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FIG. 31. SWITCHBOARD OF ROTARY CONVERTER AND BATTERY SUBSTATION. constant-potential arc lamps. What this be met successfully. Another Edinew system meant to the neighborhood son — many of them, perhaps — will in which the old stations were located, will be appreciated when one remembers the noise and dirt and smoke of these old stations, and then views Fig. 34, a substation set in the rear of a lot in a fine residence section.

We have seen, then, how the highvoltage polyphase system has been evolved out of, and has unified, the mixed systems which were brought under one head during the era of consolidation. A study of some of the newest installations leads to the thought that perfection of system has almost been reached, and that further progress will be rather along the line of higher efficiency of apparatus at both ends of the system. When the true electrical era Fig. 34. Modern LIGHTING AND Power Substation. has arrived, when houses no longer have need of chimneys and all operations arise; and then our splendid systems of are performed electrically, then new to-day may ultimately be supplanted by problems will arise. How they will be one of which the most imaginative. met, none can now say; but they will dreamer as yet has seen no vision.

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Balanced-ComĻound-Vauclain System, with DeGlenn arrangement for transmitting power to axle.

Built for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.

be termed—to coin a word for such rail- get all the service possible out of them. road phenomena.

The age of expectancy is only approxThe modern locomotive costs $15,000 imate. Bad water—that is, water bad or $18,000, according to size and equip for the internal economy of boilersment. Passenger locomotives in former which causes scale, is perhaps the greatdays were embellished with extra brass est foe to an engine's hope for an honwork and trimmings; the bright parts orable old age. A bad water division were kept by the firemen in a state of uses up its motive power far more rapglittering effulgence; and the passenger idly than hard work elsewhere. Local engine cost more than the freight engine. conditions on the line largely affect the Nowadays the trimmings are not put motive power. A hilly country causes on; and the passenger engine, being more strain. Then too, housing facililighter, costs less than the mammoth ties have much to do with the life of an freighter.

engine. If it is possible to keep up with

needs in repairs, the machine stands a Reprinted from The Chautauquan.

better chance for giving long service.

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the days of long trains and 100,000pound cars. The freighter gets the worst of it under existing conditions. Fairly treated, the passenger engine, as compared with the freight engine, stands a chance of a one-third to one-half longer life, and then prolongs its life on a branch line or in some special service.

In the twenty years' estimated life of an engine, the expenditure for repairs will reach, in all probability, $30,000, or about twice the original cost.

Everything possible is done to keep the engine in commission, until at last a stage of decrepitude is reached that seems to preclude further repairs. At this point it is a question of "scrapping” the locomotive, or of selling it for about $2,500 to dealers in second-hand equipment, who will repair it for about as much more and sell it to a logging or similar road, where it may do service for several more years.

An old locomotive is worth as scrap

applied by those who have to do with its operation. Even in the days of scrapping, careful management guards against wastefulness. Steel, brass, and iron are taken off separately; everything usable is saved out; and frames, axles, and good parts are set aside for further use. What is left goes to the scrap bins and eventually to the foundry or the junk dealer.

Generally speaking, railroads prefer to sell their old engines and cars, if possible, and save the expense of scrapping, which naturally is considerable. That is why a number of concerns do a profitable business in old rolling-stock, and there is a demand from small railroads or selfcontained lines for engines and cars which the trunk lines do not think it profitable to keep in stock.

In all railroad centers a constant watchful warfare is waged against thieves, who, many times in organized gangs, plan the removal of all detachable pieces of locomotives or cars. These

thieves carry wrenches with them; and, inals, some of whom are said to be actif great care is not exercised, they will ually in the employ of railroad comsteal brass and other fittings from loco- panies as silent partners of those who motives in broad daylight, where they carry away the spoils. stand. The boldness of some of these The life of a passenger locomotive attempts is remarkable; and the arrests may be approximated at twenty-two and convictions which occur from time to years; of a freight locomotive, at fifteen time do not suffice to deter these crim- years.

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Its Mechanism Popularly Described-Its Advantages over Manual Operation


T HE SPIRIT of the present age but we have looked upon their invention

is not better shown forth than and introduction as something that was by the ever-increasing demand

which industry, pressed by the keenness of competition, is making upon genius for the invention of labor-saving and time-saving machinery ; and nothing pays higher tribute to the breadth of the human intellect than the character of the machinery which has been evolved as the result of this insistent call. Indeed, we are sliding rapidly into an automatic age. The work that once was done by hand, then by hand-guided machines, is now done by automatic devices. Scarcely a large, up-to-date factory but has in one or more of its departments a battery of automatic machines busily engaged in turning out such things as screws, buttons, tin cans, cloth, shoes, or a thousand other varieties of useful articles from the raw material, with surprising

Desk TELEPHONE. nicety and tremendous speed, reducing bound to come, as only another step in the cost of manufacture to a minimum the logical order of things. We have and widening the field of sale. We have waited for them, and have not, therewondered at the ingenuity of these ma- fore, been surprised at their successful chines and marveled at their cleverness, advent.

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Few of us, however, as we have stood before a telephone box, wiggling a switch hook, or whirling the crank of the hand generator, and impatiently waiting for time and the “Hello girl” to bring us our connections, have ever gone so far as to hope, or even conceive the idea, that this genius who had so long presided over the central office, would ever be unseated and her place occupied by an iron machine whose speed and accuracy would discount her best performances; and yet that day is here. The States are already dotted with automatic telephone exchanges, which are giving service to thousands and thou

sands of subscribers, and with such success that it is not hazarding anything to predict that a few years will see the absolute divorce of the operator from the exchange room-except, of course, for long-distance calls, for which her services will probably always be needed.

Historical Retrospect The application of the automatic idea to telephony is not new. It is considerably more than a decade since Strowger, an obscure Chicago engineer, brought out the first automatic telephone. The Strowger Automatic Telephone Company and the installation of a number of small

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