« PreviousContinue »
by the power method as two dozen men by using picks and shovels.
to harden and cake when piled away any length of time, and some of the cellars where it is stored contain beds of it twenty feet high and so hard that but little impression can be made upon them even with the pick or axe.
For this reason a somewhat curious device has been brought into use to loosen the material so that it can readily be secured. This is a large boring tool or auger which is operated by compressed air. As the photographs show,
Great African Bridge VICTORIA FALLS in Rhodesia,
twice the width and more than double the height of the far
famed Niagara, are to be spanned by an enormous bridge to form a link in the Cape-to-Cairo Railway. The bridge will be 600 feet high, with a span of 500 feet, which would be high enough to permit nearly two of America's tallest skyscrapers to rest under it. The falls are on the Zambesi river, and were discovered by Livingstone in 1855, during his African explorations. Plans for the great bridge have already been prepared in London, and work is to begin without delay.
PROPOSED BRIDGE ACROSS ZAMBESI RIVER AT VICTORIA
FALLS, ON ROUTE OF CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILWAY.
the auger is mounted on a wheeled truck which is guided by handles projecting from the rear of the framework. The rear end of the auger revolves in a socket fitted into the framework, while the air is admitted to the socket from the hose which supplies it. When operated, the boring tool is pushed against the mass of salt, and the auger is set in motion; and in a minute or two—so rapidly does the tool work—a hole about five inches in diameter is made in the formation the entire length of the auger. Then another hole is drilled parallel with the first, and another, until the pile has been undermined, so to speak, when its contents can easily be broken out. The advantage of this method is seen when it is stated that two men can get out as much salt
LAUNCHING SUBMARINE "PIKE.”
ment and built for a speed of eight knots an hour. Their cost is $170,000 each.
by CARL S. DOW.
Number Eight-Capacity of Pumps
N FINDING the capacity of a di- each stroke. Let us suppose, for exrect-acting pump, the water-end ample, that the pump is an 8x10; that only need be considered. The steam- is, the water cylinder is 8 inches in di
end is taken into account when the ameter, and the stroke is 10 inches in calculation involves the pressure against length. From the rules in mensuration, which the pump is to force the water. we know that the area of the circle repThe size of the steam-end of a pump de- resenting the piston is found by multitermines the pressure of the water issu- plying .7854 by the square of the diing from the water-end, but has nothing ameter. This would give us for the to do with the amount of water delivered. area: In the direct-acting pump, the water
.7854 x 64 = 50.265 cylinder fills with water when the piston moves. Thus, when the piston is mov- To find the volume, we simply multiply ing toward the right, the water follows this area by the length of stroke, 10. it, filling more or less completely the This gives us the volume of the cylinder right-hand end. On the return stroke, in cubic inches, since all the dimensions the piston forces this water out of the were in inches. cylinder. Thus we see that the volume Experiment shows that there are 231 of water pumped per stroke is equal to cubic inches in a gallon. Then, to find the volume of the cylinder; or, to be the capacity of this pump in gallons, we more exact, the volume swept by the divide the volume in cubic inches by 231, piston. This is also called the "piston which gives us 2.176 gallons per stroke. displacement."
To find the capacity per minute, we Calculation
simply multiply this by the number of The finding of the cylindrical volume strokes per minute. of the piston displacement is no different
In the above example, we had two from the finding of the volume of any constants—that is, two numbers that right cylinder. Therefore we use the
would remain the same whatever the dirules of mensuration. The volume of mensions of the pump might be. In the any cylinder is equal to the area of the first place we multiplied by .7854. Later right section (or piston) multiplied by
we divided by 231. As this calculation its length (or stroke). In the first figure must be performed each time, we can on the blackboard, let D represent the do it once for all and obtain a new condiameter of the pump of the cylinder, stant. Thus, and L the distance the piston moves at
.7854 = 231 = .0034 (200)
(Rights of Publication Reserved by Author)
Now, by using the letters D, L, and N per stroke and in gallons per stroke. In to represent the diameter, length of practice, the amount of water delivered stroke, and number of strokes, respect- will be somewhat less than this, because ively, we get the simple formula (a). the stroke of a direct-acting pump varies
Let us take another example and find somewhat, and there is some loss from the capacity of the pump both in cubic leakage. Losses vary with the type of feet and in gallons. Suppose the pump pump, the speed, the pressure, and the is a 12x16. The volume in cubic inches method of taking water. The losses are is found as shown in the calculation on much smaller for large pumps than for the blackboard to be 1,809.55. As be- small pumps, and they are smaller for low fore, we divide by 231, and get as a re- speed than for high speed. The loss for sult 7.833 gallons. Now, we know that leakage, etc., in a large pump varies from one cubic foot equals 1,728 cubic inches. 3 to 10 per cent. In small pumps it may To find the capacity in cubic feet, we go as high as 40 per cent. As a rough divide the volume in cubic inches by general average, we may take 25 per 1,728, giving us 1,047, which is the ca cent as the loss; and to find the actual pacity of the pump in cubic feet per capacity, we multiply the results of the stroke. As in the first example, we use above calculations by .75. two constants, namely .7854 and 1,728. Other formulas similar to those given We can combine these constants into one in (a) and (b) can readily be made to by the same process. This gives us the suit the conditions—that is, when the fundamental formula shown at (b). diameter is given in feet and the stroke
in inches, or the stroke in feet and the Losses
diameter in inches. But those given
should be sufficient for most cases, as The above calculations give the theo- the sizes of pumps are practically always retical capacity of a pump in cubic feet given in inches.
