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An ingenious arrangement of mirrors is the basis of this new and remarkable invention. The mirrors are contained in a light, strong metallic case, which is easily attached to the rifle and which enables the marksman to take aim from behind an embankment or other obstacle, without exposing himself. When first tested a short time ago in Thibet, the hyposcope fully demonstrated all that was ever claimed for it. The Thibetans, falling before the fire of the unseen foe, ■were completely nonplussed and fled in dismay, declaring that the very rocks and hills rained death on them when they went forth to fight the British. The result has been to create an uncontrollable superstition among the Llama's forces that they are the objects of Divine enmity and that the unseen powers of Providence are fighting against them.
The hyposcope, it is claimed, can be used at any range shown on the back sight of any rifle. Shooting may be as accurately continued without an ordinary back sight as with one—which is equivalent to an additional back sight, should that on the rifle be rendered useless. A trustworthy telescope is thus also added. The elevation of the hyposcope can be accurately and immediately effected by
Close-range Sighting From Behind Breastwork.
is known as the ''ordnance" hyposcope, and is attached to field pieces or automatic guns.
Another English device that has demonstrated its destructive qualities is the pom-pom. This was also a product of the Boer war. A gun having the power of a cannon, which can be carried about on the backs of horses, up mountain paths, across streams, over narrow bridges, through thickets and marshes, and, in fact, everywhere a horse can go, it has in real action proved itself to be one of the most valuable military additions of a decade. Lieutenant-Colonel Simpson of the British Army, who, in the fighting around Ladysmith, first employed pom-poms, says:
"One of the revelations of the South African war has been the pom-pom. Shortly after the relief of Ladysmith, I was ordered to exchange the guns of one section of No. 4 Battery for four pom-poms, with a view to its conversion into two sections under special pompom officers. They did good work until they were taken up at the end of the war. It struck me at the time how useful a section of jointed pom-poms in pack transport attached to a brigade division of mountain artillery might
be in Indian frontier warfare; and I made certain representations to the authorities, which, I am glad to see, have borne fruit, orders having been given by the Indian Government for the construction of a section of jointed pom-poms for experimental trial in India. These guns will probably be handed over to the infantry, and treated rather as a glorified Maxim* than as a piece of artillery; 1 hope otherwise."
The pom-pom is a gun of the field type, slightly modified to enable the barrel and water-jacket to be detached from the breech casing. The carriage is constructed so as to be readily taken to pieces, and consists of crosshead, elevating bracket, elevating gear, trail, axle, and wheels. The crosshead, which carries the gun, is attached to an elevating bracket by means of holding-down lugs, and can easily be detached from the mounting by turning the same 80 degrees. The elevating bracket is support
The trail is telescopic, and consists of two outer and two inner parallel steel tubes, held together by transoms. The inner tubes are drawn out to their full length when the gun is in firing position. At the front end of the outer tubes are two fork-shaped brackets, by means of which the trail is secured to the axle, and supports are afforded for the elevating bracket. The gun is fed from an ammunition tray carried on the right side of the crosshead. The pack saddlery is similar to that of the 2.95-inch gun, with the cradles adapted for the loads.
chine guns," which have recently been brought into additional prominence because of their adaptation to cavalry use. The term "machine gun" is self-explanatory. The gun is a machine devised to economize time and labor in the work of destroying an enemy; it is a contrivance that makes one machine perform the work of many men, thus reducing the risk, and increasing the amount of destruction. It is the champion time-saver in war's work of dealing death. Within the range of its deadly, sweeping fire, a whole regiment can be mowed clown in
For transportation the parts of the gun and equipment are divided into different loads, so that the horses may carry them conveniently and expeditiously. What is known as the first load consists of the barrel and water-jacket, shield, etc.; and the weight is 295 pounds. The breech casing and attachments form the second load, and weigh 278 pounds. The axle forms another load ; and the wheels, trail, and ammunition are all carried by separate horses, the different loads being designated by different numbers. The gun can be brought into action in iY\ minutes.
In describing formidable guns of the present day. it would be amiss not to mention those of the class known as "ma
an insignificantly short time, while one man turns the crank that pumps the streams of bullets from its multi-celled barrel.
The Gatlinjf The "Catling," the first successful machine gun, owes its origin to America, the nation that gave to the world the iron-clad war vessel, the monitor, the turret battleship, and numerous others . of the most formidable weapons of the day. Like these weapons, the Catling gun came out of that titanic struggle when Americans warred with Americans, when American strength and ingenuity strained its every tendon in the strife against American strength and ingenuity. The Catling gun is a machine gun of the mitrailleuse order. It was invented
cases are extracted. The gun is fed by feed cases, which are made to fit in a hopper communicating with the chambers. Continuous firing can be carried on by the ten-barrel gun at the rate of 1,000 shots a minute, as one case is replaced by another as fast as it is emptied. The five-barrel gun weighs 100 pounds. It is mounted on a tripod, and can be fired at the rate of 800 shots per minute. The bore of each barrel extends from end to end; and the breech is chambered to receive a flanged "center-fire" metalliccase cartridge. The breech ends of all the barrels are screwed into a disc, called the "rear barrel-plate," which is fastened to the central shaft; the muzzles pass through another disc, called the "front barrel-plate," on the same shaft. A hollow metal cylinder is fastened upon an extension of the central shaft, and is called the "carrier-block," behind which the shaft carries another cylinder, because each lock is acted on by a spiral spring operating the hammer by which the charge is fired. The shaft, the group of barrels, the carrier-block, and the lock cylinder, being all connected, revolve together : this revolution is effected by a toothed wheel, which is fastened to
ing along a groove in the inclined surface of the stationary spiral cam, so that the several locks in succession are forwarded toward their respective barrels. The Gatling gun is elevated and lowered like an ordinary field gun. The effects of its fire are invariably demoralizing. . Gatling guns deserve the credit for the American victory in the charge at San Juan Hill—a fact that is not generally known. There, in spite of the absence of gunners, of spare parts, and of tools. Lieutenant Parker, by the aid of four Gatlings, seized the position of San Juan in %l/> minutes—a position that was regarded as impregnable. He repulsed two counter-attacks by the Spaniards, silenced a five-inch gun at a distance of 2,000 yards, by firing on its cannoneers with a single machine gun. During the siege
the Nordenfeldt,the Maxim-Nordenfeldt. the Martigny, and the Pratt-Whitney. All are copied after the Gatling, and are operated on the same principle. China and Japan are well supplied with Maxims and Hotchkiss guns. The regular Chinese troops are armed with Gatlings. The Wire-Tube Gun The very newest American war invention is the Brown wire-tube gun. The first one of these has just been built at Reading, Pa. It is a 6-inch coast-defense gun, and it is claimed that it will carry 30 miles. A projectile fired from it has a velocity of 3.500 feet a second. An improved type that is now being proposed is expected to carry much farther. This weapon, some believe, will cause the American gun to become more famous than the Krupp.