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spirit; of his bold protest against the idolatry of the mass. Rawlins White had been forced to be present in the Bishop's chapel during the celebration of the mass, and had continued kneeling in a retired corner till the bell rang for the elevation of the host; at the ringing of the bell he rose up and came to the choir door, and there standing awhile, turned himself to the people speaking these words, Good people, if there be any brethren among you, or at the least, if there be but one brother among you, the same one bear witness at the day of judgment that I bow not to this idol,' meaning the host that the priest held over his head. He had been summoned a second time to Chepstow, there he had been again brought before the Bishop and his chaplains, there, after his protest against the mass, and a further conference with the Bishop, he received his sentence, and was sent to die at Cardiff, being confined there till he was led forth to the stake, in a dark and filthy prison called Cockmarel. All his time in every prison where he lay, he spent in prayer and praise. His last message to his wife was to beg her to make and send to him his wedding garment,-for so he called his shroud and the poor, sorrowing, but faithful woman was obedient to his request. Early in the morning of the day in which he died, this wedding garment was brought to him, and he received it joyfully. He put it on and went forth, when the appointed time was come. He looked about him, when he saw the great company of armed men that guarded him on every side, and said with meek astonishment, What meaneth all this! all this needed not! By God's grace, I will not start away, but I, with all my heart and mind, give unto God most hearty thanks, that He hath made me worthy to abide all this for His holy name's sake!'

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Another sight now met his eyes, and the sudden shock almost overcame him. His poor wife and children had come to look upon him for the last time as he passed along; and they stood weeping and making great lamentation. The tears trickled fast down the old man's face, but he went forward striving with the natural weakness of his loving heart. And he knew where to seek for strength, and strength was given him. Ah flesh, stayest thou me so,' he cried, striking his breast with his hand, Well, I tell thee, do what thou cans't, thou shalt not by God's grace have the victory.' He now came to the place where he was to die; the stake was already set up, and the wood heaped up prepared for the fire. Boldly he went forward, and kneeling down kissed the ground. He rose up, and the earth sticking to his face, he said. earth unto earth and dust unto dust-thou art my mother, and unto thee I shall return.' Then with a cheerful countenance he set his back to the stake and stood erect. But again his spirit sank, when seeing his faithful friend John Dane standing near, he said, 'I feel a great fighting between the flesh and the spirit, and the flesh would fain conquer, and therefore I pray you if you see me tempted, hold your finger up to me, and I trust I shall remember myself.' No such token however was needed. The martyr grew stronger and stronger in the faith for which he suffered. When chained to the stake he busied himself in gathering as far as his hands could reach, the wood and straw which they were bringing to the stake, and he arranged it around him.

When all was ready, a Romish priest mounted a platform which had

been raised opposite the martyr, and stood up to address the people who were gathered in crowds at the place, for it was market day. Rawlins White heard him quietly, till he began to bring forward scripture to support the perverted doctrine on the sacrament, which he preached. Then looking up, he solemnly rebuked him with such effect, that the priest was silenced. The fire was kindled, and the flames burnt fiercely, but the godly martyr stood erect, calmly and cheerfully enduring the agony of mortal suffering. His venerable countenance and white and flowing beard appearing above the fire, and his whole expression seeming to be altogether angelical. For awhile he bathed his hands in the flames till the sinews shrunk, and still while the fire raged, his voice was heard pouring forth this earnest godly prayer, O Lord, receive my soul! O Lord, receive my spirit,' until he could no longer open his mouth. He suffered long, but with unflinching courage and unshaken constancy. In patience he possessed his soul, till patience had her perfect work, and the martyr's spirit

entered into rest.

St. Peter's, Chester,

Dec. 1844.


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By J. J. MAURETTE, Late Parish Priest of Serres, in France.

A REFLECTING Christian has said,

Be not deceived by certain appearances. The community cannot be indifferent to the opinions of its members; it feels a desire to know the real motives that govern their actions. The community wants to know the conscience of the individual.'

I am but a simple and obscure individual; but having arrived at a very strong conviction, I think it right to make it known. A debt is not the less a debt for being a small one. I come forward therefore to discharge mine, to lay open my thoughts and my conscience, and to relate the conclusions to which this conscience has led me. God grant that these reflections may be the means of enlightening some of those into whose hands these simple pages may fall!

All that relates to myself may be reduced to this double declaration, viz., I SEPARATE MYSELF FROM THE POPE, TO ATTACH MYSELF TO JESUS CHRIST.

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Clement, Bishop of Rome, who died A.D. 81:

'Jesus Christ is with the humble only; He is not with those who exalt themselves above his flock. Our Lord Jesus Christ, notwithstanding his power, came not into the world in pomp and pride.' Rom. xvi.

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Ignatius, Martyr, Bishop of Antioch, A.D. 108:

'Whoever blindly follows those, who wander from the




of truth,

shall not inherit the kingdom of God; and whoever is able to distinguish truth from error, but does not make use of this faculty, and abandon a teacher of lies, God will punish.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Justin, Martyr, A.D. 163:

'He who is truly pious and wise, will value the truth which he has been led to discover above all things; and reject the opinions of the ancients, (majorum opiniones,) as soon as he perceives the falsity of them.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, A.D. 258:

Neither ought any bishop in the world, to pretend to be a bishop of bishops, nor to exercise any constraint over the faith and actions of his colleagues by threats or punishment (tyrannico terrore); for every bishop has full liberty, and may use his spiritual power according to his own convictions; and if he does so, he ought no more to be judged by another than to judge other bishops himself.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers, A.D. 369:

'Because of that Antichrist, you do wrong to attach importance to the walls of temples, to regard a building as the Church of God, or to repeat the name of peace under their roofs. Is it then doubtful that Antichrist may not establish his throne there? the mountain, the forest, the lake, the prison, and the cave, are to me safer places.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, A.D. 379:

'Let us compare the discourses and writings of our teachers with the doctrines of the Bible, and accept only that which is conformable to the scriptures.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, A.D. 397 :

"The Lord has forbidden us to call any man master in matters of religion, because we have only one master, Jesus Christ the anointed one, who is always ready to enlighten our understandings, if we shut not out his light from our souls. Our faith in the Church, (i. e. in its visible heads,) must be tried by the declarations of scripture, and we must admit the church as our guide, only when it can be proved that Christ dwelleth in her.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Jerome, A.D. 420:

'Bishops are all equal amongst themselves; let no one imagine that the church of Rome differs essentially from any other church in the world: the Gauls, the Britons, the Africans, the Persians, the Indians, and the whole earth, in a word, all christian nations acknowledge the same Jesus Christ for their common Saviour, and have the same rule of faith, viz. the Bible. Whether a man be a bishop of the great city of Rome, or of the small town of Egubium, of insignificant Rhegium, or of despised Tanis, is of little importance; the merit and the dignity are the same. Riches and power, poverty and lowliness, neither exalt a bishop nor disgrace him.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with St. Augustine, A.D. 430:

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If disputes arise in the church, who shall be the arbitrator? none but Christ and the apostles, that is to say their written word.'

When Peter confessed that Jesus was the son of the living God, the Lord said to him: Upon this rock &c.; that is to say, he will build his Church, not upon Peter, but upon the faith that Peter had in the Rock and Corner-stone of the church, and this Rock was Christ himself."

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with Theodoret, Bishop of Cyricus, A.D. 460:

'A blind faith is, on the contrary, the source of all the errors and all the evils of the church. Of all heresies, the worst and most dangerous is that, which is raising its head so high and so mighty in our days; that, which requires of man, with equal absurdity and injustice, to renounce his understanding, and not to examine his religion; and thus prevents him from ever attaining a firm and living faith. Faith is called a blind assent to dogmas, that have no force and are based upon no proof.'

I separate myself from the Pope, because I say with Gregory 1st, Bishop of Rome, A.D. 604:

'If a bishop is called by the name of universal bishop, then when this bishop falls, the whole church must fall with him. Away with such folly, such levity, such blasphemy, which deprives all other priests of the honour, that one in his folly arrogates to himself alone. To accept such a title is no less than to make shipwreck of the faith.'

The Bishop of Constantinople' (says the same writer) has had the audacity to call himself Universal Pope, Catholic Father, Bishop of all the Bishops; but can this unexampled pride, this criminal ambition, be aught else than the fore-runner of Antichrist?'

I separate myself from the Pope, because the Word of God says to me -"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them that believe and know the truth." 1 Tim. iv. 1, 5.

I separate myself from the Pope, because the Word of God says to me-Come out of Babylon," (the Church of Rome) "my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues for her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities." Rev. xviii. 4, 5.

But, in separating myself from the Pope, I ATTACH MYSELF ΤΟ JESUS CHRIST. I attach myself to Jesus Christ, because Simon Peter says, "I lay in Sion a chief corner-stone, elect, precious, and he that believeth on Him shall not be confounded." 1 Peter ii. 6.

I attach myself to Jesus Christ, because St. Paul says, "According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise master-builder, I lay the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. For other foundation can no man lay, than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ." 1 Cor. iii. 10, 12.

I attach myself to Jesus Christ, because St. John says, "And now, little children, abide in him," (in Jesus Christ,)" that when He shall

appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before Him at his coming." 1 John ii. 28.

I attach myself to Jesus Christ, because He says Himself, "I am the way, the truth, and the life." John xiv. 6. "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life." John iii. 36. "Come unto me," saith again this good Saviour, "all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." Matt. xi. 28.

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And you, priests of Rome, my old colleagues, you, who know, as well as I do, where the truth is to be found;

You, who feel, and even see, that the time given to the Church of Rome to finish her iniquity is drawing to an end;

You, who know that there is but one sole and eternal sacrifice, offered by Jesus Christ alone, who is the true and only sacrificing priest;

You, who know that the Bishop of Pamiers, and the Archbishop of Toulouse, believe that the mass is not necessary to the salvation of souls, because they authorize you not to celebrate mass on Sundays, if the Municipal Council will not vote you the sum of two hundred francs for the celebration;

You, who know that we are justified only by faith in Jesus Christ, and that by grace alone we are saved;

You, who know that after this life there are but two places, heaven and hell;

You, who know that your ceremonies are unprofitable and your masses without efficacy;

You, who know that you fulfil the functions of your ministry with pain, disgust, and weariness, unless there is a good 'casuel' attached to them;

You, who know that you pay no regard to the sacerdotal ornaments, which the Pope and the bishops have imposed on you, and which they borrowed from Pagans, Jews, and idolaters;

You, who know that you have no power to absolve nor to condemn ; You, who know that you make a shameful traffic of souls;

You, who know that Jesus Christ is not present with us corporeally; You, who know that you forget your consecrated hosts, and leave them in the tabernacle for six months in the year, and that you afterwards find this god of paste eaten up by worms;

You, who do not observe the law of fasting, even on Good Fridays; you, in fine, to sum up all in one word, who believe in none of the dogmas that the Pope and the bishops have imposed on the consciences of men, but who believe in Jesus Christ, according to the Gospel :

Priests! leave the house of bondage; (Exod. xx. 2.) shake off the odious yoke under which you are groaning; break the chains which enslave you. Take off those filthy garments that a strange sovereign, the Pope, has dipped in the blood of our fathers; and the angel of the Lord will say to you, (as he did to Joshua the high priest,) "Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment." Zech. iii. 4.

Priests of Rome! leave the house of bondage; for thus saith the

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