William Ellis Corey
By HENRY M. HYDE
Editorial Writer on the Chicago Tribune
EMARKABLE, even among that man, no matter what his station in life, remarkable company of young should find in them the greatest possible millionaires known as “the inspiration and encouragement. If suc
thirty-five young partners of cess were a matter of genius or due to Andrew Carnegie," is William Ellis some other equally mysterious cause, a Corey, the present president of the young man who did not feel the fires of United States Steel Corporation, better genius burning within him might well known as the "Steel Trust.”
despair. When he finds that in practiMr. Corey is but thirty-seven years cally every case success is due to hard , old; yet he went to work no less than work and a never-satisfied desire for twenty-one years ago for Andrew Carne- exact knowledge, he may well conclude gie, as a boy of sixteen, with no more that the coveted prize lies within his than a grammar school education. Step grasp. by step he has climbed up in the service. It is true that unequaled opporof the great steel master, until, when tunities were offered to Corey and the Charles M. Schwab was made the first other young men who entered the employ president of the Steel Trust, Corey suc- of the Carnegie Company, yet it is also ceeded him at the head of the Carnegie true that out of the thousands who enCompany, its largest and most important tered that employ only thirty-five or forty constituent concern. And later, when won their way upward to great success. Schwab's retirement was forced, Corey “Diligence,” as Poor Richard says, was Carnegie's choice as his successor in was, in the case of Corey and his sucthe position of president of the largest cessful colleagues, “the mother and and most powerful corporation ever father of good luck." formed.
It is told of Corey that he first entered The annual salary drawn by “Bill” the Carnegie service as a laborer at one Corey, as his old mates in the mill still dollar a day, and that his first work was call him, has been variously stated in the hauling ore in a wheelbarrow. He newspapers from a round million to a wheeled so much more ore than any other hundred thousand a vear. Certainly it member of the gang that he was presentis one of the largest salaries ever paid, ly made foreman over the others. In and it is even more certain that there that capacity he got so much more work are few positions in the world the oc- out of his men than the other foremen cupants of which wield power as great that he was promoted to a still higher or as far-reaching.
position. It is a good story, and it is To review the life story of William E. a pity to spoil it, but Mr. Corey himself Corey is to discover nothing especially gives it the lie. new or startling. It is simply to add “I was a mere boy when I went to new and stronger emphasis to the im- work,” he says, “and I could not have portance of the possession of those simple hauled half a load of ore in a barrow. and fundamental qualities which are Nor were my wages one dollar a day. found at the bottom of most successful They were a good deal less than that careers. And it is precisely because these amount.” qualities are so persistent and so easily A s a matter of fact, when Corey was understood, that the ambitious young sixteen years old, he quit school and got
a small job as a helper in the chemical which greatly strengthened the hands of laboratory connected with the Edgar his company in its efforts to secure, at Thomson Steel Works. And there, at a large profit, the contract for supplying the start, the qualities which are respon-- the National Government with the armor sible for his success showed themselves for sheathing its battleships and cruisers. In the working hours, he did the rough As the practical head of the plate mills, work in and about the laboratory. In Corey was called upon to fill this difficult the evening, he read and studied books contract; and, in successfully performing on chemistry and metallurgy which he the work, all his expert chemical and borrowed from his superiors in the lab- technical knowledge, acquired so largely oratory. The industry of the boy and by out-of-working-hours study, was his great desire for knowledge, quickly called into play. The papers were full made an impression on the men im at the time of the great controversy bemediately over him. They took an in- tween the officials of the Navy Departterest in his welfare, lent him more books, ment and the heads of the Carnegie Comand helped him to direct his study in the pany over the armor-plate contract; but best channels. It is almost always true one heard nothing of this young and selfthat a diligent youth finds many friends educated engineer, whose skill and and helpers.
knowledge were among the determining A few years of hard study, while he was still working in the chemical labora- But he did the work and did it satistory, made Corey an authority on the factorily, and the keen eyes of Andrew chemistry of steel making; and when, in Carnegie did not overlook his services. 1888, Charles M. Schwab was promoted from that time on, his promotion was from the position of superintendent of rapid and constant. He was made Genthe plate mills and open hearth depart- eral Superintendent of the Carnegie ment, the young Corey, then just in his Company, and finally, in 1901, when the twenty-first year, was appointed to suc- Steel Trust was organized, he became ceed him.
president of the Carnegie Company. It was a hard task for a boy, just come
In personal appearance Mr. Corey is of age, to undertake to superintend the a rather short, heavily-built man, with a work of hundreds of grown men and
fresh complexion, a small moustache, expert workmen ; but Corey soon dem- and an unwrinkled face which makes him onstrated that he knew all the details
look even younger than he really is. of the steel-making industry even a little
In manner he is brisk and energetic. better than the men who actually did the
He wears loose and comfortably fitting manual labor, and that demonstration
clothes, and is democratic in his manquickly won the respect of the men under
ners. He has never lost his great inhim. There is nothing which will so
terest in the practical processes of makgreatly help an executive in maintaining discipline among his subordinates as the
ing the various steel and iron products; realization on their part that he is their
and, as the present head of the steel cormaster in knowledge and skill.
poration, it is understood that he devotes Thanks to his home study in the most of his time to their direction, leavscience of steel making, Corey was able, ing the handling of the financial problems soon after he took charge, to introduce connected with the administration to men some important economies in the mills. especially trained in that direction. He He also made some valuable innovations is essentially an example of a successful in the manufacture of armor plates, technical man in the great steel industry.