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ment is square instead of round, with a field of view of six degrees. The tilt of the rifle from its vertical axis is visible in the sighting focus.
The accompanying illustrations show the manner of using the device and the method of its attachment to the ordinary rifle. A modified form of the instrument
be in Indian frontier warfare; and I made certain representations to the authorities, which, I am glad to see, have borne fruit, orders having been given by the Indian Government for the construction of a section of jointed pom-poms for experimental trial in India. These guns will probably be handed over to the infantry, and treated rather as a 'glorified Maxim' than as a piece of artillery;
The pom-pom is a gun of the field type, slightly modified to enable the barrel and water-jacket to be detached from the breech casing. The carriage is constructed so as to be readily taken to pieces, and consists of crosshead, elevating bracket, elevating gear, trail, axle, and wheels. The crosshead, which carries the gun, is attached to an elevating bracket by means of holding-down lugs, and can easily be detached from the mounting by turning the same 80 degrees. The elevating bracket is support
CLOSE-Range SIGHTING FROM BEHIND BREASTWORK.
is known as the "ordnance" hyposcope, and is attached to field pieces or automatic guns.
The Pom-Pom Another English device that has demonstrated its destructive qualities is the pom-pom. This was also a product of the Boer war. A gun having the power of a cannon, which can be carried about on the backs of horses, up mountain paths, across streams, over narrow bridges, through thickets and marshes, and, in fact, everywhere a horse can go, it has in real action proved itself to be one of the most valuable military additions of a decade. Lieutenant-Colonel Simpson of the British Army, who, in the fighting around Ladysmith, first employed pom-poms, says:
"One of the revelations of the South African war has been the pom-pom. Shortly after the relief of Ladysmith, I was ordered to exchange the guns of one section of No. 4 Battery for four pom-poms, with a view to its conversion into two sections under special pompom officers. They did good work until they were taken up at the end of the war. It struck me at the time how useful a section of jointed pom-poms in pack transport attached to a brigade division of mountain artillery might
Russian BATTERY OVERWHELMED in Broken Ice.
ed in the front lugs of the trail in such a manner that it is removed from the axle at the same time as the trail. The rear part of the elevating bracket forms a segment which serves as a support for the traversing clamp fixed between the lugs of the breech casing. By means of mos this clamp the gun can be locked in any position between the traversing limits.
The trail is telescopic, and consists of two outer and two inner parallel steel tubes, held together by transoms. The inner tubes are drawn out to their full length when the gun is in firing position. At the front end of the outer tubes are two fork-shaped brackets, by means of which the trail is secured to the axle, and supports are afforded for the elevating bracket. The gun is fed from an ammunition tray carried on the right side of the crosshead. The pack saddlery is similar to that of the 2.95-inch gun, with the cradles adapted for the loads.
chine guns," which have recently been brought into additional prominence because of their adaptation to cavalry use. The term “machine gun” is self-explanatory. The gun is a machine devised to economize time and labor in the work of destroying an enemy; it is a contrivance that makes one machine perform the work of many men, thus reducing the risk, and increasing the amount of destruction. It is the champion time-saver in war's work of dealing death. Within the range of its deadly, sweeping fire, a whole regiment can be mowed down in
For transportation the parts of the gun an insignificantly short time, while one and equipment are divided into different man turns the crank that pumps the loads, so that the horses may carry them streams of bullets from its multi-celled conveniently and expeditiously. What is barrel. known as the first load consists of the
The Gatling barrel and water-jacket, shield, etc.; and The “Gatling," the first successful mathe weight is 295 pounds. The breech chine gun, owes its origin to America, casing and attachments form the second the nation that gave to the world the load, and weigh 278 pounds. The axle iron-clad war vessel, the monitor, the forms another load; and the wheels, trail, turret battleship, and numerous others and ammunition are all carried by sepa- . of the most formidable weapons of the rate horses, the different loads being des- day. Like these weapons, the Gatling ignated by different numbers. The gun gun came out of that titanic struggle can be brought into action in 214 min when Americans warred with Americans, utes.
