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will soon be commenced by the authority of the provincial Government. In the honor course in Physics, leading to a B. A. degree, the laboratory instruction of the first two years covers all the work of a general course in physics. In the third year, special subjects for experiments are taken up; and students are given practice in the use of laboratory instruments, photography, lathe work, glass blowing, soldering, silvering, and other means of making and repairing apparatus. In his fourth year the student is now sufficiently familiar with the use of all the instruments and appliances to be capable of entering upon some piece of research. He is encouraged to spend as much time as possible in laboratory
experiments and original work are in the laboratories, the collection of acoustical instruments being especially complete, including, as it does, all the best instruments manufactured by Dr. Koenig.
Department of Chemistry
The Chemical Department has occupied its own building since 1895. In it all branches of the science except applied chemistry are taught, and about 400 students are engaged in laboratory work. The larger of its two lecture rooms will accommodate 300 students, and the laboratories contain upwards of 200 working places. There are separate laboratories for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, organic preparations, physical chemistry, gas analysis, combustion and furnace operations, besides a number of special private laboratories for original investigation. The Laboratory of Physical Chemistry is one of the six largest on the continent of America. Original papers to the number of sixteen, by members of the staff and students engaged in research, were published during the year 1903.
Department of Biology
The Biological Department was the first of the departments of science to obtain accommodation in a separate building with all the modern equipment of laboratories and appliances for experimental work. The building dates from 1889. The central portion is occupied by a Museum consisting of four large rooms, seventy-five feet in length. Three of these rooms are assigned to Animal Biology; while the fourth, which will be arranged for the illustration of Vegetable Biology, is temporarily occupied by the mineralogical collections. Of the two wings of the Biological building, one is devoted to anatomical work in connection with the instruction in the Faculty of Medicine: the other contains the rooms and laboratories of the Biological Department proper. There are lecture rooms, the largest capable of accommo
dating 250 students; elementary laboratories; advanced laboratories, for third year and fourth year students, for vegetable physiology and bacteriology; a library of the principal biological periodicals; a photographic room; a drafting room, for preparation of diagrams; hothouses, for use in connection with practical courses in botany; an aquarium ; and rooms for the preparation of museum specimens. The laboratories of animal physiology, six in number, are contained in the Medical building. Department of Mineralogy and Geology
The Mineralogical Department is at present occupying temporary quarters in the Biological building and School of Practical Science. In the new Mining building it will receive ample accommodation, laboratories being provided capable of accommodating 100 students working at one time, besides special rooms for research work.
School of Practical Science
The School of Practical Science, which contains the laboratories and appliances for the teaching of Engineering in all its branches and of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, was originally an independent institution, founded in 1877. It was affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1889, and in 1900 the whole staff was constituted the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering of the University. At the same time provision was made for the extension of the new Faculty by the erection of a new building to accommodate the instruction in Applied Chemistry. Metallurgy, Assaying, Mineralogy, Geology, and Mining. When the new building is completed, the present one will be entirely given over to the Engineering Departments and to Architecture.
There are six regular departments of instruction in the School: I. Civil Engineering; 2. Mining Engineering; 3. Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (subdivided into two graduating departments in the third year) ; 4. Architecture; 5. Analytical and Applied Chemistry; 6. Chemical Engineering.
In two respects the course of study is different from that in vogue at most technical schools: thereare no culture subjects and there is no shop work. The student seeking admission must have already passed the University Matriculation in Arts or an equivalent examination, and no further attempt is made to add to his stock of general information. He becomes at once a professional student. Shop work is also omitted from the course in Engineering subjects, since it is considered that the practical lessons to be learned in shops are more effectivelv learned in commercial works than
in a school of applied science. Moreover, shop work is held to be an interruption to the real educational work, which is to give a thorough knowledge of scientific principles underlying the practice in the professions, together with such laboratory and experimental practice as is essential for the proper understanding of those principles. By leaving out culture subjects and shop work, is has been found possible to give students a complete education on the scientific side of their future professions in three years, at the end of which time the ordinary course of study is complete and a diploma is issued, which is recognized throughout the country as a qualification for professional employment. In the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, however, the diploma is withheld until certificates of twelve months' work in manufacturing shops are produced. The shop work thus required of students in these branches of engineering is entirely outside the School course of instruction; it may be done during vacations, or postponed until the full three years of lectures and examinations have been completed. Vacation work is required of all students. It takes the form of a thesis on some practical subject to be selected from several prescribed*, and of notes on construction, which must exceed a certain minimum quantity.
jects may be taken up, and in these great stress is laid upon experimental investigation. The student is expected to spend the greater part of his time in the laboratory, and the hours for advanced theoretical instruction are arranged so as to leave uninterrupted periods for lengthy experimental processes.
Higher degrees in the four branches of Engineering—Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Mining—are also conferred by the University; but these are strictly professional honors, no candidate being eligible who has not served at his profession for three years since obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science. The examination is limited wholly to the professional side of engineering work in the branch selected, in contradistinction
& Wilcox 52-H. P. boiler; a HarrisonWharton 12-H. P. boiler; a 50-H. P. Brown engine, specially constructed for experimental investigations, steam jacketed, and with three alternative exhausts—to the open air, to a jet condenser, and to a Wheeler surface condenser. There are also a Blake circulating pump, a Knowles feed pump, a Blake feed pump, and the usual measuring instruments.
In the Hydraulic Laboratory there are two large steel tanks arranged for experimental study of the flow of water through orifices and over weirs; the water is supplied by a three-throw pump with double-acting cylinders, having a capacity of 500.000 gallons per 24 hours. There are also various turbines, two centrifugal pumps, a Yenturi meter, and other apparatus for measuring discharge and frictional losses.
The Strength of Materials Laboratory contains an Emery 50-ton machine and a Riehle 100-ton machine for making tests in tension, compression, shearing, and cross-breaking. The latter will take in posts twelve feet long and beams eighteen feet long. There are also a Riehle 10-ton universal testing machine; an Olson torsion machine, capable of twisting shafts sixteen feet in length and two inches in diameter; a Riehle transverse testing machine; a Riehle abrasion machine; and various types of extensometers and micrometers.
lites and other necessary field instruments.
The Electrical Laboratories are supplied with power by means of a 20-kilowatt Edison motor, which drives several continuous - current dynamos, series-, shunt-, and compound-wound, bipolar and multipolar, a Westinghouse experimental alternator, and a rotary converter when used as a polyphase dynamo. There are also a Crocker-Wheeler directcurrent motor and a 6-H. P. Edison motor, used in the mill-room but available for testing, besides fan motors. Of alternating-current motors, there are a three-phase and two single-phase induction motors; a special experimental poly
The Cement-Testing Laboratory is fitted with the usual moulds and gravimeters; and contains also a Riehle 2,000pound machine for either tension or compression, another smaller Riehle machine for tension only, and an extra large Faija's hot bath apparatus. In the Metrological Laboratory there are 100foot and 66-foot standards of length, a 10-foot Rogers comparator with graduating attachment, a Rater's pendulum with vacuum chamber, a Howard astronomical clock and electro-chronograph, a sidereal chronometer, theodo
phase induction motor of 7T/2 H. P., in which the rotor terminals are all separately accessible; and a constant-current transformer with a series of six arc lamps. The galvanometer room has ten masonry piers to support instruments in such a way as to be free from vibration. In the Laboratory for Advanced Work there is a Kelvin balance and its rheostat, and an enclosure for experiments with high voltages. A first-rate collection of instruments, too numerous to particularize here, is one of the features of the laboratory equipment.