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He prefers to ask for an explanation of the fact. In -" renewed attempts in this direction would be made 1831 the Liberal peers numbered one hundred and on the same or on different lines.” He considers it twenty-eight. Since then two hundred and ten peer- safe to predict that no measure diminishing the scope ages have been created by Liberal Governments, of and importance of the present functions of the Upper which only thirty have become extinct. These fig. House would ever be accepted by that House. Lord ures might suggest that the Liberal peers to-day Rosebery apparently “means so to alter the House would number three hundred, instead of thirty. of Lords that it shall always defer to the House of Why have these two hundred and seventy peers Commons whenever Gladstonians are in office. Mr. fallen away ?
Asquith and the other ministers wish on the other Lord Salisbury makes fun of the Premier's sug- hand to enthrone the House of Commons as absolute gestion that the Upper House is a party organization sovereign sans phrase.” The writer expects, with Mr. ruled by party managers. The wiles of party man- Chamberlain, that the struggle will be a long one, and agement will hardly suffice as an explanation ; for anticipates that men will meantime closely scrutinize have not the Liberals had a Schnadhorst? Yet they the Lower House which claims sole authority. They have been left behind. The real reason Lord Salis- will see that “ there party government is rapidly combury finds in the fact that the party which calls ing to mean government by an iron party machine, itself Liberal no longer represents the principles to blindly fulfilling the bargains which its conductors which the peers whom the Liberals created and their have made in order to secure the votes of fanatical or descendants considered themselves pledged. In self-interested groups." Lord Palmerston's time, Liberals stood for-1, the established Churches ; 2, the integrity of the Empire, SHOULD ENGLAND JOIN THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE? and 3, the rights of property. As they have fallen
The Anti-English Policy of Italy. away in these points, they have lost their adherents
THE first place in the Contemporary Review is among the peers.
1 occupied by an article by Ex-Diplomnat, entitled WHAT IS THE NEW SECOND CHAMBER TO BE?
“ Peace and the Quadruple Alliance.” The writer, The following passage puts the writer's most however, has much more to say about the shiftiness weighty argument: “ The distaste they have excited, and untrustworthiness of the Italian policy with reboth in respect to the rights of property and the in- gard to England than about the peace of Europe. He tegrity of the Empire, is a serious hindrance to Lord begins well enough by pointing out the frightful danRosebery's dream of fashioning a new Second Cham- ger which would menace Europe should war break ber warranted to exhibit Gladstonian proclivities. out. He believes that such a war would not be of The classes among whom the candidates for Liberal short duration. He says: “The highest probability peerages have hitherto been found have deserted his is that the war will be long and exhaustive, exhaustparty, because of the monstrous transformation which ive of wealth and of human life ; of the finest results the teaching of his party has undergone. He must of civilization, as of the resources of future progress. dig deep and search far before he finds a couche sociale The first results of such a struggle, prolonged, would with the dispositions that he wants. I doubt if he be a general bankruptcy of all the powers involved.” will find it in any large abundance, unless he digs in
THE WAY OF PEACE. Celtic soil. Of course, his Second Chamber may be so constructed that it will turn out to be a mere replica The question, therefore, of how this catastrophe can of the House of Commons; and in that case it will be averted is the supreme question for all civilized exhibit the oscillations which have marked the history men. Ex-Diplomat has his own particular scheme of opinion in that assembly. But if it resembles the and that is : “ The accession of England to the Triple House of Commons in the origin and basis of its au- Alliance, forming a Quadruple Alliance on the basis of thority, it will insist on also possessing the same the maintenance of peace.” powers and the same functions. It will demand a He thinks that the only alternative is an English voice in questions of finance, and the power to dismiss alliance with Italy and the adhesion of England to ministers ; and it will be able to extort compliance the Triple Alliance. By way of proving that the forwith its demands by precisely the same methods as mer is the preferable policy, he proceeds to set forth those by which the House of Commons in past days the unfriendliness which the Italian government has has built up the fabric of its own authority.”
shown in relation to England. His paper is an at
tempt, as he says, to put “ the diplomacy of Italy PROSPECTS OF CONSERVATIVE REFORM.
in relation to England, and to put the Italian diploLord Salisbury point blank denies. Mr. Asquith's macy in its true light, for the benefit, not only of the statement that the Conservatives have on the stocks English, but of all European public opinion. The a scheme of reform for the House of Lords, but after machinery can be started by a very weak hand, but recalling proposals to this end supported by him no one knows where to look for one strong enough to twenty-five and again five or six years ago, he goes stop it. The war will end in social revolution and on to state that “it is very likely that if circum- windfall republics." stances were favorable”-in the event of a sufficiently His story is not likely to encourage England to large majority being returned to the Lower House ? form an alliance either with Italy or with any federa
Alliance without an accord between Italy and Eng. land would not guarantee the peace of Europe. The material support of England may affect the event of a war, but her moral influence alone cannot influence the decision of the almost more important question : Shall there be war or peace? An accord once established between England and Italy would determine the relations of England with the central empires, and in all human probability the assured maintenance of peace and a final disarmament."