when American strength and ingenuity Machine Guns
strained its every tendon in the strife In describing formidable guns of the against American strength and ingenuity. present day, it would be amiss not to The Gatling gun is a machine gun of mention those of the class known as “ma- the mitrailleuse order. It was invented
though the barrels and locks revolve together, the locks have a forward and
cases are extracted. The gun is fed by feed cases, which are made to fit in a hopper communicating with the chambers. Continuous firing can be carried on by the ten-barrel gun at the rate of 1,000 shots a minute, as one case is replaced by another as fast as it is emptied. The five-barrel gun weighs 100 pounds. It is mounted on a tripod, and can be fired at the rate of 800 shots per minute. The bore of each barrel extends from end to end; and the breech is chambered to receive a flanged "center-fire” metalliccase cartridge. The breech ends of all the barrels are screwed into a disc, called the “rear barrel-plate,” which is fastened to the central shaft; the muzzles pass through another disc, called the “front barrel-plate," on the same shaft. A hollow metal cylinder is fastened upon an extension of the central shaft, and is called the "carrier-block," behind which the shaft carries another cylinder, because each lock is acted on by a spiral spring operating the hammer by which the charge is fired. The shaft, the group of barrels, the carrier-block, and the lock cylinder, being all connected, revolve together; this revolution is effected by a toothed wheel, which is fastened to
ing along a groove in the inclined surface the Nordenfeldt, the Maxim-Nordenfeldt, of the stationary spiral cam, so that the the Martigny, and the Pratt-Whitney. several locks in succession are forwarded All are copied after the Gatling, and are toward their respective barrels. The operated on the same principle. China Gatling gun is elevated and lowered like and Japan are well supplied with Maxims an ordinary field gun. The effects of its and Hotchkiss guns. The regular fire are invariably demoralizing.
Chinese troops are armed with Gatlings. . Gatling guns deserve the credit for the
The Wire-Tube Gun American victory in the charge at San The very newest American war invenJuan Hill—a fact that is not generally tion is the Brown wire-tube gun. The known. There, in spite of the absence of first one of these has just been built at gunners, of spare parts, and of tools, Reading, Pa. It is a 6-inch coast-defense Lieutenant Parker, by the aid of four gun, and it is claimed that it will carry Gatlings, seized the position of San Juan 30 miles. A projectile fired from it has in 81/2 minutes—a position that was re- a velocity of 3,500 feet a second. An garded as impregnable. He repulsed two improved type that is now being proposed counter-attacks by the Spaniards, silenced is expected to carry much farther. This a five-inch gun at a distance of 2,000 weapon, some believe, will cause the yards, by firing on its cannoneers with a American gun to become more famous single machine gun. During the siege than the Krupp.
The Brown wire-tube is 26 feet long, advantage over all other guns because and weighs 20,000 pounds. It is built of its enormous powers and its tensile to withstand a pressure of 100,000 strength and elasticity. pounds at the breech and 50,000 pounds
Military Track Bicycle at the muzzle. This muzzle strength is greater than the breech strength of the
Germany has attained distinction of guns now in use by the American Army
late through the manufacture of some
very meritorious devices. One contrivand Navy. The manufacturer of the new
ance of German origin that is of special weapon states :
interest, is an arrangement known as a "The possibilities of guns of this kind are
"military track bicycle," whereby an ormarvelous. It is estimated, for instance, that a 10-inch gun will throw a shell nearly 60
dinary bicycle may be used on track miles, and that a gun of this pattern of larger rails, enabling the soldier to carry his size will throw a projectile 100 miles. All this piece handily and fire it when he desires is in remarkable contrast with guns made years ago, and especially those used before the Civil
without dismounting. It is planned to War, when they were often made of a single use this unique contrivance in the Ruspiece of cast iron. While wire-wound guns sian army in guarding the Trans-Siber
ian railroad. In the frame of a light guiding carriage of Mannesmann tubing, one or two bicycles are placed and easily connected, the whole forming a solid car, as it were. The apparatus can be taken apart in a few seconds, and assembled according to need. It can be driven by one or two persons. The inventor is Lieutenant von Trutzschler of the Kaiser Alexander regiment, who thinks that the contrivance will serve to lighten the difficulty of railway patrol service in all wars of the future.
A New Type of Submarine From Japan comes the news that Captain Oda, inventor of the types of sub
marine mines used by the Japanese, one A TRACK Bicycle.
of which destroyed the Russian flagship By this device an ordinary bicycle can be used Petropavlovsk, has invented a new en
gine—something between a torpedo and are not altogether new, the wire-tube differs
a mine-charged with nitro-glycerine in from all that have ever before been used in enormous quantities and driven by an oil many important respects.
motor. When Russia's Baltic fleet The wire-tube is built of rolled steel reaches Eastern waters, if it ever shall, sheets, upon which are wound layers of these engines will be used against it; and polished steel wire. The lining tube is positions are already prepared in Forof forged steel. More than 20 miles of mosa and the Loo-Choo islands with that square steel wire is wound over the steel object. There will be no crew on board sheets. Then a trunnion jacket of forged these vessels, which apparently will be steel is shrunk over the wire. At the steered by some application of wireless breech of the gun there are 21 layers of electricity. Full precautions will be wire and at the muzzle seven layers. The taken to prevent any accidents to neutension in winding is about 128,000 trals; and, as explosion takes place after pounds to the square inch. The wire- a certain lapse of time, there will be no tube is the invention of J. Hamilton risk of live mines remaining adrift on the Brown. It is believed to have a great high seas.
on railroad tracks.