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trucks provided with wooden wheels, and thus turned into a huge vehicle. Then teams of horses—twenty in all—were hitched to each side and to the front, and the moving across the country was accomplished without accident. Nothing was taken from the building to lighten the load, and it was ready for business on reaching its new location.

IT IS INTERESTING to note that one of THE TECHNICAL WORLD subscribers,

American George M. Wise, of the Machinery Bengal Iron & Steel Com

in India pany, Kulti, British India, has recently installed some American machinery in a new steel plant at that place. There are extensive installations yet to be made, comprising conveyors, hoisting appliances, blowers, etc., opening up an inviting field in which the enterprising American will have an immediate opportunity to demonstrate his power to meet the competition of his British or other European rival. Firms manufacturing machinery of the kind mentioned will find it to their advantage to send their catalogues to Mr. Wise.

Blaine, had told him that there were not enough cotton and rags in the world to supply the newspapers and other publications with their raw material. That was about twenty-eight years ago when paper was 30 cents a pound. One-half the newspapers of the country must have gone to the wall but for the idea suggested to Doctor Hill by the hornet's nest. He took the nest to the superintendent of a paper factory, who was his friend..

“There, why can't you make paper like that?” he asked.

They sat down together; took the nest apart; analyzed it carefully; and, while it appeared complicated to them, they decided that if a hornet could make paper out of wood, man could do the same. The Doctor discovered that the hornet first chewed the wood into a fine pulp before making it into nest material. The question was, How did the hornet get the fiber? That has not exactly been solved to this day.

Such was the beginning of the woodpulp industry. Now the logs of wood are floated down the river to a pulp mill. In a surprisingly short time the logs are converted into great sheets of pulp ready to be made into paper.

AT ITS LAST SESSION, the North Dakota Legislature passed a Pure Food

Law, and the State Food Pure Food

ONCE MORE the clatter of the cotton Commissioner says that, mills in Lancashire is heard through the Legislation whereas one year ago 72

England's full working week. Mills per cent of all the prepared food products

Cotton Famine that were closed have in the State were adulterated, now less

Over opened again, and the than 20 per cent are adulterated, while

great cotton crisis that worked such all the most harmful have been driven

havoc across the seas has passed. It out.

was the severest England has known since the American Civil War. Specu

lation of the "cotton kings” in the United MAKING PAPER FROM WOOD, a method States is held largely responsible for the discovered by Dr. J. B. Hill of Augusta, disastrous panic through which LancaMaking

Ve., has, in a few years,
Me., has, in a few

shire has just passed. To this was added Paper from risen to one of the most the calamities resulting from great

Wood important industries of strikes in Europe and America, and a the country. It has revolutionized the slight shortage of the cotton crop in paper trade of the world and made it America, on which England at present possible for newspapers to be sold at is mainly dependent. their present low prices.

As a result of the disaster, England An old hornet's nest led to this most has taken steps to make herself indevaluable discovery of Doctor Hill. His pendent of America as a source of cotton friend and neighbor, the late James G. supply. President Vacara of the Lancashire Cotton-Growing Association, newly organized, is at the head of the movement which proposes to make the British colonies grow cotton in sufficient abundance to supply Lancashire, whose mills supply the world. It is proposed to begin at once the cultivation of vast cotton crops in West Africa and the Soudan; and, by the agreement, the Lancashire manufacturers must accept cotton from these points in preference to American-grown cotton. This is England's scheme of retaliation for the

to be a great decline in the cotton industry in England, and America may have a Lancashire of her own. Manchester, in Lancashire, is the present center of the world's cotton industry. The cotton is grown in America, shipped to Liverpool, there sold in bale to Manchester, at Manchester manufactured into cloth, and there sold to America again in this form. But it is also sold to other nations, for all the world is learning to wear cotton goods.

Not only in Manchester, but in all the

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awful calamity heaped on the English surrounding towns of Lancashire, is the people through the action of American manufacture of cotton goods the domispeculators in “futures" and through En- nant industry. This is also the greatest gland's dependence on the American cot- industry of all England; and it is interton supply.

esting to note that this—one of England's If this plan succeeds—and its success chief sources of revenue—is dependent is very probable, for the wealth of En- to a very great extent upon the Southern gland is backing the movement with States of America. British Government sympathy—it is in- With the resumption of activity in cumbent on America to lose no time in weaving, the Manchester Cotton Exbeginning the manufacture of cotton on change is beginning to display the life a mammoth scale so that American grow- of its former days. This exchange ers can find a home market for their raw stands in the heart of the city, and its product. Otherwise supreme disaster members number 2,000. They swarm threatens the American cotton-growing on the floor and overflow into the adjoinindustry.

ing streets. It will be a difficult task for Americans There are fifty large towns within to make themselves independent of Lan- twenty miles of Manchester where weavcashire; but once it is done, there is likely ing is the sole source of livelihood. There are Oldham, a town the size of New Or- many of them were forced to close alleans; Bolton, as large as Washington, together. There was great suffering with mills in nearly every street; Ashton among the poor people as it was; but it under-Lyne, Heywood, Middleton, Cas- would have been many times greater but

for the wise step of the manufacturers.