In the Gentleman's Magazine Mr. James Hutton writes the second part of an article on “ The Balance of Power,” which, although chiefly historical, concludes with an expression of opinion in favor of the gravitation of England to the Triple Alliance.
tion of which Italy forms a part, for he has no difficulty in “showing how inconsistent toward England, but how blind to her own good, was the manner of conducting affairs adopted by that power which owed so much to English good will."
ITALY'S ANTI-ENGLISH POLICY. The following is Ex-Diplomat's own summary of Italian policy in relation to England : “Having done what was in its power to counteract the operations of England in Egypt, the Italian government continued
ntinned to oppose the English administration of Egyptian
administration of Fountion affairs. In all the sanitary questions arising in the Levant (which are au fond political) Italy has always been in agreement with France in opposition to English views. Italy has repeatedly called on England. clearly under the instigation of France, to give effect to her promises made on assuming the administration of Egyptian affairs and to withdraw from Egypt, and instead of acting as a link between the Triple Alliance and England, has devoted all her influence to draw England into line with Paris and away from Berlin. For thèse endeavors of its diplomats and agents in the conferences about Egypt and the Suez Canal the Italian government received the thanks of the French."
MACHIAVELLI IN OFFICE. Nor is it only England which has reason to complain of the uncertain policy of Italian statesmen. He says : “Under the guidance of Crispi and Robilant the Italian government has never, since Cavour, acted in good faith with any of its associates, but has leaned to France one day, and to Germany the next; England on one side and Russia on the other, according to some momentary advantage for which it hoped. It is the inheritance of the Middle Ages, the method of Machiavelli, entered into by the great majority of the public men and diplomats of Italy."
WHAT ENGLAND SHOULD DO. The writer thinks that Crispi and Robilant can be relied upon to persist in the policy of the Triple Alliance, but in order to secure this desirable end England must help. He says: “Nothing more is needed to paralyze its action and insure the conformity of the government under any lead with the sentiment of the nation, than the placing of the issue plainly before king, parliament and country, by the conclusion of a definite agreement with England, which shall leave no ambiguity or pretext for misunderstanding the relations of the two countries, or Italy's relations to the Triple Alliance. The moral influence of England over the Italian people is such that any distinct declaration of policy by England, in the direction of consolidation of interests, would compel any possible Ministry to follow it, and insure the full adhesion of Italian parliaments to it. The position is not one to be trifled with or met by a see-saw dilettanteism, seeking to be all things to all interests, to friend and foe alike.”
SHALL THERE BE WAR OR PEACE ? Ex-Diplomat sums up his point as follows? “ Bismarck, long ago, expressed the opinion that the Triple
SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY IN COLLEGE. THE somewhat difficult task of mapping out a
1 scheme of undergraduate instruction in the socalled science of sociology is undertaken by Prof. George E. Vincent, writing in the December Educational Review. Professor Vincent believes that students are now agreed in regarding society as a whole of interdependent parts ; "a whole which has been naturally produced by the continuous action of innumerable forces that are still operative, effecting unceasing changes in social structures and activities.”
Assuming that this conception of the subject will be generally accepted by teachers, Professor Vincent proceeds to outline a plan of instruction which, as he says, follows not the chronological, but the pedagogical order; that is, its method is one of progress from the better known to the less known. These are the main features of his plan for college study:
“During the sophomore year a course of lectures and quizzes should deal with the chief external traits of society, beginning with the community in which the college is situated, and extending the survey to include the State or the nation. It should be shown that knowledge about the earth, its structure, conformation, climate ; about physical and chemical forces ; about vegetable and animal life; about man's psychical nature ; about language, all is correlated in the conception of society as a whole.
“Next, the great classes of social phenomena should be discriminated and apportioned among the different special sciences to which the students have already been introduced or will soon apply themselves. By such broad, synoptic treatment general relations will be indicated and study of details will become more intelligent.
