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conviction, as well as great brilliancy and power; and he has a large and devoted following. It is reported that he is not unlikely to make his appearance at Washington as a Senator from the new state.

territory between the Ameers of Afghanistan and of Bokhara, and the line itself is to be carefully delimitated by a joint commission of a purely technical character, composed of British and Russian delegates, with the necessary assistance. By reducing the boundary commission to the status of a surveying party the governments hope to avoid the mischief that arose when the previous boundary commission nar

The Pamir Agreement.

In Central Asia England and Russia have
succeeded in arriving at a satisfactory
settlement of a question which has long

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Bamian Chorikar
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destroyed the peace, not of the empires, but of their respective Foreign Offices. A dispatch from Lord Kimberley to M de Staal, dated March 11, was published a month later, announcing the final definition of the respective spheres of influence in the Pamirs. The accompanying map shows the line that has been agreed upon provisionally, which is to mark the watershed of the empire in Central Asia. Britain abstains from exercising any political influence or control to the north, and Russia makes a similar engagement as to the territory lying to the south of the line of demarcation. There is a small exchange of

This final and satisfactory adjustment of The Relief the long ontstondino disr

the long outstanding dispute with Russia

has been overshadowed in the mind of the British public by the absorbing excitement of the cam. paign for the relief of Chitral. The episode, which was brought to a satisfactory conclusion by the raising of the siege and the relief of Dr. Robertson and his gallant garrison, is one of those stirring incidents of empire with which British Indian history is filled.


Dr. Robertson, with about five hundred men, found himself beleaguered in Chitral Fort, two hundred miles away from his nearest base. The siege lasted from March 4 to April 19. Hostile tribes, fighting in their own country, amply supplied with British ammunition and arms of precision, obtained froin Bombay, attacked the fort in force, usually endeavoring to set fire to the towers. The wall of the fort, although twenty-five feet high and eight feet thick, was vulnerable, inasmuch as it was partly constructed of wood, and when fired was extinguished with difficulty. The garrison, notwithstanding that it was enormously outnumbered, and allowed rest neither night nor day by the encompassing host of besiegers, made a gallant fight. The fires were extinguished almost as soon as they were kindled, the mines were met by countermines, and finally, in one fierce sortie the enemy was driven out of his position in the suminer house, but not before thirty-five of his men were bayoneted as they stood. The food was bad, the doctors ran out of surgical stores and drugs, and all the while the siege was kept up so strictly that no one could show his head at an embrasure without hearing a marksman's bullet sing past his ears. While Dr. Robertson and his men were holding out in the fort, Colonel Kelly was ploughing his way through the snow from Gilgit, and General Low with a strong force was moving northward on the 1st of April. It was a race as to which would first relieve the garrison. Colonel Kelly, by dint of immense pluck and dash, cutting roads through snowdrifts and turning impregnable positions by lowering ladders with ropes down the sides of precipices, succeeded in being first at the trysting place. The beleaguering force bolted on the 19th. One man in every five in the garrison had been killed or wounded. It was with a deep sigh of relief that England received the news of the raising of the siege.



Of the leading chiefs, some fled to Afghanistan and others were driven into the snow and compelled to surrender. Chitral is an exposed post, difficult to hold and costly to relieve; but there is great reluctance to abandon an advanced position to which a road has been cut at such expense. Whatever is done about the garrison, the story of the campaign will tend appreciably to increase the respect with which England is regarded on the frontier, and, what is not less important, to keep up her own confidence that the gifts of leadership and captaincy are not dying out among her sons.

The publication of the report of the Opium The Opium Commission.

m Commission is a very different affair from

the story of the relief of Chitral, but from an imperial point of view it is even more important. England's one great weakness in India has not been a


but it will be a comfort to a great many very worthy people to feel that, after all, Mr. Pease himself does not think that such drastic measures are imperatively required in the interests of morality and of Christianity.

