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year. Timber crops require but little ment, outside of the benefit it will receive attention.
from moulding this raw material into The Working Corps The working force of the Bureau of Forestry is variable. Mr. Pinchot's policy contemplates not only present forest results, but the training and education of men to carry on the rapidly increasing work of his Bureau. It has been difficult to secure enough trained foresters to enable the Government to push forward its plans. An inspiring sight greeted the writer at a recent fortunate visit to the Bureau. Nearly a hundred young men, fresh from technical forestry college courses, were congregated about the various offices of the Bureau, shaking each others' hands, and conversing eagerly and enthusiastically over their proposed field work for the coming season. They were about entering upon a postgraduate course in forestry-practical field work, where they would be turned loose in the woods, to apply, under technical guidance, some of their theoretical knowledge, and grow into real foresters. The pay of these young men, outside of their expenses, is nominal; but the Forester says that while it is
A CALIFORNIA LUMBER CAMP. looked upon as a privilege to secure such an appointment, and while the boys are practical workmen for future use, pecuinexperienced and green, yet the Govern- niarily benefits by the practice, since these
building up a corps of young, vigorous, ernment should practically give away and practical forest experts possessing this great resource; rather, it should adan esprit de corps perhaps second to that minister it for the good of the whole of no government bureau.
people—those of to-day and those of toUrgent Need of National Action
morrow-and, in doing so, it should
claim a legitimate revenue. The time for the prosecution of na A principle was laid down to the tional forest work on a large scale is writer, regarding forest management, by critical. Vast acreages of the nation's
a government official, which will appeal best forests have been squandered; and to every business man in the country. He the forces of greed and cupidity are still said: working to build up great private for
"The Government is spending half a million tunes regardless of the rights of the
dollars a year, getting nothing for it except people or the good of the nation. It is indirectly. It should be spending five or six in the great West that our forest wealth
million dollars a year, and getting five or six now lies. A further wave of public
or perhaps eight million dollars from such
expenditure. Our forests should be self-suseducation must sweep forward before the taining. They should be cropped—the ripe country will realize that certain radical trees harvested." changes are wise and necessary.
The The President of the United States Government is still a great forest owner ; understands our forest problem better, that is, the people of the country own perhaps, than any previous American the remaining public lands and timber. President, though great credit is due to
President Cleveland for his forestry beyond the experimental stage, and has policy in creating the first forest reserves,
reached a condition where scientific methods some eighteen million acres, and in
are essential to its successful prosecution. The
administrative features of forest reserves are the face of the most violent opposition at present unsatisfactory, being divided bethe opposition of ignorance and mis tween three Bureaus of two Departments. It understanding President Roosevelt,
is therefore recommended that all matters
pertaining to forest reserves, except those inhowever, has made a close study of the
volving or pertaining to land titles, be conforestry and irrigation questions. His solidated in the Bureau of Forestry of the recommendations and public utterances Department of Agriculture.” on these subjects are notable. His last A bill is now pending in Congressmessage to Congress contains the follow the result of the work of a commission ing comprehensive paragraph:
appointed by President Roosevelt, of
which Mr. Pinchot is a member-repealPreservation of Forests
ing the Timber and Stone Law, under “The study of the opportunities of reclama which timber land can be purchased at tion (irrigation) of the vast extent of arid
$2.50 an acre, though much of this land
PLANTING A SLOPE WITH TREE SEEDS.
San Gabriel Reserve, California.
land, shows that, whether this reclamation is done by individuals, corporations, the State, the source of water supply must be effectively protected and the reservoirs guarded by the preservation of the forests at the headwaters of the streams. The engineers making the preliminary examinations continually emphasize this need, and urge that the remaining public lands at the head-waters of the important streams of the West be reserved to insure permanency of water supply for irrigation. Much progress in forestry has been made during the past year. The necessity for perpetuating our forest resources, whether in public or private hands, is recognized as never before. The demand for forest reserves has become insistent in the West, because the West must use the water, wood, and summer range which only such reserves can supply. Progressive lumbermen are striving, through forestry, to give their business permanence. Other great business interests are awakening to the need of forest preservation as a business matter. The Government's forest work should receive from the Congress hearty support, and especially support adequate for the protection of the forest reserves against fire. The forest reserve policy of the Government has passed
A 400-ACRE CATALPA FOREST IN KANSAS.