“ Throughout the junior year there should be at least one exercise a week designed to continue the work of correlation and constantly to remind the students who are pursuing different social sciences that their tasks have a common end ; that they are engaged in the several divisions of one great psychical labor.
“At the beginning of senior year the work of synthesis should be begun. The results of special study should be organized into a more complete conception of society, and the inspection of actual social con
ditions should be insisted upon. Books about phenomena should be subordinated to positive knowledge gained from personal observation. A family, village, town or city should be studied in much the same way that an animal organism is examined by the zoologist. Structures and activities should be analyzed and classified ; processes of social change should be carefully observed and, so far as may be, accounted for in the light of past social experience.
"Ethics based upon the economies discoverable in the laws of social evolution or harmonized with them should follow, together with psychology, which should further explain the structural bonds and motive forces of society."
It is Professor Vincent's theory that after such training as this, near the end of senior year, students would be prepared to criticize intelligently the social reform programmes of the day. He would not encourage such discussions earlier in the course.
THE SALVATION ARMY. A N article by Prof. Charles A. Briggs in the DeA cember North American Review traces the history and triumphs of the Salvation Army from its formation in 1877 to General Booth's jubilee in 1894. Professor Briggs thus describes the organization of the Army:
“ The Salvation Army is a religious order of the nineteenth century. The religious orders of the Roman Catholic Church assume the vows of poverty, virginity and obedience. The Salvation Army also has its vows. The soldiers are sworn in and are required to wear the uniform, to obey their officers, to abstain from drink, tobacco and worldly amusements, to live in simplicity and economy, earning their livelihood and saving from their earnings for the advancement of the kingdom of God. The officers assume more serious vows. They wear the uniform of officers, abstain from jewelry and finery, and dress in accordance with the direction of headquarters. They cannot make an engagement of marriage with any one or marry without the consent of the district officer and headquarters, and their companions in marriage must also be officers able to co-operate with them in the work of the Army. They are not allowed to earn anything for themselves, but only for the Army, and that with the consent of neadquarters. They cannot receive presents of any kind for themselves, not even of food, unless it be to meet their wants when the corps is unable to give the necessary support. The maximum sum for the support of officers in the United States is : For single men, lieutenants, $6 weekly, and captains, $7; for single women, lieutenants, $5 weekly, and captains, $6 ; for married men, $10 per week and $1 per week for each child under fourteen years of age. The allotment in other countries depends on the cost of living. Even this sum is not guaranteed. Every officer is expected, so far as practicable, to collect his own salary in his field and perfectly understands that no salary or allow
that no salary or allow ance is guaranteed to him, and that he will have no
claim against the Salvation Army or against any one connected therewith on account of salary not received by him.'
“The officers are pledged to promptly carry out all orders of superior officers and to be ready to march at short notice to any place where they are directed to go, in any part of their own land or of the world. The field officers are usually stationed in the same corps only for six months, so that they are constantly on the march. Provision is made for resignation if the officer is unable or unwilling to comply with the regulations of the Army. No one is received as an officer unless he has experienced full salvation and who cannot say that he or she is living without the commission of any known sin. It is easy to see that the organization is simple and powerful. General Booth finds as prompt obedience and as unflinching allegiance in the soldiers of the Salvation Army as the General of the Jesuits in the Society of Jesus. And for economical administration of funds it seems to the writer that the Salvation Army is pre-eminent above all other organizations."
Professor Briggs finds a remarkable characteristic of the Army in its employment of women in its ranks and among its highest officers. He also notes the fact that some of its officers have come from the higher strata of society. He shows that the existing churches, of various denominations, are gainers from the Army's work, since many of those “rescued” by the Army prefer to work in the churches. “We could no more anticipate that all the converts to the Army should be enrolled in its ranks than that every Roman Catholic should unite with one of the orders of his church. The army is essentially, therefore, a religious order, which aims at the rescue of men from sin and their salvation by Jesus Christ. It is not a church organization, and it will never become a church with the consent of the General or the present chief officers."
A fter giving an account of the original methods
1,159 Great Britain......
1,210 2,981 Canada and Newfoundland........
635 United States of America............
1.953 South America..
1,217 New Zealand.......
288 India and Ceylon...
435 South Africa and St. Helena..
81 Abraham handed down these stories in a purified Belgium ...
form, and that the essence of the Mosaic teaching, Finland.......
which was revealed from God, was known to the peoItaly................... Jamaica......
ple and after Moses' time. The acceptance of the a ca................
analysis does not, therefore, bring down the date of Grand total...........
the first revelation to the year 900 B. C. It only concedes that the present literary form of this revelation
dates from about that period. A distinction must be DIVINE AND HUMAN ELEMENTS IN GENESIS.
made between the events themselves and the literary R. WILLIAM R. HARPER, President of the form.