lack of horse, foot and artillery, but a deep, underlying, uneasy suspicion which has haunted the minds of many of the best Englishmen, that after all their empire was based upon the demoralization of the people, and that they were only able to keep up the dazzling fabric of imperial rule in Hindostan by poisoning their own subjects and the Chinese with opium. To ascertain how far those suspicions were well grounded, a strong Royal Commission was appointed, under the presidency of Lord Brassey, for the purpose of ascertaining the truth about opium. No doubt the commission was very largely packed with representatives of the Indian Governinent, and with men who were tolerably certain to return a verdict in favor of opium. But Lord Brassey, Mr. Pease and Mr. H. J. Wilson were free from the taint of officialism; and if they, or even two of them, had agreed after hearing the evidence in condemning the opium, their authority with the anti-opium men would have outweighed that of the rest of their colleagues. But after examining eight hundred witnesses and going into the whole matter exhaustively,

Notwithstanding this sore blow and heavy
Prohibition discouragement, the agitation against the
Prohibit ?

? opium trade with China will continue. But it is difficult to see how the English can logically prohibit the export of opium from India, while allowing the limitless export of alcohol from Great Britain. The evidence taken in India seems to show that the evils resulting from the taking of opium and of heinp products are quite insignificant compared with those which follow the consumption of alcohol, which would increase the moment the use of opium and hemp was prohibited. In other words, if the British are to be prohibitionists in India, they ought to be prohibitionists at home. The Local Option bill has been introduced in Parliament, but it falls a very long way short of prohibition ; and it has no chance whatever of being passed. The only question that it raises is whether or not there will be a sufficient defection of Liberal brewers to defeat the Government. The trade is in the ascendant just now, for the Royal Commission, which has been taking evidence on the subject in Canada for the last two years, has reported strongly against prohibition. The Commissioners say that prohibition in justice involves compensation; and it would immediately wipe out the provincial municipal revenues. That may not be a reason for flinching from prohibition, but it is certainly a very strong argument against adopting it lightly, unless one is quite certain that while it destroys the revenue it will decrease the consumption. From a reinarkable article which is published in the Nineteenth Century on the result of prohibition in Manitoba, the presumption seems to be the other way.


Issues in

The school question in Manitoba reBritish North mains an unsettled issue. The situation America.

may be very simply stated. At the time

when Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation, MR. H. J. WILSON, M.P.

separate Catholic and Protestant schools were receivall the members of the commission, with the excep- ing aid out of the public funds. Since that time the tion of Mr. H. J. Wilson, have drawn up a report Protestant element has grown much more rapidly strongly in favor of things as they are. Mr. H. J. than the Catholic element. Recently the provincial Wilson signs a ininute of dissent, but Lord Brassey parliament has placed the schools of the province and Mr. Pease both sign the majority report. Con- upon a uniform non-sectarian basis. It happens, densed into a nutshell, the report may be said to however, that the fundamental law upon which the assert that everything is for the best, and that it would Canadian Confederation was formed declares that, be impossible to prohibit the use of opium in India, in these school questions, the antecedent status even if it were desirable, and it is not desirable. In quo must be preserved, unless the higher authorities India, in fact, the doxology might almost run: “For should concur in the proposed change. In other opium and all other mercies, the Lord's name be words, the Catholics of Manitoba would, under the praised.” It is a sore blow and great discouragement provisions of the law, appear to be entitled to appeal to those who have conscientiously been fighting for for redress first to the Dominion authorities at years past in favor of the total prohibition of opium Ottawa, and then to the Imperial Privy Council in and the suppression of the export trade to China; London, if their former right to a share of

the school money were taken away from them by the Manitoba Legislature. The matter has been carried to the highest authorities in England, and has been decided in favor of the appealing Catholics. In accordance with this decision, the Dominion Government has requested the Manitoba authorities to remedy the existing situation in compliance with the decision of the court of last resort. Manitoba seems inclined to stand upon her claims that she must be allowed to make her own school legislation without outside interference. What the outcome will be is beyond our power of prediction. Serious attempts have been made to agree upon a plan by which Newfoundland could be taken into the Canadian Dominion. But Newfoundland will consent to nothing less than the entire assumption of her debt by the Government at Ottawa, besides various other financial benefits and concessions. The Canadian Dominion wants Great Britain to lift Newfoundland out of her dreadful financial straits, and Great Britain seems to think that Canada should bear the brunt. Thus there have been questions of sufficient magnitude pending in British North America to give the newspapers of Canada an amplitude of topics for discussion.

