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versity was the Faculty of Applied colleges-Victoria, Trinity. In 1885 there were Science, which will presently be de 366 students in Arts attending lectures. In scribed in detail. The original endow
1904 there are 1,012 students in Arts, 721 in
Medicine, 402 in Applied Science. ment of the University proving insufficient, liberal additions have been made in recent years by the provincial Govern
The Scientific Courses ment, both in the form of grants of
The scientific instruction in the Unimoney and lands and by the erection out of public funds of new buildings.
versity of Toronto is conducted in the The great expansion of the University Physical Laboratories are at present sit
main University building, where the of Toronto in the period since the federation movement began, can perhaps be
uated; in the Medical building; in the
Chemical building; in the Biological best appreciated by a statistical com
building; and in the School of Practical parison :
Science, which is devoted mainly to EnIn 1885 a single building contained the Convocation Hall, the Library, the Natural History gineering. The Mining building, now museums, besides all the lecture rooms, labor- approaching completion, will also house
BIRD'S-EYE VIEW FROM TOWER OF MAIN UNIVERSITY BUILDING.
to right across the Campus.
atories, offices and private rooms of the staff, the Mineralogical and Geological Departexcept that the Chemical Laboratory and
ments and that of Applied and Eleclecture
and the Biological and Mineralogical Laboratories were temporarily
tro-Chemistry. The regular honor accommodated in the School of Practical
courses in Physics, Chemistry, Geology Science, a provincial institution in which the and Mineralogy, and Biology, lead to the University College professors also gave in degree of Bachelor of Arts, and extend struction. In 1904 the old University building
over the usual period of four years, in has been enlarged, and there are new separate buildings for Chemistry, for Biology (includ
each of which practical work in the labing the Biological Museum), and for the Li oratories is prescribed. Other subjects brary. A building for Geology, Mineralogy, and of a general education are required in Mining Engineering is in course of erection; a Convocation Hall is begun; plans for a
every year; and special importance is Physics building are in preparation; a Medical
attached to facility in reading French and building and an Applied Science building, German, on account of the necessity for representing two new Faculties, also form now a knowledge of these languages on the a part of the University. Again, in 1885, the staff of teachers in Arts subjects was fifteen
part of anyone who intends to follow the in number. In 1904 they number seventy
progress of scientific research. After three, without reckoning those in the federated graduation in Arts, students who have
successfully pursued an honor course in work, and to study the methods of reany of the above sciences may enter upon search and the successive steps of sciena further two years' course of original tific discovery as recorded in the English, investigation, which leads to the degree American, and foreign journals of physiof Doctor of Philosophy.
cal science. If he displays special apti
tude, he is set to work at some new inDepartment of Physics
vestigation. There are a series of eleThe Physical Department at present, mentary laboratories for students of the as already mentioned, occupies one wing lower years, and special laboratories in of the main University building; but the heat, acoustics, optics, and electricity, beaccommodation there is proving insuffi sides a well-equipped workshop in charge cient, and steps have been taken for the of a mechanician, where most of the aperection of a separate building, exclu paratus needed for research can be consively for Physics, which, it is expected, structed. All necessary instruments for
will soon be commenced by the authority experiments and original work are in the of the provincial Government. In the laboratories, the collection of acoustical honor course in Physics, leading to a instruments being especially complete, B. A. degree, the laboratory instruction including, as it does, all the best instruof the first two years covers all the work ments manufactured by Dr. Koenig. of a general course in physics. In the third year, special subjects for experi
Department of Chemistry ments are taken up; and students are The Chemical Department has occugiven practice in the use of laboratory pied its own building since 1895. In it instruments, photography, lathe work, all branches of the science except applied glass blowing, soldering, silvering, and chemistry are taught, and about 400 stuother means of making and repairing dents are engaged in laboratory work. apparatus. In his fourth year the student The larger of its two lecture rooms will is now sufficiently familiar with the use accommodate 300 students, and the laboof all the instruments and appliances to ratories contain upwards of 200 working be capable of entering upon some piece places. There are separate laboratories of research. He is encouraged to spend for qualitative analysis, quantitative anas much time as possible in laboratory alysis, organic preparations, physical
chemistry, gas analysis, combustion and dating 250 students; elementary laborafurnace operations, besides a number of tories; advanced laboratories, for third special private laboratories for original year and fourth year students, for vegeinvestigation. The Laboratory of Phy table physiology and bacteriology; a sical Chemistry is one of the six largest library of the principal biological periodion the continent of America. Original cals; a photographic room; a drafting papers to the number of sixteen, by mem room, for preparation of diagrams; hotbers of the staff and students engaged houses, for use in connection with practiin research, were published during the cal courses in botany; an aquarium; and year 1903.
