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AN interesting study of the contented classes

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five battle ships, Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon. about it never do), their descendants in Nebraska, Iowa and Texas; six monitors, Puritan, Miantono- with the same prospect in view and entertaining it just moh, Terror, Amphitrite, Monterey and Monadnock ; as sincerely as do their ancestors (which is not sinfour special types, Dolphin, Vesuvius, Katahdin and cerely at all), grow rebellious at the very thought. Bancroft; two first-class torpedo boats, Cushing and With all this, however, it is quite a difficult task to Ericsson. The total displacement of all these vessels avoid making out a case for contentment in one's own is 180,478 tons. They carry ninety 4-inch, sixty-eight locality when the existing facts and conditions are 5-inch, one hundred and twenty-six 6-inch, sixty-six 8- studied carefully and in detail. Suffering, deprivation inch, twenty-two 10-inch, twelve 12-inch and twelve and discontent are much like the ague,—' over in the 13-inch rifles, making three hundred and ninty-six next township’; and it is not at all unusual to find an guns in all.

In addition to these they carry five audience applauding a speaker who tells them they hundred and fifty small rapid-firing guns and three are pauperized, when very few men in the audience 15-inch dynamite guns."

would part with their possessions short of a sum rep

resented by a big unit and three ciphers. IS THE WEST DISCONTENTED ?

The discontent which really does exist, however, to any great extent and with any great power, is not

so much discontent with one's individual lot as with ",

the existing order of things. In our haste to build particularly of Nebraska, is contributed to the Forum

an empire in a night, we have not always guarded by Chancellor Canfield of the Nebraska State Uni

carefully the interests of all the people. We have versity. “Local color” is the prime quality, we

only ourselves to blame for this, and part of our should say, of Chancellor Canfield's article. It is

present ill-humor comes from a secret consciousness impossible to reproduce here the instances cited from

of this fact. Much, if not all, legal inequality might real life in Nebraska to prove the writer's contention

have been prevented by wise forethought and unthat the plain people” of the West are, as a rule,

selfish action on our part. It would sometimes seem content, with their lot. We give his conclusion,

as though our children could not possibly govern based on personal conversations and correspondence

themselves any worse than we have governed ourwith hundreds of men and women of all callings and

selves, and that if they do not vastly improve in all conditions.

methods of public administration they will suffer “There is some discontent within the limits of Ne

more than we do. braska. In a new State, and especially in a rich

“Out of such bitter experiences, however, and out State like our own, where all natural resources seem

of this kind of rational discontent are evolved all to be within the easy grasp of each and all, there

human improvement and all advancement of the have been great opportunities for acquiring a com

This kind of discontent seems to have natupetence and even wealth. In most of these Western

rally and properly become a powerful factor in States money-getting has been easy. In the pursuit American public life. But as for ourselves and our of wealth, some, by reason of extraordinary diligence,

neighbors as individuals, and in our own individual extraordinary shrewdness, or good fortune, have been

and private interests and affairs, it is safe to say that more successful than others. With the unsuccessful,

95 per cent. of the people of this State fall easily even though they have done more than fairly well,

under any thoughtful definition of the expression the sense of not being as far along in the race as

contented classes.' those with whom they made the start is irritating. The rapid rise in values has unquestionably unsettled