Chamber of Deputies that he thought it premature to settle the future of these regions, and accused Eng. land of endeavoring to obtain the consent of France without even explaining what she was to agree to. “Under these conditions,” he said, “do not be astonished if we refuse our acquiescence and reserve our liberty of action.” England, of course, has no objection to reservation of liberty of action, so long as the action itself is reserved. Nothing more was heard of the expeditionary party which France was said to have dispatched to the Nile valley, and every one is hoping, probably the French inost of all, that if such an expedition has been launched it may tarry long on the way, and possibly get shunted en route. The Madagascar expedition is making progress, and President Faure has been exchanging civilities with H.M.S. Australia during his presidential progress through Normandy. Appearances may be deceitful, but for the present moment there seems to be a slackening of the tension which last month was rather great between Paris and London.

Politics in The most significant piece of news that Germany and comes from Germany is the unanimous Austria.

rejection by the Reichstag of the odious anti-socialist bill. It was becoming reasonably certain that the bill could not hold a majority of the members of the imperial law-making body, but no one had until the last moment anticipated its complete desertion and repudiation. Whatever may be the future of continental socialism, it is not destined to owe its quietus to repressive legislation. German political life is in a most anomalous condition. At the very moment when the representa tives of the German people are refusing to countenance the policy of the Emperor and his advisers against the socialists, they are paying every kind of honor to Bismarck, who has been the fountain and source of the whole repressive policy. Austria is in chronic political disturbance,-through religious and educational questions, through conflict between the discordant race elements of the empire, and particularly through practical governmental difficulties growing out of the relationship between the Austrian and Hungarian halves of the dual empire. The strain has been too much for Count Kalnoky, who has never been a very strong or wise Prime Minister, and whose resignation has been accepted by Emperor Francis Joseph. His successor is Count Golushowski, who is much better known in southeastern Europe than in these western parts of Christendom.

In English politics the event of iast The New English Speaker. Ho

er month was the election of the Speaker.

Mr. Courtney absolutely refused to be elected, as he preferred a position of independence to the dignity of the Speaker's chair. Mr. Campbell Bannerman's ambition was nipped in the bud by Sir William Harcourt, who, having been thwarted in his desire to be Prime Minister by the opposition of his colleagues, thinks it fair tit-for-tat to prevent them realizing their ambitions whenever the veto lies in his own hands. By à process of natural selection Mr. Gully of the Northern Circuit was elected. He is a gentleman who has at least one qualification for being Speaker, in that he has shown during his Parliamentary career that he is possessed of the supreme capacity of holding his tongue ; for the Speaker of the House of Commons is the one man who never makes speeches. The Conservatives brought forward Sir Matthew White Ridley, and a strict party vote was taken, by which Mr. Gully was elected by 285 votes to 274.

The British ministry continues to pursue Ministers

and the even tenor of its way. Mr. Asquith the House.

· has brought in his Factory bill, and Mr. Shaw Lefevre has introduced his new Reform bill, which prescribes that the elections shall take place in every constituenty on the same day, and that day a Saturday, and that no man shall vote in more than one constituency. The Welsh Disestablishment bill has been read a second time. As, however, the bills will not be allowed to pass the Lords, with possibly one or two exceptions, this does not amount to much, excepting so far as it supplies a certain amount of drill on the parade ground, which, after all, has its uses, although it is a very different thing from an actual campaign. One of the oldest members of the House of Commons remarked the other day that if at any time this session the House of Commons had

France seems to have taken with tolerable France and composure Sir Edward Grey's declaration the Nile.

. that the Nile basin is within the sphere of British influence. M. Hanotaux explained in the

voted by ballot, Ministers would have been placed in a minority. But as it does not vote by ballot, the Rosebery Government seems to bear a charmed life. The cause of this he attributed to the extraordinary slackness of the opposition, and this again he attributed to the dread which the rank and file of the Conservatives have of the ascendency of Mr. Chamberlain. The calculation of the opposition is that if Parliament were to be dissolved to-morrow they would come back to St. Stephens with a majority of thirty, which would make Mr. Chamberlain the master of the situation ; and as they do not love Mr. Chamberlain, they are in no hurry to get rid of Lord Rosebery in order to make Mr. Chamberlain king.

