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supply every six or twelve miles when possible.

Tests have demonstrated that this pon

Big Coast Freighter ORN IN SAN FRANCISCO and christened the Arizonian, the largest merchant vessel on the

Pacific coast has just issued from its cradle in the Union Iron Works dock, as the latest commercial product of the wedding of the Pacific coast to the islands of the Eastern seas. The Arisonian belongs to the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company, and is the youngest of that family of great freight steamers to which belong the Texas and the Alaskan. She will soon go into the Hawaiian trade and will make both Pacific and Atlantic ports.

The Arizonian has a gross tonnage of 8,671, and 5,621 tons net. Her carrying capacity is 11,000 tons. She is driven by quadruple-expansion engines with cylinders 21 2-5, 28, 38, and 60 inches' diameter respectively and a stroke of 30

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without altering the fire box. An oil- inches. At 240 pounds' pressure the enburning attachment is furnished when gines will develop 3,000 horse-power. oil fuel is desired. To operate the train requires an engineer and fireman. When freighting in the mountains, however, a

Automatic Trench Digger third man may be required to attend A MACHINE designed to take the brakes when descending steep grades,

place of manual labor in digging and also to help load and unload the

trenches, has recently been used train. Engines of this type, but of

in excavating a sewer at Mooressmaller size, are used throughout Cali- town, New Jersey, with very satisfactory fornia and the Pacific coast, in hauling results. The material required to be relogs, lumber, and other kinds of material, moved consists largely of a hard clay, some of the large milling companies which would necessitate more than the in this part of the country including in ordinary amount of labor with pick and their equipment as many as five or six shovel. The machine referred to excaof them.

vated a trench four feet in depth and

from two to three feet in width, at an average rate of 60 feet an hour; the contractors estimated that it performed the work of from 50 to 75 laborers.

As indicated in the accompanying illustration, the excavator is of what is

tion engine, which is also utilized in moving the machine from place to place when it is not transported by rail.

The engine is connected with the digging machine by a chain belt passing around the shaft of the excavating outfit.


World's Largest Searchlight

to producing the power of
sunlight is a searchlight that

has just been built by the Schuckert company of Nuremberg. This miniature mechanical sun will throw its rays eighty miles away, and thus would be visible clear across Lake Michigan. Such a distance of reflection, however, could not be obtained unless the light were elevated to a proper height, which at present is impossible. The builders say that it might shine farther than eighty miles, no thorough test of its actual powers having yet been made.

The light is of 316,000,000 candlepower and is the largest searchlight ever built. It is fitted with an iris shutter having a diameter of 6 feet 6 inches, which was adopted in order to make the



known as the "chain" pattern, passing over sprockets fastened at each end of a beam shaft which can be raised or lowered at the will of the operator, and which acts as a guide in securing the required depth. As the material is cut away from the breast of the bank, it is raised by means of a steam gear which continually holds the excavating and raising mechanism in place, aided by the weight of the machine itself.

The digger is also moved automatically. A post is driven about 100 feet in front, to which is fastened a cable connecting with a drum or cylinder on the front of the digging machine. At each revolution of the excavating shaft, the cable is taken up by winding the drum. The power is supplied by a trac

World's LARGEST SEARCHLIGHT. Throws a beam of light over eighty miles

projector light-tight at any moment desired, and which is operated in much the same way as an ordinary camera shutter.

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STEAMBOAT TRAVELING OVERLAND. in the base of the searchlight, which op

Boy Builds a Steamboat erates the projector in a vertical direction

LL THE BOYS in Madison, through a train of gears; the other starts

N. J., envy William Webb or stops the electric motor which con

Davis, Jr. He has built for trols the horizontal movement of the

himself a little steamboat, in beam of light.

which—often accompanied by his sweetheart—he rides about on the picturesque Passaic river, visiting interest

ing points for miles around. The boat Steamer Travels Overland

is but the latest of young Davis's me

chanical achievements. He also has an STEAMBOAT traveling along automobile which he built all by himself, a dirt road was a novel sight and the boy is only 16 years old. Here recently witnessed in Michigan. is his description of the boat:

The feat was made possible "First I made the boat 12 feet long and 3 only by the power of the traction engine, feet 6 inches beam. The sides are cypress two of them being employed to haul the

and the bottom is white pine. The bow and

stern have water-tight compartments. The boat from Alpena to Long Lake, a dis

paddle-wheels do not come below the bottom tance of eight miles. The vessel was the of the boat because the Passaic river is very shallow in places. The paddle-wheels and paddle boxes are removable, thus making it easy for transportation. The boiler is made of 8-inch wrought-iron pipe. I had a piece two feet long, with a cap on each end, and then drilled holes for the piping. The boiler jacket is made from sheet iron covered with asbestos, which also makes the firebox. The motive power is an upright engine of about one horsepower connected to the paddle shaft by a bicycle chain. I made a small check pump with two half-inch checks and a piece of half-inch brass pipe for the cylinder. The pump not only forces water into the boiler against steam pressure, but also acts as a bilge pump. I am now using wood for fuel, although I made gasoline burners and used them for a while. The boiler is equipped with steam gauge, safety valve, and whistle. The exhaust steam from the engine goes up the stack to make a forced draft. At the end of the boiler is a water glass showing the amount of water in the boiler. The boat may be steered by a person in the bow by means of a lever connected to the rudder with ropes." .

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Basin Will Beautify Boston

PANNED by two of America's

prettiest and finest bridges, sur-
rounded by splendid parks and

driveways, and located in one of the most picturesque parts of picturesque Boston, the proposed Charles River Basin is destined to be one of the handsomest municipal ornamentations in the world. The work is in the hands of a special commission, which will soon advertise for bids with a view of pushing the enterprise to a speedy completion. The basin will be formed by damming the Charles river and dredging the stream. The Congressional resolution authorizing the work provides that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts shall maintain the necessary depth and width of channel for the commerce of the river as fixed by the Secretary of War. The Basin Commission must operate the lock at its own expense, as a free navigable waterway of the United States, subject to such regulations as the Secretary of War may promulgate.

The dam, in deepening the stream, will add greatly to the importance of the waterway. The commission is required to maintain in the basin, from the head of the lock to the channel in the river, a channel 100 feet wide and 18


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feet deep at mean low water. Traffic in the basin, however, is to be given up to pleasure craft for the present, as the entire work is for the purpose of affording a place of public amusement and to beautify the city.

The accompanying sketch of the basin is from a large water-color by Walter P. R. Pember, made for the purpose of

the structure is to be opened for traffic next summer. This will be one of the finest and most artistic bridges of the modern world. In a bend of the river beyond, is the present Harvard bridge, resplendent at night with its graceful spans and its scores of lights reflected in the water.

The parkway will be continued from the Charles Bank southward and westward past the Union Boat Clubhouse, and along that part of the river on which the Beacon street mansions abut. All of this section is to be filled in to a width of about 100 feet, and connected with the Back Bay fens near Massachusetts avenue. This splendid boulevard will be planted with shade trees and shrubs, and will probably be connected with the West Boston bridge by a graceful sweep.

Boat landings will be located at frequent intervals on both sides of the basin for the benefit of those who wish to in


Handling Salt by Hand.


being placed upon the walls of the Massachusetts Building at the St. Louis Exposition. In the foreground appears the proposed dam, which will take the place of the present Craigie bridge, and hold back the waters so as to form the basin beyond. The dam is to be traversed by a wide and beautiful driveway, and will be 100 feet wide on top. The lock, which will be 350 feet long and 40 feet wide, will be a novelty in Boston. On the left or south side of the picture appears the present Charles Bank, which extends from Leverett street to Cambridge and marks the beginning of the great Charles River improvement work.

On the right or north side of the picture, is shown that part of the Cambridge River Park, known as the "Front.” It is pierced at its easterly end by the Lechmere, and, further along, by the Broad canal. Extending across the center of the basin is shown the magnificent new West Boston bridge, joining Boston and Cambridge. Work on this bridge is now rapidly progressing, and

dulge in the pleasures of canoeing, riding in row boats, electric launches, and other pleasure craft.

Compressed Air vs. Hand Power
N THE CITY of Muskegon, Michi-

gan, salt is used in large quantities,
and consequently the warehouses

of the firms dealing in it are capacious enough to store away a very considerable supply. As is well known, salt, on account of its affinity for water, is a substance that has a tendency

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