THE RAILROAD STRIKE IN CALIFORNIA. many men and made them discontented with conditions which we all know to be more nearly normal. OME of the peculiar phases of the great strike of The tenth commandment is undoubtedly often and last summer on the California railroads are disbadly shattered in Nebraska ; but I fancy we are cussed by Prof. Thomas R. Bacon, of the University neither the only sinners nor the chief of sinners in of that State, in the Yale Review. That the strike this respect. Our people do not always wait to be de- had certain features in California which it did not prived of necessaries before they complain, but are have elsewhere in the country was due, says Proapt to speak, and speak sharply, if what may be fessor Bacon, to the Southern Pacific's monoply of termed the lavishness of supply is lessened. Men transportation throughout most of the State, and to here, as elsewhere. are in haste to get rich ; not the condition of public feeling toward the company. simply to secure a competence. With many others “ The Southern Pacific Company, a corporation the present complaining is hereditary, and comes to organized under the laws of Kentucky, controls all them with their New England blood. Most well-or- the railroads in the State, north of the Tehachapi ganized, normal New Englanders are alway' on the pass. A glance at the map shows that this includes road to the poor house.' The only difference between the whole State, with the exception of that comparaNew England and Nebraska seems to be that, whereas tively small part which is commonly known as in the former people go cheerfully and willingly and Southern California. The only exception to this genseem rather to enjoy the prospect (they rarely get eral statement is found in the case of some small local there, of course,-those who are always talking roads, which open up some agricultural and mining

race.

SOM

regions. It is impossible to get out of Northern Cali

track and overhead line, is more substantially built, fornia by rail. except by passing over the lines of the

as a result of past experience. Southern Pacific. This corporation does not own a “Previous to this year the manufacture of electric single foot of real estate, but leases the lines of the

railway apparatus occupied a peanliar position among Southern Pacific Railroad, the Central Pacific Rail- the other industries of the country. The profits relroad, the California and Oregon Railroad, and their ative to the factory cost of apparatus were enormous various branches and adjuncts. A tie-up of the South- and the ordinary laws of competition in trade did not ern Pacific lines means, therefore, the paralysis of all seem to apply here. At the same time, it may be railroad traffic through this immense territory.” said in explanation that the amounts spent in experiPEOPLE VS. RAILROAD.

menting and in making sales were also enormous. The damage to business interests in the State Why this condition of affairs existed for so long a caused by the strike was immense ; farmers were left time under competition is difficult to explain. Howwith their fruit rotting on the ground ; thousands of ever, it was not until the latter part of 1893 that this men were kept from their daily work; manufacturers state of the business began to change, and 1894 has were threatened with ruin. Nevertheless, Professor seen a grand crash of prices that has entirely removed Bacon affirms that sympathy with the strikers was the basis upon which the ma ufacture of elect general, even among the people most injured. The appliances formerly rested. Electric railway applireason for this state of feeling he finds in the “unan- ances are now made and sold in very much the same imous hatred of the people of California toward way that other standard articles of manufacture are the Southern Pacific Company."

sold. That is, there is the closest competition and “According to common report, the Southern Pacific everything is figured on a small margin of profit. runs political conventions, influences elections, con- In fact, it is said that many contracts are now being trols legislatures, owns railroad commissioners, and taken at a loss. During 1894, prices on railway frustrates justice. It is the arbiter of trade, fixes motors have been cut in two, and while other apthe prices of most commodities, determines who (if paratus has not taken so serious a drop, the reduction any) shall prosper and who shall go to the wall, dic- is below what would have been thought possible last tates the waxing and waning of prosperity in every year. How long prices will continue at their present community within its grasp. It pursues individuals low ebb it is impossible to say, but it is certain that with petty spite, from which great corporations are they will never go back to where they were before supposed to be free. Its policy seems still to be that the cut throat competition of the panic forced them which has been pursued in the past of wrecking rail..

down. road corporations for the benefit of those who control

IMPROVED EQUIPMENT. them. Some of these charges are proved, more of

“One important move made this year by railway them are known to be true, all of them are believed. There are no indications that the company has learned

motor makers was the lightening of the equipment

by using cast steel or something closely allied to it, anything from recent events. Indeed, there is evidence that it regards the suppression of the late disorder as

in place of cast iron. The movement was begun in

1893, by the appearance of the General Electric 800 a corporate triumph, and that it is free to be just as

motor. Early in this year the Westinghouse No. 12 mean, just as unscrupulous, just as oppressive as

appeared, closely followed by the Walker motor: ever, and that it is going to try to be meaner, more

Both of these are light motors and have, in addition unscrupulous and more oppressive than before, if it is possible to be so. Perhaps what I have said will

to the improvement of decreased weight, devices for partly explain why California spmpathized with the

suspending the motor by springs and relieving the

axle of its dead weight. About the middle of the strike. Such sympathy was unreasoning, but it was

year the Card and Steel motors were announced as human."

on the market.

