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HERE ARE TIMES when electricians are called upon to locate faults in bell and gas-light cir

cuits, and will spend much time in trying to find the trouble. Everything will appear to be in good condition ; but the batteries do not last long and finally give out entirely.

The reason for this nuisance, nine times out of ten, is found in a small leakage of current, which may be detected by means of a sensitive telephone receiver. Of course the leak cannot be located by the receiver ; but if the electrician knows that there is a leak, he can find out where it is, being careful to examine fixtures, piping, damp places, etc., where the wires are run.

Electric Gas-Lighting Circuits Referring to the sketch of the first test (Fig. 1), the receiver is connected to the points A and B; then the connection is made as indicated in the sketch of the second test (Fig. 2); and a comparison of the two sounds, made in the receiver at the time of connection, is taken. This comparison will give an idea as to the amount of leakage, if any exists. If there




Fig. 1. First Test.

dition, provided that the wires are not broken.

The above tests and connections (Figs. 1 and 2) are for electric gas-lighting circuits. All the apparatus shown in Fig.

is not necessary, but is shown so as to locate the connection A, which should be made on the burner wire after passing



through all apparatus, such as spark and the burner wire X at N. At the coil, bell, etc. In Fig. 2, or the second time of connection and disconnection, a test, the cut-out, bell, etc., are left out. click would be heard; and, as the wire is WIRE TO BURNERS defective, it is cut out of the circuit,

while the other wire from the burner Y, which is not short-circuited, is connected to the wire A. Upon examining the

burners, it will be found that burner X BATTERY

is out of order; and when repaired its wire N can be connected to wire A at C

again, and everything will work all right. RECEIVER

Electric Bell Circuits

Fig. 3 shows a method for detecting
Fig. 2. Second Test,

grounds in bell circuits or circuits where If the spark coil is fitted with a cir- the ground is not used. If a click is cuit-closing attachment, as shown on the heard in the receiver when the connecleft-hand end of the coil in Fig. 1, it is tion A B is made, there is a ground on not to be interfered with in any way the wire A'; and when the connection is when making the tests.

made at A' B and the click is heard, the Where each burner is connected to a wire A is grounded. The contact beseparate wire, as it should be, the trouble

BATTERY . can easily be found by testing each wire.

WIRE TO BELLS When the defective wire is found, it is cut out of the circuit and the other wires

WIRE TO PUSHES allowed to work again. Then go to all the burners and find out which one does


Fig. 4. Circuit Test.
tween the gas pipe and the receiver ter-

minal must be very good. BATTERY

Fig. 4 simply shows the connection for Hilililila

testing a bell circuit for leakage.

It very often happens that an elec

trician is alone when repairing or inRECEIVER

stalling electric bells, and he cannot tell whether the bell rings or not when the contact is made; but, by using the telephone receiver, it is possible to tell just

what the bell is doing when the button is GAS OR WATER PIPE

pushed. Place the terminals of the teleFig. 3. Ground Test.

phone receiver on the contacts of the not work, and very likely the trouble will push button, and press the button several be found on the burner or jet. After the times. If a buzzing sound is heard when burner has been fixed, it can be put into the contact is broken, the bell rings all service again by connecting its wire to right, provided that the hammer is propthe circuit of the battery.

erly adjusted. If no sound is heard at To make this clearer, refer to Fig. I, all, the circuit is broken; and if only a in which C is the terminal of the sepa- clicking noise is heard, the bell is not rate burner wires. Now suppose that properly adjusted, or the batteries are the burner X is short-circuited, and that not sufficiently strong to ring the bell. the burner Y is all right. The wires. There are a great many other uses to from the burners X and Y, which are which the telephone receiver can be put, connected at C to the battery circuit, and one of these instruments should be would be separated, and the receiver ter- in the hands of every electrician engaged minals connected to the circuit wire A in this class of work.






UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, MAIN BUILDING OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. View from the east. In the foreground is the Soldiers' Monument, in Queen's Park, just outside the University grounds,

commemorating volunteers who fell in the Fenian Raid of 1866.