University of Chicago, contributes to the How can this material be the word of God, and yet Biblical World, of which he is editor, the last of his contain errors and inaccuracies | It seems imposremarkable series of articles on “ Some General Con- sible to take the space required for a detailed answer siderations Relating to Genesis," begun in the Sep- to this question. It will be sufficient, at this time, to tember number. In this final installment, Dr. note: 1, the parallelism between Israelitish history Harper answers the objections raised by interpreters into which God entered in a special way, and Israelof the book of Genesis who have ignored the human itish literature given above (pages 410–13); 2, the element, and by those who, on the other hand, have fact, universally accepted, that in the present manudisregarded the divine element. We give, first, his scripts and versions of our Bible there are errors and answers to the objections advanced by those who inaccuracies; 3, the impossibility of supposing a have ignored the human element in Genesis :
priori that anything with which a human hand has “Are not the outside stories copied from the Bible had to do could be absolutely perfect; 4, that there stories. This position is untenable because :1, there is no necessity for demanding absolute freedom from is evidence that some of the outside stories were error except as concerns religious truth. in their present form before Israel was a nation ; 2, “How can a statement be false in fact and yet the biblical stories contain upon their face the evi- ideally true! In this form the question is often dence of comparatively late origin; 3, this objection asked. A moment's consideration shows that this is based upon the supposition that there was a primi- putting of the question is a begging of it. In reply tive revelation of the material contained in these to it we may say: 1. That according to the hypothesis stories, which has been preserved pure and intact here presented the statements are not false in fact. It alone in the Hebrew account. This supposition is has been maintained that these statements were true opposed at the same time to all the historical facts in their essence. 2. That in any case care must be involved, and to any proper conception of the de- taken to distinguish fact and truth; there are many velopment of the Old Testament religion.
facts which teach no truth; there is much truth “ Did not Moses, according to the New Testament, which is not dependent upon fact. 3. That even write the law and is not any denial of this fact a fiction has been employed in all periods of the world's denial of the veracity of Jesus himselfIt is true history for the inculcation of the most important that Moses organized the institutions of Israel as they truth. Our Lord himself employed the parable, had been inherited or borrowed from other nations which is a species of fiction. 4. That the phrase before his time, and this pre-Mosaic element in the “idealized history” presupposes, in the case of every Mosaic system is very considerable. It is also true narrative to which it is applied, real and genuine that in this reorganization new principles were given history. 5. That this phrase, properly interpreted, by Moses which justify tradition and history in means history written for a special purpose, implying, ascribing his name to the system ; but it is equally of course, something different from and higher than true that many additions and modifications were history written merely to narrate or chronicle facts." made in the centuries that followed. Should criti- Following are Dr. Harper's answers to the objeccism prove that the larger portion of the Mosaic sys- tions urged by those who have ignored the divine eletem, as we have it to-day, arose in a post-Mosaic ment: period, it would not in any way contradict the repre “How can it be shown that these words are not the sentations made in the New Testament. A consider- work of a comparatively late date? This follows able portion of the law, upon any hypothesis, was from:1, their external character (including literary Mosaic; the remainder grew out of the Mosaic portion style and historical allusions) as compared with that and was permeated by the Mosaic spirit. The real of other similar stories ; 2, their fundamental characessence of the law was Mosaic, and therefore we are ter in relation to the older biblical system, the beginjustified to-day in calling it the Mosaic system.
nings of which, we must concede, date back to great “ Was there no revelation from God before 900 antiquity ; 3, their perfect consistency with the repre. B. C. This is not a fair implication, for it is dis- sentations which they make concerning themselves. tinctly maintained that the facts underlying these “How can it be shown that God acted in Hebrew narratives are facts which were known to all the in- history as in no other ! This is the teaching of the tervening centuries; and so far as these facts carry facts in the case, for if we study Hebrew history in with them the lessons found there, revelation must its environment, Hebrew religious teaching in the be acknowledged. It is distinctly maintained that midst of the teachings of surrounding nations, the
peculiar outcome of Israelitish history as seen in New Testament history, the institutions of Israel as compared with those of other nations, the position of Israel to-day among the nations of the earth,—there is surely no ground, from a scientific point of view, for doubting this fundamental position.