Trees about twelve years old,
money loss to the Government in selling
source into another channel of Western in local affairs, so that it is but natural development. At the same time the tim that they should exert a large local influber-cutting must be under the direction ence and bring about an apparent conof the government officials, and carried dition of honest opposition to any such on in such a manner as to insure a re proposed "reform" legislation. But Conproduction of the forest, the land itself to gress will gradually be informed as to the be forever owned by the Government. facts, and a more rational and less wasteThe Commissioner of the General Land ful policy will result. Office has stated in an official report, that, With a broad national forestry pracunder the Timber and Stone Law, the tice, whereby the forest wealth of the
STAND OF YOUNG, EVEN-AGED RED FIR ON BURNED-OVER LAND. Nesqually River Valley, Washington. Showing remarkably quick timber growth characteristic of the Pacific Slope.
Government has lost in actual cash be United States shall be jealously guarded tween one hundred millions and one hun and administered for the benefit of the dred and fifteen millions of dollars. whole people and for the good of the
Much opposition to the repeal of this nation rather than in the interests of law has developed, just as there has been private speculation, and with the continuopposition to the proposed repeal of the ance and enlargement of the plan of govDesert Land Law and the commutation ernment reclamation of the Great Americlause of the Homestead Law, under can Desert through irrigation, these two which an equal squandering of the re important internal policies of the United maining natural resources of the Govern States will go down the decades and cenment is rapidly proceeding; but the oppo turies as the most beneficent and farsition to this proposed reform comes reaching, in their results for good, of from the sections in which live the men any of the great schemes for American who are benefiting by them. These men development to-day advocated by econoare large operators, and powerful factors mists and statesmen.
Types and Functions of these Effective Infernal Machines, which Sometimes
Prove as Treacherous and Dangerous to Friend as to Enemy
By ROBERT G. SKERRETT
Formerly of the Navy Department, Washington, D. C.
traveling belt as vessel moves ahead.
HE SUBMARINE MINE, ingenious appliances that stands without
which had its practical applica a parallel in the annals of civilized warcation first during the Civil War, fare; but space does forbid, and the list
has become to-day a very potent of Federal losses tells plainly enough the instrument of destruction, as shown by deadly might of the crude, powder-filled, both the Russian and the Japanese losses passive obstructions of a hard-pressed in the present war, which have proved but fertile foe forty-odd years ago. Toso expensive in both life and treasure. day, gun-cotton-substantially unaffected
The Birth of the Mine The submarine mine, or, as it was known in the days of the Civil War, the "torpedo," was born of necessity, and, during the years of that conflict, was peculiarly the weapon of the weaker side. Federal naval officers were led at first to belittle this system of defense; but after the Union cause had lost no fewer than twenty-two vessels and had had a dozen
MINE-LAYING VESSEL. seriously injured, not to mention the loss Mines, with anchors, are dropped successively by means of of life—a record much more disastrous
by water-has supplanted the short-lived,
Its Defensive Character
The submarine mine, unlike the tor-
foe; and its prime weakness, of course,
lies in its immobility. Secrecy of emthan that of any gun-fire-the submarine
placement and well-guarded approach acquired a formidable dignity that has
are vital to its efficiency; and, for this grown to-day to an exalted dread. Would
reason, the present mine is only one part space permit, it would be very instructive
of an extensive system of defense, into trace the development of the submarine
stead of the prime obstruction, as it was mine under the stress of the Confeder
during the days of the Rebellion. acy's struggle—a record of varied and
The modern submarine mine differs in Diagrams from "Textbook Ordnance and Gunnery." by
character with the work for which it is Lieut.-Commander W. F. Fullain and Lieut. T. C. Hart,
designed; and, broadly, the distinction is
Anchor rests on bottom.