rooms for the preparation of museum Department of Biology
specimens. The laboratories of animal
physiology, six in number, are contained The Biological Department was the
in the Medical building. first of the departments of science to obtain accommodation in a separate build
Department of Mineralogy and Geology ing with all the modern equipment of
The Mineralogical Department is at laboratories and appliances for experi- present occupying temporary quarters in mental work. The building dates from the Biological building and School of 1889. The central portion is occupied
Practical Science. In the new Mining by a Museum consisting of four large building it will receive ample accommorooms, seventy-five feet in length. Three dation, laboratories being provided capof these rooms are assigned to Animal able of accommodating 100 students Biology; while the fourth, which will be working at one time, besides special arranged for the illustration of Vegetable rooms for research work. Biology, is temporarily occupied by the
School of Practical Science mineralogical collections. Of the two The School of Practical Science, which wings of the Biological building, one is contains the laboratories and appliances devoted to anatomical work in connection for the teaching of Engineering in all with the instruction in the Faculty of its branches and of Analytical and ApMedicine; the other contains the rooms plied Chemistry, was originally an indeand laboratories of the Biological De pendent institution, founded in 1877. It partment proper.
There are lecture was affiliated with the University of rooms, the largest capable of accommo Toronto in 1889, and in 1900 the whole
staff was constituted the Faculty of Ap in a school of applied science. Moreplied Science and Engineering of the over, shop work is held to be an interUniversity. At the same time provision ruption to the real educational work, was made for the extension of the new which is to give a thorough knowledge Faculty by the erection of a new building of scientific principles underlying the to accommodate the instruction in Ap- practice in the professions, together with plied Chemistry, Metallurgy, Assaying, such laboratory and experimental pracMineralogy, Geology, and Mining. When tice as is essential for the proper underthe new building is completed, the pres- standing of those principles. By leavent one will be entirely given over to ing out culture subjects and shop work, the Engineering Departments and to is has been found possible to give stuArchitecture.
dents a complete education on the scienThere are six regular departments of tific side of their future professions in instruction in the School: 1. Civil En three years, at the end of which time the gineering; 2. Mining Engineering; 3. ordinary course of study is complete and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering a diploma is issued, which is recognized (subdivided into two graduating depart- throughout the country as a qualification ments in the third year); 4. Architecture; for professional employment. In the De5. Analytical and Applied Chemistry ; 6. partment of Mechanical and Electrical Chemical Engineering.
Engineering, however, the diploma is In two respects the course of study is withheld
certificates of twelve different from that in vogue at most tech months' work in manufacturing shops nical schools: thereare no culture subjects are produced. The shop work thus reand there is no shop work. The student quired of students in these branches of seeking admission must have already engineering is entirely outside the School passed the University Matriculation in course of instruction; it may be done Arts or an equivalent examination, and during vacations, or postponed until the no further attempt is made to add to his full three years of lectures and examinastock of general information. He be tions have been completed. Vacation comes at once a professional student. work is required of all students. It takes Shop work is also omitted from the the form of a thesis on some practical course in Engineering subjects, since it subject to be selected from several preis considered that the practical lessons scribed, and of notes on construction, to be learned in shops are more effect which must exceed a certain minimum ively learned in commercial works than quantity.
The University degree of Bachelor of to the examination for the degree of Applied Science is conferred only after Bachelor of Applied Science, which was a fourth or postgraduate year of study confined to the mathematical and scienin the School. In contradistinction to tific side. The examiners for the dethe work of the regular three years' grees in Engineering are professional course, which covers the whole field of scientific training applicable to each de The Engineering Laboratories are partment of Engineering or Applied equipped with the best available machines Chemistry, the fourth year is one of for experimental purposes. The Steam specialization. Not more than three sub- Engine Laboratory contains a Babcock
jects may be taken up, and in these great & Wilcox 52-H. P. boiler; a Harrisonstress is laid upon experimental investi Wharton 12-H. P. boiler; a 50-H. P. gation. The student is expected to spend Brown engine, specially constructed the greater part of his time in the labo for experimental investigations, steam ratory, and the hours for advanced theo jacketed, and with three alternative exretical instruction are arranged so as to hausts—to the open air, to a jet conleave uninterrupted periods for lengthy denser, and to a Wheeler surface conexperimental processes.
denser. There are also a Blake circulatHigher degrees in the four branches ing pump, a Knowles feed pump, a Blake of Engineering-Civil, Mechanical, Elec feed pump, and the usual measuring intrical, and Mining-are also conferred struments. by the University ; but these are strictly In the Hydraulic Laboratory there are professional honors, no candidate being two large steel tanks arranged for exeligible who has not served at his profes- perimental study of the flow of water sion for three years since obtaining the through orifices and over weirs; the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science. water is supplied by a three-throw pump The examination is limited wholly to the with double-acting cylinders, having a professional side of engineering work in capacity of 500,000 gallons per 24 hours. the branch selected, in contradistinction There are also various turbines, two cen