* The most revolutionizing change in the electric THE GROWTH OF STREET RAILWAYS IN 1894.

railway field this year has been the increasing use of N a review of the year's progress which appears in generators directly connected to engines. They were

out that the business has been only slightly retarded number installed this year has exceeded the expectaby the financial depression, which has had the useful tions of the most enthusiastic advocate of that type effect of preventing the building of many non-paying of apparatus. They are growing so in popularity roads. The tendency to place fictitious values on that it looks at present as if it would not be many electric railway properties having been partially years before they are used on all new work. Not checked, the industry is now on a sounder basis than only are they being built in the large sizes, but in the ever before, in the opinion of the writer. In roundnum- smaller units. The largest railway power plants in bers there are about ten thousand miles of electric Brooklyn, Philadelphia and Chicago are being suproad and about twenty thousand electric motor cars plied with them. One company has this year built in present use. During the year many improvements and installed thirty-six thousand nine hundred horsewere introduced in the details of construction, and power of these generators and is building twenty everything used in street railway work, especially thousand horse-power more.

last year and is yet to be finished. The general apheaval of Chicago horse lines did not begin until half of '94 was gone, but taken altogether it is probably safe to say that the work of changing over is now about half accomplished. However, this does not mean that half the electric lines are opened for traffic.

The electric welding of the joints on many miles of street railroad track has been a prominent feature of the year's work. The Johnson Company opened up the season by welding three and a half miles of straight double track at St. Louis. Some track was welded at Boston in '93 but about 10 per cent. of the joints broke near the weld. The method of welding was then radically changed and the work done in 1894 may be said to stand by itself as an important experiment, the results of which we will know ere many days of '95 have passed. On the Nassau Railroad of Brooklyn, thirty-two miles of track have been welded. The Cleveland Electric Railway and the West End Street Railway, of Boston, have also been favored with visits by the Johnson welding cars this year. . . .

A notable addition to the list of practical railway appliances is the Sperry electric brake. The inventor has been working on this brake for many years, but it has not been put forward for commercial use until this year. This brake has probably attracted more attention than any other single , electric railway device brought out this year because it is such a radical departure from any previous commercial braking apparatus. The interest was not lessened by the fact that Mr. Sperry waited until the brake was an assured commercial success before announcing his work to the technical world.

THE CONDUIT SYSTEM. “ About October 15 work was begun on a section of conduit electric road for the Metropolitan Traction Company of New York, by the General Electric Company. This is notable as being the first electric conduit road to be built for commercial operation by any large American electrical manufacturing concern. The principal manufacturing companies have in times past been too careful of their reputations to get tangled up in any underground conduit roads except in their own experimental yards. Although the New York conduit has the best prospects of success of any system yet laid, there is no probability that such a success will create the revolution in electric railway practice that some expect, as its cost is enormous, being greater per mile of track than that of the cable system. This being the case, its use will be limited by commercial considerations to very heavy traffic, such as is served by the cable, and hence it will never come into very extensive use, though it may serve a limited field. . . . .

“ The three-wire system has been operating for several years on two or three roads of the country. The results were first publicly announced this year through the columns of the Review and considerable interest aroused.

CONSTRUCTION IN GREAT CITIES. “The year has been one of great activity in electric railway construction in Brooklyn, Philadelphia and Chicago. Brooklyn has been putting the finishing touches on its extensive systems. Philadelphia has undergone a great transformation, which was begun

ROBBER-PROOF EXPRESS CARS.

