexion of vital years! This tremendous fact is beerror with suffering, they must read fore us in the history of the sister it in the influence of that Church, and country; and it has been shown so the unmitigated misery which it has distinctly

and so fairly in the present produced in Ireland, otherwise one of work by Dr. Murray, that its pages the fairest spots upon God's earth, have a very strong claim upon our but now its plague-spot. The lesson attention. It will correct, upon sure has been taught to the European grounds, many false impressions. nations, and it should be read and Ireland, for a thousand years, had learned; for never till it is, shall we its Christian Church, its learned have a sufficient value for the blessed, bishops, and its faithful preachers, sanctifying, elevating influence of re- entirely independent of

any connexion vealed truth, or sufficiently dread the with the see of Rome, either before or privation of it by the artfúl intrigues after its present lamentable apostacy of a worldly and ambitious clergy. It and usurpation. The island was visis historically possible that a land as ited by Christian Teachers, within enlightened as our own, renowned one hundred years from our Lord's throughout the earth for its scholar- Crucifixion. In the 2nd century, ship and its piety—the very light and missionaries went forth from her. balm of other nations may, if it ad

Her teachers were renowned in vari. mits this same unholy agency permis- ous parts of Europe, Sedulius, one OCTOBER—1845.

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of her theologians, took a prominent source, had no connexion whatever and able part in the Pelagian contro- with Rome, were opposed to its versy; and at the time when Augus- superstitions, and were viewed there tine was sent by Gregory into Eng- as irregular, hostile, and impracticable land, a most uncompromising enmity dissidents from the Romish system. existed in the minds of the Irish At the close of the eighth century, against every thing connected with the Danes and Northmen first began Rome; so that a parallel attempt to to infest the shores of the British obtain dominion in Ireland was emi- Isles; and the period of anarchy and nently successful. The Church re- confusion to which their invasion and tained its Protestant character for partial possession of Ireland gave ages, affirming

“ that they never ac- rise, was most unfavourable to the knowledged the supremacy of a for- quiet progress of the native Church, eigner.” It is a proved historical either in piety, learning, or wealth. fact, that the Irish Church was of The original Church gradually deEastern origin; and never till the clined into indifference and poverty ; 12th century bowed to the authority and the conversion of the Danes by of the great Western schism at Rome. other instrumentality, gave the first It was pure in all essential points of spring to the Roman power in Iredoctrine, and resolutely resisted the land. The facts are not stated very growing errors of the age. It never systematically by Dr. Murray, yet he admitted the errors of auricular con- shows plainly that the Danes had no fession, or authoritative absolution, or leaning to the native Church; that prayer to saints or angels. All these they introduced, in the tenth century, corruptions are comparatively novel the Benedictine order of monks; and and recent. They are since the in- that they obtained the consecration of troduction of Popery in the 12th their bishops at Canterbury. Dublin, century. They only obtained domi- Waterford, and Limerick, at length nion over the Irish mind through refused the authority of the Primate persevering intrigue or violence. of Armagh; and in the year 1038,

Even St. Patrick, the assumed Silitzic, a Danish king reigning in Patron Saint of the Irish Roman Dublin, made his fellow-countryman, Church was not a Papist. A Britain Donagh, bishop of that See, and sent by birth, and educated in Gaul, he him to Canterbury for consecration. was Irish only in his affections and On his death the clergy fell into the his domicile; and as to orders or same course, and sent Patrick his mission from Rome, he never had successor to Lanfranc, Archbishop of either. He was sound in the faith of Canterbury; on which occasion he the Scriptures, and held it as it is promised obedience to the English held in the Protestant Churches. It Primate and his successors in all is sad to see a minister of the Church

things relating to the Church; and of England, educated in a Protestant the wily Archbishop speedily took university, the Rev. William Palmer, advantage of this favourable event to in his Ecclesiastical History, turning interfere with the government of the aside from important historical docu- Irish Church. The work thus begun ments, and receiving and issuing as gradually went on, and at the end of truth in this matter, the bald inven- the eleventh century, the Danish tions of the Romanists. All confi- portion of the Church received a dence in such annalists must be des- legate in the person of Giselbert, troyed.

Bishop of Limerick. Councils were It is also matter of clear, historical held at Dongus and at Meath; and testimony, that Columba and Aidan, although only about a sixth part of and all that galaxy of talent and piety the Episcopal order consented to their that shined forth from Ireland, and devices, yet a plan was then laid for were known under the general title of the subjugation of the Irish Church, Culdees (Gaelic, Cuildeach) that is, which proved eventually but too sucthe solitary inhabitants of cells, re- cessful. It was only in 1152, that ceived their orders through an eastern the Court of Rome sent a Cardinal legate into Ireland to endeavour to usurper. He must either uphold or settle its hierarchy on a new plan: renounce such claims. Either way but finding that even then so decided we know what to think of him, and a measure was threatened with fail- we condemn yet more severely the ure by the opposition he had to en- intermediate plan of dishonest mysticounter, Pope Adrian took another fication. and yet more decided step. In 1155, The conquest of Ireland was accomhe issued a bull to Henry II., King plished by certain powerful barons. of England, in which, assuming that Arrogating much to themselves, and Ireland, and all other Islands on attributing little to their royal master, which the light of Christianity hath who had, in fact, done little, they shone, are his patrimonial right,” he claimed to divide the spoil, and congives it to Henry, to enter in and sequently Ireland was chiefly divided possess it; reserving, what he calls,

among ten English families, who ex"the rights of the Churches,” and pelled the natives from their lands, the annual payment of Peter-pence, and drove them into the mountains as a revenue for himself from these and morasses by incessant and harhis assumed hereditary dominions. assing warfare. In the lapse of years,