Lancashire manufacturers claim that no climate can rival that of Lancashire for cotton-manufacturing industry, because of Lancashire's humidity. Visitors to Lancashire feel depressed when day after day they see the rain descending in

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INSIDE A COTTON Mill —"DRAWING THE COTTON."

tleton, and Rochdale, none of which is smaller than Galveston, and all of which are supported by the weaving industry.

The settlement of the great strike has resulted in a unique agreement between the employers and employed. It is known as the “Brooklands Agreement,” the. terms of which seem to render future strikes out of the question. The labor leaders have access to the books of the employers; and so the sliding scale of wages that has been arranged, can easily be determined without friction or suspicion.

Women and children as well as men suffered untold hardships from the depression in England alleged to have been brought about by the American speculators. More than half the employees of the cotton mills are women and children dependent on their earnings for their daily bread.

All the mills, by an agreement, worked on short hours during the crisis, and

Outside a Cotton Mill-DINNER TIME. unabated persistence; but the native bears the downpour with cheerful equanimity, because he knows that the humidity of the climate renders Lancashire unrivaled in the manufacture of the finer grades of cotton goods. Besides, the workmen of Lancashire are probably more skilled than those of any other country.

The manufacture of textile machinery is also a great industry in Lancashire ; and where Lancashire is unable to sell her cotton goods, she does the next best thing, and sells the machinery by which these goods can be produced. Thus she levies a profit even on her rivals.

Test Trip of 2,000 Miles Shows Prejudice, Bad Laws, and Bad Roads to Be the

Greatest Drawbacks in America

W

THAT are the principal hin- Third-Bad roads and bridges, and poor drances to the enjoyment of a laws that prevent the building and maintenance

of better ones. cross-country automobile tour

FOURTH-Difficulties, in sparsely settled distaken purely as a pleasure tricts, of obtaining supplies, and the inferior pursuit under existing conditions in grades of those that are obtainable. America ?

FIFTH-Parsimony of automobile agents, reTo answer this question, so pertinent

pair men, and supply houses, manifested in

their charging exorbitant prices to automoat this time, when Americans are vying bilists on tour. with the French and English and Ger SIXTH-Ignorance of rural residents regardmans in long overland trips — amuse

ing automobiles and the persons who operate ments that have become exceedingly pop

them, caused by the scarcity of automobiles

owned by persons outside of the cities. ular in Europe—and when entirely new SEVENTH-Improper provision for long trips types of automobiles have been con by the tourist in not selecting a car best structed to meet the new demands, Mr.

adapted to his needs, and in not providing J. F. Miller of the American School of

the necessary supplies and provisions before

starting. Correspondence at Armour Institute of Technology, made a 2,000-mile trip from

Threats of being shot; their way Chicago to Syracuse, N. Y., and return, blocked ; many times impeded by obstructaking careful notations and gathering

tions wilfully placed in their road; ininformation from various sources along sulted and uncivilly treated in innumerthe route. That the answer might not

able instances — these were occurrences be formed from conditions as viewed by of the trip that go to prove an unfriendmasculine eyes alone, Mr. Miller took liness toward the automobilist on the with him a lady companion_his wife part of the traditionally kind-hearted and their joint opinions on the subject

farmer. Of course this treatment was will doubtless be interesting to America's rather the exception than the rule; but growing army of women automobile en

it was the tourist's mission to note the thusiasts, as well as to the men.

principal hindrances to the enjoyment of After a two months' outing and ob- a cross-country automobile tour, and, servations made in nearly all kinds of therefore, he must give prominence to the weather, on roads good and bad, and hindrances. They were encountered, among the varied classes of people that too, without seeking them in any way, are necessarily encountered in the heter- but in the course of an ordinary crossogeneous population of the East and country trip such as any owner of a Central West, Mr. and Mrs. Miller have motor car might take purely for pleasure. given their answer to the important ques. There have been many “endurance” tion. Following is a summary of the runs that have truthfully tested the enobjectionable conditions mentioned by curance of man and vehicle ; there have them, arranged in order of their im been short- and long distance speed runs, portance:

“continuous” runs of thousands of miles, FIRST—The animosity of the rural and ur

mountain climbing, rough road contests, ban populace toward automobiles and auto- and every other kind of automobile test mobilists, resulting from vituperative news that minds could devise, save the simple paper comments, which are ever taken seri

one of determining, for the information ously by the countryman.