RITING in the North American Review on the VV subject, “Brigandage on Our Railroads," Hon. Wade Hampton suggests ways of making our express cars robber-proof.

“If,” he says, “every car had, in addition to its ordinary door, an independent one made of strong iron grating, which could remain closed should the outer door be broken in, any robber making an attack would be confronted with a serious obstacle in the shape of the iron door, should they succeed in forcing the outer one. Let every express company place one brave, determined man, in addition to the ordinary messenger, who should be of the same character, in the car, and let each be armed with a repeating shotgun, each carrying seven rounds of buckshot cartridges. Two brave men armed in this way would be a match for four times their number of men who, like these train robbers, are generally cowards. Should an attack be made on any express car, and the outer door be broken in, the first man showing himself in front of the iron grating could be shot down, while the men inside could be behind cover. A few such receptions to train robbers would bring the business into disrepute, and any of the perpetrators who would be killed would, in the judgment of all lawabiding citizens, have met a fate they richly deserved. There would be no difficulty in securing the services of proper messengers, and no more formidable firearms can be placed in the hands of such men than the weapon I have mentioned, for its seven loads can be discharged in a few seconds. This is the mere outline of a plan to protect trains, and perhaps modifications of it can be made judiciously ; but I feel assured that by a comparatively moderate outlay the express companies could make their cars almost, if not quite, unassaila le.”

A NEW USE FOR DOGS. In addition to these means of protection, ex-Senator Hampton suggests the use of dogs trained to follow men. He corrects a misapprehension prevalent throughout the North that the dogs employed for such purposes are bloodhounds. He denies that there are a half-dozen bloodhounds in the United States, or that any have ever been used in the pursuit of fugitives except in the fable of “Uncle Tom's Cabin." The dogs used, he tells us, are ordinary fox hounds, that will follow a trail, but will not attack the fugitive. They only indicate his route of flight so that parties following on horseback can come up with him. Most of the penitentiaries in the South keep these dogs, as do the managers of convict farms and camps.

AN

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THE MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL.

then have made an offer for the uncompleted works. N interesting account of the engineering enter

Under such an arrangement it might have freed the prise which has resulted in the great water- undertaking from some of the onerous obligations way connecting Manchester with the Irish Sea is with which it is now encumbered." contributed to the Yale Review by Mr. Edward Porritt. As the REVIEW OF REVIEWS has heretofore

THE W CZAR. described the canal, we confine our extracts from N the Freie Bühne or Neue Deutsche Rundschau Mr. Porritt's article to his comments on the present financial prospects of the undertaking, which are not sketch of the new Czar, Nicholas II, which we conhope-inspiring.

dense as follows: “Since it became possible to form an estimate of He was born in 1868, and his father wished him to the traffic, the position of the canal has been causing be educated as a national Russian, and therefore ensome anxiety in Manchester. The waterway is capa- gaged only Russian tutors. The military governor, ble of receiving steamers of a size and class which General Bagdanowitsch, seems to have exercised the includes nineteen-twentieths of the ste im tonnage of greatest influence over the future Czar. When Alexthe world ; sailing craft of almost any size can be ander himself was young, he had foreign tutors, who towed up and down the canal with only the slight kept the outside world informed of his character and inconvenience which attends the lowering of top- the progress he was making. With Nicholas that has masts; and, so far as navigation is concerned, there not been the case. The Russian tutors were expected is nothing to stand in the way of its use. But while to exercise much discretion in this matter, therefore all this is so, the immense inward and outward traffic the world does not know what to expect from the which in the eighties its enthusiastic and sanguine new ruler. promoters conceived as waiting for the canal is as It is unfortunate that the two most powerful emyet nowhere in sight. This present comparative lack pires of Europe are governed by young rulers, neither of traffic, taken in conjunction with the fact that the of whom has ever witnessed a battle. The young canal has cost at least one-third more than was ex- Czar has not inherited the seriousness which was so pected, and that the charges for maintenance, espe- characteristic of his father ; rather he has the nervcially for dredging, are likely to be much higher ous, irritable temperament of his mother. than was anticipated, form the ground for the uneasi- In his youth he was delicate, but the first time he ness in Manchester. The shareholders have long attended a court ball was in 1886, and on this occaago given up any hope of immediate return. Their sion he engaged the daughter of a general for a waltz uneasiness is at an end. The anxiety has transferred and danced so long with her that the young lady itself to the rate payers of Manchester, who, if the almost fainted. When he conducted her to her seat Canal Company defaults, will have to meet the inter- he remarked quite loud : “I beg your pardon for est due on the city bonds. Sir John Harwood has tiring you so, but I wanted to prove that Russia has declared in the City Chamber and elsewhere that de- a Crown Prince who is capable of living, and was fault is inevitable, and that, as a consequence, the not so delicate as he was made out to be." Since citizens will have to pay a canal rate which he esti- that time nothing more has been heard of his delimates cannot amount to less than 1 shilling and 8 cate constitution. pence in the pound on the ratal value of all property On the other hand, when a few years ago Panin the city limits.