Great Technical Schools The University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada



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H E LEADING UNIVERSITY difficulties remained to be overcome, and

of the Province of Ontario, the it was not until 1843 that a building had u University of Toronto, is a State been secured, professors installed in the

i nstitution, which, originally or- Faculties of Arts, Medicine, Law, and ganized in 1843, has since been remod- Divinity, and the work of teaching beeled three times—in 1849, in 1853, and gun. in 1887. As early as 1798 an endowment

King's College of Crown lands for higher education in Not the least of the difficulties that the province had been created, and in postponed for sixteen years the actual 1827 a charter was granted for the es- organization of the University, had been tablishment of a university ; but various the opposition of the Methodist and

Presbyterian bodies to the charter, which

University of Toronto had been obtained through the exertions The expectations entertained by the of the Rev. Dr. Strachan, a masterful authors of this renovation of the State divine of the Church of England, and University were, unfortunately, not fulwhich was found to restrict to clergymen filled. The denominational colleges of that Church the right to occupy chairs showed no inclination to be absorbed ; in the University, besides erecting a Fac- in fact, their number was increased by ulty of Divinity for the exclusive ad- the foundation of a strictly Anglican invantage of the same communion. Be- stitution–Trinity College—which owed fore the actual organization in 1843 of its being to the indefatigable Bishop King's College, as the University was Strachan. For four years the new Uni

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then called, certain amendments to the charter were made in deference to public opinion, abolishing religious tests; but the control of the institution still remained in the hands of Doctor (now Bishop) Strachan and his friends, and for six years it was conducted under Church of England auspices. Meanwhile the Methodist and Presbyterian bodies had established rival collegiate institutions of their own, while not ceasing to agitate politically against the sectarian character of the State University. In 1849 their agitation bore fruit. The Faculty of Divinity was abolished, a larger measure of public control was instituted, and provision was made for the affiliation of denominational colleges. At the same time the name was changed to that which has ever since been retained —the University of Toronto.

versity of Toronto waited for the ingathering of the denominational colleges. In 1853, however, in default of any movement in that direction—and, indeed, in consequence of the continued opposition and hostility of these colleges and the denominations which supported them

the Legislature saw fit to change its constitution again. The time was not yet ripe for a comprehensive system of higher education under State control and with State assistance. The Faculty of Medicine was regarded as an unfair invasion by the Government of the field of private enterprise in favor of a single profession, and it was decided to abandon the teaching of medicine to proprietary schools. The Faculty of Law also was dropped; and the Faculty of Arts, the only one remaining of the original four under the charter of 1827, was

reconstituted as University College, a teaching institution, while the University itself became a mere examining and degree-conferring corporation like the first University of London.

University College For more than thirty years the requirements of the Province were sufficiently met by the provincial institution with its single Faculty, and by the rival denominational colleges and private institutions. But the rapid advances of education in science imported a new factor into the situation. The University of Toronto and its teaching Faculty, University College, gradually introduced into ordinary undergraduate courses practical laboratory instruction in biology and physics, and increased the facilities for experi

departments of instruction in Arts were divided, speaking roughly, into "literary" and “scientific.” The former were assigned concurrently to University College and to such denominational institutions as should enter into the federation. The scientific departments were the portion of a newly created Faculty of Arts in the University, instruction in these subjects being common to students of all the colleges, including University College. Teaching Faculties of Medicine and Law in the University were also reestablished. The results of this arrangement have fully justified the change. Victoria College, the Methodist institution, and Trinity College, that of the Church of England body, have cast in their lot with the University of Toronto, thus constituting, with University Col

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mental work in chemistry and mineralogy. The cost of maintaining these departments threatened to exceed the resources of the institution, and the growing expense of teaching the scientific subjects pressed even more severely upon its rivals. A federation of universities in the Province—which had been more or less a dream for nearly forty years— became a practical question. One of the denominational colleges was now ready to amalgamate with the State institution, and the others were considering a similar renunciation of their university privileges. In 1887 the University was again reorganized to suit the new conditions of higher education in the Province. The

lege, a group of colleges engaged in friendly rivalry in the teaching of the literary subjects of an Arts course. The new Faculty of Arts of the University, composed of the scientific departments, has received great accession of strength, both from the attendance of students formerly educated entirely by the denominational colleges, and also from the establishment of the sister Faculty of Medicine. The teaching in Medicine has been deepened and broadened by basing professional training upon a more intimate acquaintance with the sciences of biology and chemistry than had been possible in the days of proprietary schools, A later addition to the Uni

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