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colleges-Victoria, Trinity. In 1885 there were 366 students in Arts attending lectures. In 1904 there are 1,012 students in Arts, 721 in Medicine, 402 in Applied Science.

versity was the Faculty of Applied Science, which will presently be described in detail. The original endowment of the University proving insufficient, liberal additions have been made in recent years by the provincial Government, both in the form of grants of money and lands and by the erection out of public funds of new buildings.

The great expansion of the University of Toronto in the period since the federation movement began, can perhaps be best appreciated by a statistical comparison:

In 1885 a single building contained the Convocation Hall, the Library, the Natural History museums, besides all the lecture rooms, labor

The Scientific Courses The scientific instruction in the University of Toronto is conducted in the main University building, where the Physical Laboratories are at present situated; in the Medical building; in the Chemical building; in the Biological building; and in the School of Practical Science, which is devoted mainly to Engineering. The Mining building, now approaching completion, will also house


Looking Southeast, showing Library, Medical Building, and School of Practical Science, from left

to right across the Campus.

atories, offices and private rooms of the staff,
except that the Chemical Laboratory and
lecture room and the Biological and
Mineralogical Laboratories were temporarily
accommodated in the School of Practical
Science, a provincial institution in which the
University College professors also gave in-
struction. In 1904 the old University building
has been enlarged, and there are new separate
buildings for Chemistry, for Biology (includ-
ing the Biological Museum), and for the Li-
brary. A building for Geology, Mineralogy, and
Mining Engineering is in course of erection;
a Convocation Hall is begun; plans for a
Physics building are in preparation: a Medical
building and an Applied Science building,
representing two new Faculties, also form now
a part of the University. Again, in 1885, the
staff of teachers in Arts subjects was fifteen
in number. In 1004 they number seventy-
three, without reckoning those in the federated

the Mineralogical and Geological Departments and that of Applied and Electro-Chemistry. The regular honor courses in Physics, Chemistry, Geology and Mineralogy, and Biology, lead to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and extend over the usual period of four years, in each of which practical work in the laboratories is prescribed. Other subjects of a general education are required in every year; and special importance is attached to facility in reading French and German, on account of the necessity for a knowledge of these languages on the part of anyone who intends to follow the progress of scientific research. After graduation in Arts, students who have

successfully pursued an honor course in work, and to study the methods of reany of the above sciences may enter upon search and the successive steps of sciena further two years' course of original tific discovery as recorded in the English, investigation, which leads to the degree American, and foreign journals of physiof Doctor of Philosophy.

cal science. If he displays special apti

tude, he is set to work at some new inDepartment of Physics

vestigation. There are a series of eleThe Physical Department at present, mentary laboratories for students of the as already mentioned, occupies one wing lower years, and special laboratories in of the main University building; but the heat, acoustics, optics, and electricity, beaccommodation there is proving insuffi- sides a well-equipped workshop in charge cient, and steps have been taken for the of a mechanician, where most of the aperection of a separate building, exclu- paratus needed for research can be consively for Physics, which, it is expected, structed. All necessary instruments for

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will soon be commenced by the authority of the provincial Government. In the honor course in Physics, leading to a B. A. degree, the laboratory instruction of the first two years covers all the work of a general course in physics. In the third year, special subjects for experiments are taken up; and students are given practice in the use of laboratory instruments, photography, lathe work, glass blowing, soldering, silvering, and other means of making and repairing apparatus. In his fourth year the student is now sufficiently familiar with the use of all the instruments and appliances to be capable of entering upon some piece of research. He is encouraged to spend as much time as possible in laboratory

experiments and original work are in the laboratories, the collection of acoustical instruments being especially complete, including, as it does, all the best instruments manufactured by Dr. Koenig.

Department of Chemistry The Chemical Department has occupied its own building since 1895. In it all branches of the science except applied chemistry are taught, and about 400 students are engaged in laboratory work. The larger of its two lecture rooms will accommodate 300 students, and the laboratories contain upwards of 200 working places. There are separate laboratories for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, organic preparations, physical chemistry, gas analysis, combustion and dating 250 students ; elementary laborafurnace operations, besides a number of tories; advanced laboratories, for third special private laboratories for original year and fourth year students, for vegeinvestigation. The Laboratory of Phy- table physiology and bacteriology; a sical Chemistry is one of the six largest library of the principal biological periodion the continent of America. Original cals; a photographic room; a drafting papers to the number of sixteen, by mem- room, for preparation of diagrams; hotbers of the staff and students engaged houses, for use in connection with practiin research, were published during the cal courses in botany; an aquarium ; and year 1903.