slavist feeling ran high, it was undoubtedly true that “ The friends of the canal insist that Sir John Har- both the present Czar and his brother were in close wood has taken too gloomy a view of the outlook ; connection with the movement, and Nicholas was and they are now doing all they can to prove that he sent away for the usual spell of travel. is wrong in his opinions and his estimates. Every It is quite inconceivable how the German papers day for months past there have been columns of dis- can say the new Czar will be more friendly to Gercussion in the Manchester press, the burden of which many than his father was. Equally stupid are the has been, . What can be done to increase the oversea utterances about his English sympathies. In his traffic of the canal ?' Between 1880 and 1885 the earliest childhood he was certainly much attached to cry was, “The trade is here, let us make the canal. an old English governess who used to give him In 1894 it is, The Canal is here, where is the Scott's novels to read. As to his German sympathies, trade?'

. In no sense was the Caual em- it should be remembered that he was most tenderly barked upon as a philanthropic scheme. Its prac- brought up by the most anti-German of mothers, and tical municipalization is the outcome of a series of it is not likely that his German bride will make any accidents, and the conditions under which this serious difference to his feelings toward Germany. muricipalization was brought about will not allow Alexander III's children have always had the exthe Canal a fair chance as a municipal enterprise. ample of a happy married life before their eyes, and There was perhaps a tinge of philanthropy and of they have learnt to love their parents as other children civic pride in the action of Manchester in comiug to do in plain, pion homes. The Czar has already the aid of the Canal in 1891 ; for had Manchester de- shown that the fifth commandment is sacred to him, sired to make the best possible bargain from a com- and, in consequence of this, some are hopeful that he mercial point of view, it would have allowed the will be influenced in all his actions by the memory of Canal Company to have gone into bankruptcy, and his father.

IN

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"THE LOVELIEST QUEEN IN EUROPE." which she has cheerfully taken upon herself. She

receives the directors of charitable institutions ; the A Character Sketch of the Queen of Italy.

committee of some working women's guild ; she conN

siders a project for organizing an industrial or art lishes a copiously illustrated sketch of the Queen exhibition ; she receives deputations from undertakof Italy. It begins thus :

ings which seek royal patronage ; she discusses some Marguerite of Savoy, Queen of Italy, walks be- new scheme of philanthropy ; she encourages art in fore breakfast in the palace gardens and gathers a all forms and assists women's work ; she visits hosbunch of flowers for the study table of her lord pitals, asylums, orphanages, bazaars ; she lends her the king.