“Is there any more of inspiration in these records than in the work, for example, of John Bunyan | Because these records are the outgrowth of theocratic life, a life into which God entered as into no other, the inspiration which belongs to them is peculiar and may not be compared with that of even the world's greatest thinkers. This is something unique and in comparable. The history being what it was, the records are what they are. If, in the providence of God, there shall come another epoch in the world's history, during which he shall select and treat some nation as he did Israel of old, then, and not till then, shall we have writing to which may be accorded the same kind of inspiration that we accord to the Sacred Scripture.
“Is the predictive element sufficiently specific to prove anything? Yes. Even upon the supposition that these predictions come from a period not earlier than the eighth or ninth centuries B. C., we find in them evidence of a knowledge of the future develop. ment of the history of the human race which cannot be explained except upon the ground of the revelation from God. Prediction, to be sure, is and must be general, and these predictions may be said to be generic in each case. It remains true, however, that although generic, the details are of such a character as to make it impossible that they should have been uttered without some peculiar knowledge of the divine plan, or at all events of the principles which underlie that plan.
"Cannot the superiority of the Hebrew stories be accounted for on purely natural grounds & The effort to do this has been made many times, but al. ways without success. It is just as great a mistake to throw out the supernatural element and try to explain everything from a purely natural view as it is to throw out the natural element and try to explain everything from the supernatural view. There is without question, natural development, but in connection with this and permeating it through and through, there was a divine element. If we allow this divine element to be recognized as one of the factors, then everything may be said to be natural. It is impossible, however, to explain the presence of certain elements in Hebrew history and narrative, or the absence of the same elements in the history and narrative of contemporaneous nations, without asking why, if in the former case it was natural, it does not appear also in the latter?
"If these stories are divine why do men, Christians as well as skeptics, so largely fail to recognize the divine element ? No one will deny that few people, comparatively, believe in the historical or even the religious value of these stories. This does not disprove the divine element in them. It shows merely that these people deny a particular current interpre
tation of these stories and that the world supposed that in the denial of this particular interpretation there is also a denial of the divine element in them. All this is wrong. A reasonable view of the narratives will receive acceptance. It is because men have been expected to adopt a thoroughly artificial and monstrous interpretation that they have been compelled to deny the divine element. When the real facts of the material are presented, and the true philosophy of the divine element is understood, men will no longer hesitate to accept these chapters as an organic part of the divine word with which they are connected, and they will no longer make their unbelief in these chapters an excuse for their unbelief in the Bible as a whole. . JOURNALISM IN THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL
CHURCH. THE system under which the weekly papers of the
T Methodist Church in the United States are officially supervised and conducted is imperfectly understood outside of that connection. Much light is thrown on the matter by Dr. Theodore L. Flood, writing in the December Chautauquan. Few persons have any idea as to the amount of capital invested by Methodists in their periodical press. Dr. Flood estimates it at $2,500,000, exclusive of buildings and equipment. The combined circulation of the weeklies he estimates at 250,000. The General Conference every four years elects the editors of the Christian Advocate (New York), the Western Christian Advocate (Cincinnati), the Northwestern Christian Advocate (Chicago), the Central Christian Advocate (St. Louis), the Pittsburg Christian Advocate, the Northern Christian Advocate (Syracuse, N. Y.), the California Christian Advocate (San Francisco), and several other papers at various points. Dr. J. M. Buckley, editor of the Christian Advocate, at New York, and Dr. Arthur Edwards, of the Northwestern Christian Advocate, have held their positions for nearly twenty years. Dr. Charles Parkhurst, of Zion's Herald, at Boston, holds his place by the suffrage of the New England Wesleyan Association. Other prominent editors in the church are Dr. J. B. Young, of the Central Christian Advocate ; Dr. D. H. Moore, of the Western Christian Advocate ; Dr. C. W. Smith, of the Pittsburg Christian Advocate ; Dr. B. F. Crary, of the California Christian Advocate ; Dr. Jesse L. Hurlbut, editor of Sunday school periodicals; Dr. J. F. Berry, of the Epworth Herald, and Dr. Wm. V. Kelley, of the Methodist Review (New York). Even the editors of the “unofficial” papers, of which there are many scattered through the country, must answer to the Annual Conference for errors in doctrinal teaching, or for “inveighing in any degree against the established organization.” The business management of these journals seems to be entrusted to the Methodist book agents very largely. Dr. Flood suggests that each paper should have a business manager of its own. He also advocates a weekly paper at a dollar a year, illustrated.