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Stuart, Prince Charles, Andrew Lang, Scrib.
The Case for Sweden. NewR.
Some Aspects of the Liquor Problem, Henry 0. Ward, AMC.
Schiller's "Jungfrau von Orleans, J. N. Willan, PL.
United States History in the Last Quarter Century, E. B. An
drews, Scrib. Venice in Easter : Impressions and Sensations, A. Symons,
The American Capitol, E. Porritt, LH.
Filtration of Water, Dr. S, Rideal, K.
The Evolution of the Sex, A. G. P. Sykes, WR.
Women in European Universities, Alice Zimmern, F.
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CONTENTS FOR JUNE. 1895.
Prince Bismarck in His Home. .......Frontispiece
The Cuban Patriots........
620 England's Invasion of Nicaragua ........
620 The Moral Bearings of the Case.........
President Seth Low's Gift of $1,000,000...........
Marshal Oyama, Vice-Admiral Ito, the New York Po-
territory ceded to Japan, and Central Asia. Current History in Caricature.......... ... 638 With reproductions from American and foreign cartoon
papers. Record of Current Events..... .. ....... 641 With portraits of Admiral Meade, and the late Ex-Sena
tor James F. Wilson.
Chicago Newspapers and Their Makers .... 646
By Willis J. Abbot.
W. Hawley, William Penn Nixon,'H. H. Kohlsaat,
and other illustrations. College Oratory in the West................. 665
With portrait of Otto A. Hauerbach.
...... 671 With illustrations. Leading Articles of the Month
" Coin's Financial School”.....
The Physiological Effects of Bicycling.......
Our London Letter About Current Literature.... 718
Recent American Publications................... 720 Contents of Reviews and Magazines.......... 725 Index to Periodicals.....
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Count William Bismarck.
Countess Herbert Bismarck. Prince Bismarck.
PRINCE BISMARCK IN HIS HOME.
from 1868 to 1878 is said to have been 140,000. The precise number who survived to return to Europe is not known to us; but certainly the need for transport ships was small in comparison with the crowding of the trenches in Cuban military cemeteries. The insurgent leaders therefore are not reckoning upon any imaginary ally when they assert that their reliance for the present summer is to be chiefly upon yellow fever and other deadly maladies.
In proposing to suppress the Cuban rebelThe Cuban Patriots.
in lion, it was plain at the very outset that
Spain would have upon her hands either a comparatively light and brief task or else a very des. perate and protracted struggle. There could be no half way ground. The insurrection had to be stamped out before the flames had spread very much; otherwise a conflagration of magnitude would surely ensue. Three months ago we were inclined to the opinion that the revolutionists were so lacking in resources and in effective organization that they would be borne down in the early stages of their patriotic programme. The opinion was based upon such meagre information as could be secured at that time, and also upon the ground that Spain's frightful sacrifices in suppressing the last Cuban rebellion had taught the Spanish government the necessity of promptness at any cost. This judgment regarding Spanish policy was strengthened by the appointment of Gen. Martinez Campos as Captain-General in Cuba, with large supplies of men and money and with absolute authority. But the uprising has not been quelled ; and the season of the year has come when the insurgents, having held their ground thus far, must feel that for several months hence the climate itself will serve their cause as unfailingly as a great army. By the middle of May the summer heat becomes oppressive in Cuba, and epidemic diseases are prevalent. If these conditions cause a high rate of mortality among the natives themselves, it must be remembered that for new, comers from a climate like that of Spain,-particularly where such new comers are exposed to the daily hardships of common soldiers in active campaign,-the climatic conditions are almost equivalent to a signed death warrant. It is said that in the first five years of the struggle which began with the Cuban revolt of 1868 there were sent from Spain to Cuba not less than 80,000 fresh soldiers, and that only 12,000 of these men were alive to begin the campaign of the sixth year. Of the 68,000 men who had died, only a small per cent. had been killed in Lattle. The deadly Cuban climate had almost exterminated the Spanish army. This struggle which began in 1868 continued ten years, when the Cubans were at last worn out. The number of troops sent from Spain in that decad
Cuba's agricultural resources are of a Conditions
of the highly varied sort, but sugar is the preStruggle. vailing crop. The sugar plantations give abundant work for a portion of the year. The employment ceases in May. Thousands of men then become idle. The revolutionists have not sought to call these workers to their camps until the sugar crop was harvested and the mills were closed for the season. Meanwhile they have been directing their energies toward the acquisition of repeating rifles and other military supplies, and have been harassing the Spanish troops by a guerilla warfare which has thus far proved to be anything but insignificant. Several of the insurgent leaders have carried out very successful ambuscades and strategies, and in most of the encounters between the Spanish troops and Cuban rebels the patriot bands have come off victorious. As the possibilities of ultimate success begin to improve, the rebellion gains more adherents from the influential class of Cubans. Spain is in danger of bringing upon herself a horrible punishment for her unbroken record of misrule. All sorts of material and governmental improvements were promised at the close of the last rebellion, but they have not been forthcoming. For the fact that Cuba has never been opened up either by railroads or good wagon roads, the Spanish authorities are solely responsible. One motive in keeping Cuba undeveloped has been the fear lest Cuban progress might lead to independence. Of course this argument must prove fallacious in the long run. Great Britain holds her chief colonies through the great liberty that she bestows upon them, and also through her wise and bountiful promotion of their material development in all respects. If Cuba had been provided with railroads and wagon roads and had been developed in other similar re