Is it not sad, that the restless rapa- however, these new-comers (nearly as city of some men in this world should uneducated as the degenerated Irish) so serve as a foundation for ambitious became lawless, violent, and rapamen to build thereon their insolent cious; and, uniting in policy with the usurpations. Had Henry been a just Romish ecclesiastics, they persecuted man, the Pope's pretension would bitterly the remnant of the primitive have been laughed at as folly. Hon- Church, on the one hand; and on ourable men would have put it down, the other kept up a perpetual spirit and we should not have seen in the of rebellion and discontent against the nineteenth century the same preten- English government; always seeking sion really at work in the Pacific further encroachments on the royal Ocean, to dethrone a legitimate queen, power in favour of the Church's and to upset a successful Protestant enormous pretensions; or bringing mission. Nothing but the selfish into retributive action those paternal interests of men would ever have fulminations which the Romish Pongiven substance and currency to such tiff was ever ready to send forth in a pretension; and yet it is lamentable their behalf, and which in those days that at this late era, ridiculous, un- had a terror about them that it would founded, and unjust as is any such be difficult to revive now. The “roclaim, Rome, though she dares not sined lightning” is nothing to those assert it openly, would not throw it who have been behind the scenes. up. Is that like a legitimate and The actual imbecility, however, of defined authority proceeding from a such weapons did not diminish the holy source ? Is it not rather the guilt of using them; and the outrageunavailing assumption of power to ous ingratitude, sedition, and treason the extent, that the weakness, the of the Hiberno-Romish clergy, for a division, and the vices of men will long series of years, is only a sample allow it to proceed, a dominion having of the universal doings of that strange the base in men's iniquity, rather than combination of religious pretence and in God's holiness ? Let the Pope, in political aggression which is called the 19th century say, whether he has to the Roman Catholic Church," and this right to give away Ireland, and which is, in fact, not a Church of whether or not Queen Victoria holds Christ, but, on the authority of inspiit as his vassal! Let him say whether ration, an apostacy from it. The or not he claims now each island of clergy had received large bribes for the Pacific, as the Gospel light falls submission to the authority of Rome ; upon its shores; and if he does not, not only all the tithes and glebe, but then let him admit the alternative, also complete immunity from all imthat the Pope of Rome is fallible in posts and laws, and the power of his pretensions, and has been an taking, at any funeral, one third, or even to one half of the goods of the of the papal power, is easily told, sad deceased. Yet even now were they as it is. It is nothing but a series of constantly standing forth in seditious vexatious attempts to raise the power opposition to the sovereign, though of the clergy, and to depress the Roman Catholic; and in every petty legitimate influence of the Crown; to dispute that they could raise, threat- emancipate the Romish system from ening excommunication as the conse- all interference by the secular authorquence of resistance to their will. In

ity; and to leave the clergy triumphone instance, Comyn, Archbishop of ant in the midst of the most open Dublin, in pursuit of some disputed and gross immorality; varied only by land, excommunicated the Lord Dep- occasional disputes among themselves. uty and all the members of his ad- At one period a contest was mainministration, and laid the city and tained for twenty years by the Archdiocese under an interdict. And it is bishops of Armagh and Dublin, (the worth while to notice the arts to one, in fact representing the original which in those days they resorted. Church, and the other the Romish

“To indicate that the passion of schism,) for the Primacy; which endChrist had been renewed in the indig- ed at last only in a silly compromise, nity offered to his minister, he caused that the one should bear the title of the crucifixes of the Cathedral to be “Primate of Ireland," and the other laid prostrate, with crowns of thorns that of “Primate of all Ireland," a on the heads of the images; and one distinction which still continues in of the figures was pointed out as the something very like a bull upon miraculous representation of the suf- the face of it. The immorality of fering Redeemer, the face inflamed, the clergy, was of a fearfully notothe eyes dropping tears, the body rious kind-open and unshrinking bathed in sweat, and the side pouring adultery and concubinage, rapine forth blood and water!" By such and murder. In 1421, the Archstratagems the Lord Deputy was bishop of Cashel was impeached by beaten, and gladly purchased his two other Bishops “among other peace with a donation of twenty offences, with forging the King's plough lands to the See of Dublin. seal and letters patent, and with

Is “ Semper eadem” the motto of openly taking a ring from the image Rome? Why, then, are similar tricks of St. Patrick, and giving it to his not played now? Because the spread- concubine.” And Bishop Bale reing light of education would expose lates, that, on his first arrival in Irethem. Why, then, have they not the land in 1552, he found that “for a manliness to admit the guilt and folly man to be able to claim a bishop, of such puerile legerdemain, and take priest, or monk for his father, was the low ground of fallibility, to which accounted a great honour.”

Sir such authentic historic facts drive Henry Sidney complains of the conthem? While they still strive to bol- duct of the clergy in "admitting to ster up such a system of fraud, when ecclesiastical dignities the children of they may--while they yet exhibit the unmarried bishops and priests." In liquefaction of the blood of St. Janu

any case of rebellion or revolt, the arius—they bind upon the shameless clergy were almost invariably the open forehead of their system all the crim- or secret abettors of the mischief. inality of their former lying and con- They crowned Edward Bruce king, juring for God! What a develope- and then abandoned him; and they ment it will be by and by for those received the impostor, Simnel, with who have pulled the wires of such a an extravagant affectation of loyal system of mummery, in hostility to zeal. The Bishop of Meath preached the true, sanctifying, and saving reli- before him in the cathedral of Dubgion of Jesus! In the day of decision lin, enforcing his right to the crown; what a tremendous matter will be the and a crown taken from a statue of apportionment of such guilt!

the Virgin Mary was placed on his The remainder of the history of head. And when the rebellion was Ireland, after the full establishment terminated, and an oath of allegiance

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