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GERMAN STEAMER GLUCKAUF, 2,306 TONS, WRECKED MARCH 24, 1893, ON LONG ISLAND COAST.

All aboard were rescued. This picture was taken October 1, 1894, one and one-half years after the wreck.

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Service for the last year was $1,721,727, which is less than one-fourth the amount of property saved during that time, and

America, who has saved many lives in the vicinity of Narragansett Bay, where she is now a lighthouse keeper.

The crews of stations comprising 6 or 7 men, dwell in the station houses, which are models of comfort and convenience ; and the boat rooms amply accommodate the boats and appliances, which are always ready for instant service. In the exact sense in which we use the words “life-saving station," there is no such thing anywhere else in the world, the socalled stations of other countries being simply boat-houses, without living quarters or permanent crews. Nor is there any other life-saving establishment in the world maintained solely by Government, all save ours being supported wholly or mainly by contribution.

There are now about 2,000 men in the Life-Saving stations of the United States; and these watchful outposts of humanity stretch from Quoddy Head on the North Atlantic to Cape Disappoint

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along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes. Under the present system (since November, 1871), the Service has attended 14,076 disasters, in volving 102,474 lives, of which only one

not so much, by $200,000, as one-fourth the estimated cost of the latest type of battleship ready for service.

System of New Orleans

A Notable Engineering Work that is Transforming the Entire Aspect of

this Southern Metropolis

By DAY ALLEN WILLEY NHE CITY of New Orleans has House. It was decided to use granite

begun a new era in its history, for this purpose. General Beauregard thanks to a public improvement made a thorough investigation of the

which is one of the most notable site, and calculated on the foundation of American engineering feats. As a sinking to a depth of several feet. Realizresult of this great work, the community ing that if one portion settled more at last stands on “dry land" for the first rapidly than the others, the building time since it was founded by the French would probably be wrecked, he directed pioneers. For nearly two centuries, the the construction in such a manner that inhabitants of New Orleans have been the weight was equally divided upon the living on the surface of a great natural lower section of the walls. As he had sponge. Owing to the topography of the predicted, the building settled considercity, there is no natural drainage whatever, and the formation is such that holes dug to a depth of even two or three feet would reach the water that saturated the ground nearly to the surface. Some scientists have believed that the site of the city is a part of the “trembling prairie” which is so extensive in this portion of Louisiana.

Foundations of Mud and Water As a result of this condition of affairs, the construction of buildings even three stories in height has been a difficult problem, as it was found to be practically impossible to secure a stable foundation for them. In consequence, the great majority of the dwellings have been erected of wood; and the comparatively few Fig. 1. INTERIOR OF St. Louis STREET Canal, New structures of brick and stone have been built with great care, to prevent their ably; but fortunately all portions sank foundations from settling to such an ex

simultaneously, with the result that sevtent as to injure or destroy the buildings. eral cracks in the walls — which The history of the Spanish fort at Belize, readilyrepaired — constituted the

was erected near the mouth of the cipal damage. It might be added that Mississippi river and sank almost com

until a year or so ago not a cellar existed pletely out of sight, is well known. The under a building in New Orleans; and walls of the venerable St. Louis Cathe- the atmosphere, so constantly saturated dral settled after completion so that its with moisture from the earth, has, in the towers crumbled. Among the engineers opinion of physicians, caused much of who realized the problem to be solved the sickness prevalent. in the construction of buildings in New

Drainage to a Higher Level Orleans, was General Beauregard, the When the question of "drying out" architect for the New Orleans Custom the community was agitated, one of the

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ORLEANS, IN COU'RSE OF CONSTRUCTION.

ere

problems which presented itself was moving the sewage. At New Orleans how to get rid of the drainage, for, after mechanical power entirely is employed. an examination of the area to be drained, it was found that all of the water must

Canals for Drainage and Sewage be forced to a higher level than the site The improvement in New Orleans, on which the city stands. As is well which was commenced in 1897 under the known, nearly all of the land on which supervision of Mr. George G. Earl, with

Mr. W. C. Kirkland engineer in charge, has progressed so rapidly that a very large section of the city is at last completely served by the drainage canals and pumping stations. In all, about thirty miles of trunk or main canals have thus far been completed, including channels extending beneath the principal thoroughfares, but excluding branches which reach the smaller streets. This network of waterways is so arranged that the adjacent buildings can be connected with them by pipes, affording sanitary facilities of which in the past the city has been almost entirely destitute. The canals

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Fig. 2. NASHVILLE AVENUE LINED AND Covered CANAL,

NEW ORLEANS, IN COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION.

the city has been built lies below the surface of the Mississippi river to such an extent that, were it not for the levee protection, the water would rise to the second story of the buildings in the lower portion of the city. To furnish an adequate drainage system, it was necessary to construct a series of canals which would serve nearly 200 square miles, and to connect them with a series of pumping stations of sufficient capacity to force the water into a tributary of the Mississippi, elevating the water to heights varying from 6 to 18 feet according to the levels of the canals. It was calculated that the quantity of rainfall and other surface water to be removed, was so great that it would be necessary to carry it away at a rate of nearly 60,000 gallons each second. In fact, the project has been considered by experts to be one of the most difficult ever attempted by engineers.

The City of Mexico was converted from a plague spot of disease into a healthy city by constructing a tunnel through the mountain side surrounding it. This has been a notable achievement, but the force of gravity has assisted in

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System of New Orleans

A Notable Engineering Work that is Transforming the Entire Aspect

this Southern Metropolis

By DAY ALLEN WILLEY

THE CITY of New Orleans has House. It was decided to u

begun a new era in its history, for this purpose. General } 1 thanks to a public improvement made a thorough investigati

which is one of the most notable site, and calculated on the of American engineering feats. As a sinking to a depth of several fi result of this great work, the community ing that if one portion se! at last stands on “dry land" for the first rapidly than the others, t: time since it was founded by the French would probably be wrecked, pioneers. For nearly two centuries, the the construction in such a i inhabitants of New Orleans have been the weight was equally divid. living on the surface of a great natural lower section of the walls. sponge. Owing to the topography of the predicted, the building settl city, there is no natural drainage whatever, and the formation is such that holes dug to a depth of even two or three feet would reach the water that saturated the ground nearly to the surface. Some scientists have believed that the site of the city is a part of the “trembling prairie” which is so extensive in this portion of Louisiana.

Foundations of Mud and Water

As a result of this condition of affairs, the construction of buildings even three stories in height has been a difficult problem, as it was found to be practically impossible to secure a stable foundation for them. In consequence, the great majority of the dwellings have been erected of wood; and the comparatively few Fig. 1. INTERIOR OF ST. LOUIS S

ORLEANS, IN COURSE OF CO structures of brick and stone have been built with great care, to prevent their ably; but fortunately all foundations from settling to such an ex

c to such an ex- simultaneously, with the tent as to injure or destroy the buildings. eral cracks in the wall The history of the Spanish fort at Belize, readily repaired — const which was erected near the mouth of the cipal damage. It migh Mississippi river and sank almost com- until a year or so ago : pletely out of sight, is well known. The under a building in. walls of the venerable St. Louis Cathe the atmosphere, so dral settled after completion so that its with moisture from t. tourers crumbled. Among the engineers opinion of physician who realize the problem to be solved the sickness prevalei in the construction of buildings in New

Drainage to a ( Orleans. Was General Beauregard, the Then the questi architect for the New Orleans Custom the community was

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