gards, the military problem of suppressing revolts
Enoland's It seems now to be conceded in most quarwould now be a comparatively simple one. But it is invasion of ters that England did not intend to keep her precisely because Cuba is undeveloped that mere Nicaragua. flag flying indefinitely on Nicaraguan soil handfuls of insurgents, untrained and ill-provided and that the seizure of Corinto on April 27 had no with weapons, can defy many regiments of the best ulterior motive behind it. As soon as Nicaragua gare Spanish troops. The insurgents are able to carry on guarantees for the prompt payment of the $75,000 deoperations in large districts of country where it is manded by Great Britain as a reparation for alleged next to impossible to transport and sustain a regular indignities against Vice-Consul Hatch at Bluefields, army. General Campos is obliged to use ships, and must waste several days in transporting troops from one part of the island to another, whereas if a railroad had been built the movement would not require more than two or three hours. It is now the policy of General Campos to encourage railroad building ; and franchises and subsidies are an easy thing to get. The Spaniards hope that by putting idle labor at work at good wages on railroad building they may keep the men from taking up arms and joining the camps of the insurgents. But it is somewhat late in the day to begin this policy. Its vigorous prosecution fifteen years ago might well have made this last rebellion impossible.
American It is evident that the sympathies of AmerSympathy ican private citizens are strongly with the with Cuba.
“ Cuban patriots. There is no reason whatsoever why we Americans should feel otherwise. We may doubt whether the Cubans have reached the social and political stage where they could carry on a very satisfactory government of their own. But J. SANTOS ZELAYA, PRESIDENT OF NICARAGUA. we may also indulge freely in the opinion that they could govern themselves in a way that would con- the British marines evacuated Corinto and the flag duce far better to their own advantage and progress of Nicaragua was restored. We cannot help feeling than the Spanish way has ever conduced. Moreover, that our British friends are making a very serious we would violate our uwn traditions if we did not mistake in placing so little value upon American pubhold stoutly to the view that no European country lic opinion with regard to the policies of the British has any business to retain political control in any por- foreign office toward Latin-American countries. Let tion of the Western hemisphere, against the delib- us recapitulate briefly,—and we desire to be perfectly erate desire of the inhabitants. Our own grievances impartial,—some of the facts as they appear from the against England were quite sufficient to justify our American point of view. The Nicaraguan coast line assertion of independence ; but Cuba's grievances on the Gulf of Mexico has long been known as the against the greed, rapacity, and misrule of Spain are Mosquito Coast, because of the Mosquito Indians, who a hundred times more serious than our causes of com- have held certain reservation rights of local jurisdicplaint against the rule of England. It is not for us tion, subject, however, to the national sovereignty of at present to consider the question of Cuban annexa Nicaragua. Obviously such an arrangement could tion. If the island should gain independence there only be temporary. England some decades ago would naturally be a high degree of commercial inti- claimed a sort of protecting interest as regards these macy and also a good political understanding between Indians. But England had absolutely no territorial the governments of Cuba and the United States. If rights or real authority on Nicaraguan soil. Indeed, the war should be pushed by Spain to the extent of her serious right to intermeddle on the Mosquito the struggle of twenty years ago, it would be en Coast was no greater than Nicaragua's to intermeddle tirely proper for our government to instruct Spain on the coast of Wales. The anomalous political conthat our commercial relations and interests with dition of the Mosquito Coast, of which Bluefields Cuba were of more serious importance than Spain's is the chief port, has been much to the advantage of political claims; and that under certain conditions it certain American and English traders. It became might be our duty to recognize Cuban independence necessary from the point of view of the Nicaraguan and if necessary to assist Cuba in maintaining her government to bring the government of the Mosquito position. There is nothing noble or commendable in Coast, including the custom-house administration, the history of Spanish efforts to coerce the Cubans, into full assimilation with the government of the rest and good Americans from the Arctic Ocean to Terra of the country. To our own authorities at Washdel Fuego should be glad rather than sorry to see ington, as to all disinterested American citizens, this Cuba gain her liberty.
seemed both reasonable and righteous. The Mos