If the weather be wet, or the season presence, or her help, to any important organization winter, she goes to the conservatory for the nosegay. which seems to her to be designed for the welfare of Often in the afternoons she enters the glass veranda humanity. So in the afternoon she makes her visits which opens upon the King's study at the Quirinal, through the studios, the charitable institutions and and there she tends the blossoms and plants which the rest. But, for all that, she contrives to get time His Majesty is fond of cultivating. In the north, at for her own pleasures ; a private audience for disher country villa in Monza, Queen Marguerite spends tinguished persons ; a little reception for her personal much of her time in the royal gardens. So much friends ; and then, about half-past four, she goes for does she love flowers, that she says, “Indeed, I can a drive through the city to some public park. never have enough of them !' Her favorites are “ The Queen goes back to the Quirinal from her carnations, violets, lilies of the valley, and the dark drive in the grounds of the Villa Borghese, and she red velvet rose. And the violet is her favorite per- proceeds to the King's study, where she sits for an fame.

hour with her husband. She reads to him, or talks “ Marguerite of Savoy is the loveliest of the with him, or plays, perhaps, on one of the musical queens of Europe. She is not only the best looking instruments with which she is an expert performerqueen, but she is the best educated one in Europe. the piano, the mandolin, the lute or the lyre. The She knows English, French, German, Spanish and King and Queen make it a point that nothing shall Latin thoroughly, and she speaks them as flnently as interfere with this hour which they spend together she does her own Italian. She is a good Greek before dinner. The dinner is served at seven, and the scholar. She is not only acquainted, but she is party is usually a small one, comprising their Majesfamiliar with the masterpieces of European literature; ties, the Prince of Naples when he is in town, the she quotes Petrarch, Dante and Goethe, and she is so Marchesa Villamarina, a gentleman in waiting, and fond of Shakespeare that she has written for her own a guest or two." amusement a little work on his heroines."

LORD SALISBURY ON THE PRIME MINISTER. A ROYAL MOUNTAINEER. The article is full of details as to the Queen's

HE National Review enjoys the distinction this amusements and mode of life. The writer says: “In

Lord Rome she is the Queen ; at Monza she is the country

bury. He furnishes a sardonic criticism of " gentlewoman; in the Alps she is a daring mountain

Rosebery's plan" of procedure against the House of climber. She has that absolute indifference to all

Lords, a criticism less slashing but more searching risk and danger which charaterizes the members of

than some of the writer's recent platform utterances. the house of Savoy. On the mountains she will lead

He begins by girding at the closing words of Lord where few care to follow-over glaciers, to the verge

Rosebery's Bradford speech—“We fling down the of precipices, on narrow, dizzy paths and treacherous

gauntlet, it is for you to take it up”-and insists that ledges. She does not care for hunting, fishing, rac

the policy the Premier propounded was really a de

fiance to his followers. They demand the abolition ing; mountain-climbing is her favorite sport. At Monza, too, horticulture is something more than a

of a Second Chamber, Mr. Asquith declaring for a hobby with her. The gardeners say that she under

single House, whereas Lord Rosebery is avowedly a

a Second Chamber man. stands flowers and their cultivation as thoroughly as

The writer opines that from if she had made this the sole business of her life.

the Radical standpoint Mr. Asquith takes the juster There are flower beds at Monza which she permits no

view, having thought the matter out, as “his chief one but herself to cultivate during the period of resi

probably has not done,” and expects that the Second dence there. She works in her garden every morn

Chamber will go the way of “the predominant parting and then she has it literally to herself, for all the

ner.” It is only by ending and not by mending the members of the household, without exception, are ex

House of Lords that the avowed objects of their cluded."

party can be accomplished. A ROYAL DAY'S WORK.

WHY LIBERAL PEERS TURN TORY. The following is Mr. Warren's account of the The sin of the peers in the Premier's eyes is simply Queen's work-a-day life: “ Before noon she has fin- that “on several occasions they have left his Gov. ished her correspondence, and then, until the luncheon ernment in a ludicrous minority.” Lord Salisbury hour, she is engaged in some of the special labor does not wish to deny the charge, or dispute the fact.

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