membership, by which the members took a four-fold pledge as follows: 1, I am a Socialist ; 2, I sever all connection with any political party ; 3, I vote in local elections as the branch of my party decides; and 4, in Parliamentary elections I will vote according to the orders of a conference specially convened for that purpose. The object of the party was then declared to be an Industrial Commonwealth founded on the socialization of land and capital. At present twenty. one Parliamentary candidates have been endorsed by the National Administrative Council, and others have been elected who are waiting endorsement. It remains to be seen how far these Independent Labor men will succeed in helping Mr. Chamberlain to his coveted dictatorship. Judging from what was done or not done at Leeds, Mr. Keir Hardie's forces are more numerous on paper than they are at the polling booth.

Disunion of this subterranean discontent with Mr.

of the Unionists.

Chamberlain's ascendency in the Unionist

* party, there were last month many curious and interesting symptoms. The first was an article in the New Review, in which Mr. Chamberlain was described as a demagogue, and generally reminded that his own estimate of himself was by no means shared by the rank and file of the Tory party. But the most serious trouble arose in the constituency of Warwick and Leamington. The resignation of the Speaker creates a vacancy which the Liberal Unionists proposed to fill by putting Mr. Peel, the Speaker's son, into the field as a Liberal Unionist candidate. The local Tories having a candidate of their own, who had been nursing the constituency for some time, revolted against the terms of the compact by which all seats held at the general election by Liberal Unionists should be regarded as inviolate. The Tory leaders supported the Liberal Unionist contention, but the local Tories took the bit between their teeth, voted down Mr. Peel at his own meeting and forced him to retire, which he did gracefully enough. Then, as a compromise, it was arranged that Mr. Lyttelton, a Liberal Unionist, should stand for the seat. To stand is one thing, to win the seat another, and it remains to be seen whether the dissatisfaction of the Tory rank and file will result in handing the seat over to the Ministerialists. By way of healing the incipient schism, Lord Salisbury wrote a letter and Mr. Balfour made a speech at the anniversary of the Primrose League, in which he spread abroad before the eyes of the nation all the astonishing virtues of Mr. Cham. berlain as a colleague, a statesman and a friend. Even Mr. Chamberlain, who is believed never to approach a mirror without making a profound obeisance, must have been contented with the flaring certificate of character which he received from Mr. Balfour's hands. So for the present there is peace in the Unionist Israel.

The Liberals have been so full of joy in The forme contemplating the possibilities of disConference.

union among the Unionists that they have not paid much attention to the Independent Labor Congress which was held at Newcastle at Easter last. The conference decided upon adopting a pledge of

The British administration achieved one Arbitration

in Trade triumph last month, of which it may well Disputes. be proud. The gigantic strike in the boot and shoe trade was settled by the Board of Trade, which deputed Sir Courtenay Boyle to negotiate a settlement between the contending parties. At first it seemed hopeless enough ; attempts at conciliation seldom succeed at the beginning of a struggle. Mr. Bryce, however, boldly faced the situation, and, thanks to the diplomatic tact and management of Sir Courtenay Boyle, what seemed impossible was discovered to be quite practicable. Not only was the strike settled, but arrangements were entered into which will go far to prevent any similar strikes in future. If there be any truth in the ancient saying “Blessed are the peacemakers," the government may fairly expect to receive it when its time coines. The success of Sir Courtenay Boyle's intervention has given an impetus to the movement in favor of establishing courts of conciliation and arbitration. The government has introduced its bill, but it is feared that, notwithstanding the urgency of the question, it will be added to the other massacred innocents at the close of the session. Yet both parties agree to it. The bill introduced by the London Labor Conciliation and Arbitration Board has the approval of the London Chamber of Commerce, the London Trades Council, the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and other the Associated Chambers of Com bodies. Notwithstanding all this, it is to be feared that Parliament will be dissolved before anything practical has been done.

Two general elections have been held General Elections in Greece and in the course of the last month, both

Denmark. of which have resulted in ministerial defeats. The most remarkable overturn is that which has taken place in Greece. In 1892 M. Tricoupis came back from the country with a large majority. and although he was upset at the beginning of the year, he evidently looked forward to securing a ma. jority at the dissolution. So far from this being the case, M. Delyannis, his opponent, has swept the board,

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