ND-The unjust, partial, and prejudicial of others, just what conditions are apt laws of many States, counties, and towns, to be encountered in an ordinary longattributable solely to the ignorance of the distance pleasure tour. With this object lawmakers regarding the automobile, its per

solely in view, Mr. Miller did not try fect control, and its great benefits to the people in general.

to drive his automobile through raging

torrents or over trembling trestles span- of halting the machine, possibly for the ning them; nor did he attempt to scale purpose of inspecting it more closely. mountain peaks, or leap from precipices, Mr. Miller climbed over the obstructions or bear down trees in his path by forcing with his machine, and from the underhis way through the jungles, as do the brush a dozen heads bobbed up in beheroes of the modern automobile tours. wilderment. The couple stopped for He sought to experience no more diffi- lunch at a farm house beyond. While culties than would be unavoidably en- they were dining, another hill of timbers countered, and, if possible, to determine and trees was thrown across the road, why such trips cannot be made as enjoy- which forced the occupants to alight able and popular in America as they are while Mr. Miller cleared the way. In in Europe.

passing through small towns, vile epithets The machine Mr. Miller regarded as were often hurled at the travelers when best adapted to his usage on such a trip they chanced to pass drivers of horses, was a Rambler—the largest make of without recognition of the care maniRambler—a 16-horse-power two-cylinder fested by Mr. Miller to prevent scaring car, with canopy top, glass front, and side the animals. curtains. Such a machine, Mr. Miller Mrs. Miller said: thought, would give him the greatest "In many sections we traversed, the people amount of pleasure and comfort on the

seemed to look upon us as some horrid

monsters whom all should hate. We could trip, and, as stated, it was pleasure and

not get a civil response to our questions, and comfort he was seeking. Both of the in one district in Pennsylvania the people tourists found the car all they had ex began to sound the alarm of our coming as pected. The jolting, under general con

if the territory had been invaded by a real

dragon or by outlaws. They gathered about ditions, was scarcely perceptible; and the

the car, intercepted our progress by various car was roomy, substantial, and easily methods, and really for a time we considered operated. When the movable glass front ourselves in peril. and side curtains were all up, the occu

“One particular instance well illustrates the

horror with which the people seem to regard pants were as secure against the storm

motor cars. It was in the benighted district as if riding in a Pullman parlor car. between Bryan and Kendleville. The road

In their tour. Mr. and Mrs. Miller had was a narrow turnpike that would not permit an opportunity of experiencing the con

a team and automobile to pass without danger

of frightening the horses, especially in this ditions in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Penn

section where an automobile was probably sylvania, and New York. They found never seen before. Two women driving a those of New York and Illinois the worst, span of horses approached us, and the horses

showed fright. Fearing for the women's safety, as regards the unfriendly laws, bad

Mr. Miller stopped the car, but still the horses roads, and uncivil treatment. Just as displayed nervousness and acted as if they they were entering New York State, the would become unmanageable. Then Mr. Milautomobilists accidentally turned into a

ler turned off the power entirely and went

to the assistance of the women, offering to side road. There they encountered a

lead the horses past the machine. The girls farmer with a shotgun who told them shrieked in horror when he started to touch that if they did not immediately turn the animals, and would not permit him to round and go back he would shoot, as

In New York State there is a sparsely they were traversing a private thoroughfare. The tourists obeyed.

settled, low, marshy district whose inIn Illinois the automobile was stoned

habitants are called “Swamp Angels." by hoodlums near the Indiana state line,

The “swamp” part of the term is very and a missile fell in the machine at Mrs.

appropriate, according to Mr. Miller's Willer's feet. Along a seldom traveled

statements, but he could not say so much road in Pennsylvania, where automobiles

for the “angels.”

"While traversing a road in this territory," are rarely if ever seen, but where farmers

said Mr. Miller, "we came upon a man and have provided themselves with a private woman driving in the same direction. The telephone line, news of the tourists' prog road was not wide enough for us to go by ress was telephoned ahead, and some

them on either side, without probably strik

ing the vehicle or horse, unless they would farmer youths further on placed a mound

mound drive to one side and stop. This they abof obstructions in the road, in the hope solutely refused to do, and the horse moped

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