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rooms for the preparation of museum Department of Biology

specimens. The laboratories of animal The Biological Department was the

physiology, six in number, are contained first of the departments of science to ob

in the Medical building. tain accommodation in a separate build

Department of Mineralogy and Geology ing with all the modern equipment of The Mineralogical Department is at laboratories and appliances for experi- present occupying temporary quarters in mental work. The building dates from the Biological building and School of 1889. The central portion is occupied Practical Science. In the new Mining by a Museum consisting of four large building it will receive ample accommorooms, seventy-five feet in length. Three dation, laboratories being provided capof these rooms are assigned to Animal able of accommodating 100 students Biology; while the fourth, which will be working at one time, besides special arranged for the illustration of Vegetable rooms for research work. Biology, is temporarily occupied by the

School of Practical Science mineralogical collections. Of the two The School of Practical Science, which wings of the Biological building, one is contains the laboratories and appliances devoted to anatomical work in connection for the teaching of Engineering in all with the instruction in the Faculty of its branches and of Analytical and ApMedicine; the other contains the rooms plied Chemistry, was originally an indeand laboratories of the Biological De- pendent institution, founded in 1877. It partment proper. There are lecture was affiliated with the University of rooms, the largest capable of accommo- Toronto in 1889, and in 1900 the whole staff was constituted the Faculty of Ap- in a school of applied science. Moreplied Science and Engineering of the over, shop work is held to be an interUniversity. At the same time provision ruption to the real educational work, was made for the extension of the new which is to give a thorough knowledge Faculty by the erection of a new building of scientific principles underlying the to accommodate the instruction in Ap- practice in the professions, together with plied Chemistry, Metallurgy, Assaying, such laboratory and experimental pracMineralogy, Geology, and Mining. When tice as is essential for the proper underthe new building is completed, the pres- standing of those principles. By leavent one will be entirely given over to ing out culture subjects and shop work, the Engineering Departments and to is has been found possible to give stuArchitecture.

dents a complete education on the scienThere are six regular departments of tific side of their future professions in instruction in the School: 1. Civil En- three years, at the end of which time the gineering; 2. Mining Engineering; 3. ordinary course of study is complete and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering a diploma is issued, which is recognized

(subdivided into two graduating depart- throughout the country as a qualification ments in the third year); 4. Architecture; for professional employment. In the De5. Analytical and Applied Chemistry ; 6. partment of Mechanical and Electrical Chemical Engineering

Engineering, however, the diploma is In two respects the course of study is withheld until certificates of twelve different from that in vogue at most tech- months' work in manufacturing shops nical schools: thereare no culture subjects are produced. The shop work thus reand there is no shop work. The student quired of students in these branches of seeking admission must have already engineering is entirely outside the School passed the University Matriculation in course of instruction; it may be done Arts or an equivalent examination, and during vacations, or postponed until the no further attempt is made to add to his full three years of lectures and examinastock of general information. · He be- tions have been completed. Vacation comes at once a professional student. work is required of all students. It takes Shop work is also omitted from the the form of a thesis on some practical course in Engineering subjects, since it subject to be selected from several preis considered that the practical lessons scribed, and of notes on construction, to be learned in shops are more effect which must exceed a certain minimum ively learned in commercial works than quantity.

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The University degree of Bachelor of to the examination for the degree of Applied Science is conferred only after Bachelor of Applied Science, which was a fourth or postgraduate year of study confined to the mathematical and scienin the School. In contradistinction to tific side. The examiners for the dethe work of the regular three years' grees in Engineering are professional course, which covers the whole field of men. scientific training applicable to each de The Engineering Laboratories are partment of Engineering or Applied equipped with the best available machines Chemistry, the fourth year is one of for experimental purposes. The Steam specialization. Not more than three sub- Engine Laboratory contains a Babcock

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jects may be taken up, and in these great stress is laid upon experimental investigation. The student is expected to spend the greater part of his time in the laboratory, and the hours for advanced theoretical instruction are arranged so as to leave uninterrupted periods for lengthy experimental processes.

Higher degrees in the four branches of Engineering—Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Mining—are also conferred by the University ; but these are strictly professional honors, no candidate being eligible who has not served at his profession for three years since obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science. The examination is limited wholly to the professional side of engineering work in the branch selected, in contradistinction

& Wilcox 52-H. P. boiler; a HarrisonWharton 12-H. P. boiler; a 50-H. P. Brown engine, specially constructed for experimental investigations, steam jacketed, and with three alternative exhausts—to the open air, to a jet condenser, and to a Wheeler surface condenser. There are also a Blake circulating pump, a Knowles feed pump, a Blake feed pump, and the usual measuring instruments.

In the Hydraulic Laboratory there are two large steel tanks arranged for experimental study of the flow of water through orifices and over weirs; the water is supplied by a three-throw pump with double-acting cylinders, having a capacity of 500,000 gallons per 24 hours. There are also various turbines, two cen

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