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largely upon their work in this depart ment.

In addition to the expansion of the seven original departments as outlined above, two entirely new ones have been added, the necessity for them having developed since the course was founded. The first of these two to be introduced was the Department of Applied Electricity, in 1893; and the other, the Depart. ment of Business Engineering, in 1903.

The Department of Business Engineering was the outgrowth of the efforts of Mr. Alexander C. Humphreys (now President Humphreys), of the Class of *81. Successful in his professional work, chiefly with the upbuilding of the United Gas Improvement Company, and later in the firm of Humphreys & Glasgow, en

a footing in the already crowded course at the Institute. In 1897, at the request of President Morton, he arranged a course of lectures by prominent bankers and business men. This was followed by a brief course of instruction; but it was not a requisite and completely established part of the curriculum until 1903, when he had become President of Stevens Institute. He then took personal charge of the work, and created the Department of Business Engineering. In this department the effort is made, first, to bring the students to appreciate that engineers must practice their profession in conformity with commercial conditions and limitations. Then, by means of lectures and recitations, instruction is given in Accounting, Depreciation, Shop Cost,

Analysis of Data, Law of Contracts, and business methods in general. This work is confined to the Senior year.

Only One Degree ? The course of study in the Department of Electrical Engineering, which now takes the place of the Department of Applied Electricity established over twenty years ago, has kept pace with the rapid advancement in that branch of the engineering profession. Such is the efficiency of the course in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stevens at the present day, that, with some rearrangement of roster, the degree of Electrical Engineer could be given fairly; and the question whether it should be, or not, has recently received serious consideration.

give only the degree of Mechanical Engineer, combining with it the fundamentals and essentials of Electrical Engineering.

The young mechanical engineer will unquestionably have more opportunities if versed in the fundamentals of Electrical Engineering; and the young man who would seek a specialized training for the degree of Electrical Engineer, would certainly have a great advantage if he were first well trained for the profession of Mechanical Engineering. Substantiation of the reasons for continuing to give the single degree of M. E., especially for those who wish to follow Electrical Engineering, could be foundwere substantiation necessary—in the

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To establish another degree would be to records of the Stevens graduates of depart from the tradition which has al- former years who are now occupying poways been associated with Stevens, and sitions at the very top of the electrical that is, that she concentrates her whole profession, and those of more recent energy on one degree, and that one in years who have entered the works of Mechanical Engineering.

large electrical manufacturing establishThe sentiment of prominent Alumni of ments, and who report uniformly that Stevens-men prominentin electrical lines they are enabled to hold their own with especially—seems to be almost unani- the E. E. graduates of other technical mously against conferring two separate colleges which specialize during the last degrees, and in favor of continuing to one or two years of their course.

Every student at Stevens is required facturers of instruments, superintendents to take the complete course of study, with of paper mills, manufacturers of textile no options or specializing. This has been machinery, mining engineers, etc. This the distinguishing feature from the be- list of occupations is quoted from a recent ginning of the Institute, setting Stevens address by President Alexander C. apart from all other technical institutions, Humphreys, M. E., Sc. D., LL. D., who and giving a strength to her degree of also states in this connection, that "the Mechanical Engineer that is not sur- same college course furnished each of passed.

these men a solid foundation upon which Stevens graduates have risen every- to build the superstructure required for where to high positions in nearly every his selected vocation.” branch of engineering work, as may be President Morton, who had successseen by examining the list of positions of fully developed the work of Stevens Inthe Alumni of Stevens, published an- stitute from the beginning, and who had nually in the Institute Catalogue. It is made this his life work, was called to there shown that more than one-third of his eternal rest in May, 1902. His labors the graduates have risen to or above the for the advancement of Stevens were responsible position of Superintendent, taken up in September of the same year many being Managers or Presidents. by Pres. Alex. C. Humphreys, who Among the remaining two-thirds, are had been his close personal friend largely the Alumni of the past eight for a number of years. President years, who comprise fifty per cent of the Humphreys was graduated at Stevens total number of living graduates; of the with the Class of '81. He had always latter, who are yet very young men, many taken the greatest interest in the affairs

of the Institute; and when the question of electing a successor to President Morton came up, the Trustees were unanimously petitioned by the Faculty and Alumni of the Institute to extend a call to Mr. Humphreys. This the Trustees promptly did without a dissenting voice.

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ONE OF THE DRAFTing Rooms, RECENTLY ENLARGED.

are doing responsible work although regularly rated as assistants, etc. As an example of the various lines of work in which the Stevens graduate is successfully engaged, we find in the above-mentioned list, officers of railroads, superintendents of iron and steel mills, electric light engineers, electric railway engineers, manufacturers of electrical apparatus, gas engineers, specialists in steam, marine engineers, designers and builders of various kinds of engines, hydraulic engineers, bridge builders, sugar manufacturers, flour manufacturers, refrigerating engineers, oil refiners, locomotive builders, copper refiners, manu

Endow.ment and Equipment The original endowment of Stevens Institute, as already mentioned, was $500,000. The principal sources of revenue received since the establishment of the Institute, have been from the late President Morton, who, at various critical periods, gave sums ranging from $2,500 to $50,000, and aggregating $145,000. Not all of this remains as an endowment fund, for much that President Morton gave was applied to meeting the growing demands for accommodation. For example, he gave $10,500 toward fitting up a workshop in 1881, and $15.000 for the building of a new boiler room in 1901. In 1899, Mr. Andrew Carnegie donated $65,000 for a new Laboratory of Engineering; and, upon its completion in 1902, he gave $100,000, and a year later an additional $125.000, making a total of $225,000 as an endowment fund for the building. In 1897, Mrs. Martha B. Stevens, widow of the found

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DYNAMO ROOM, ELECTRICAL LABORATORY, LOOKING EAST. dergone considerable change in the past equipped for the exercises in steam-fitting two years. The drafting rooms have been and vise work. enlarged to an uninterrupted floor space After the student has finished the of 60 by 40 feet each, with ample win course in Shop Work, he takes up exerdow space for light. They are also cises in handling and testing boilers, enequipped with individual adjustable elec- gines of various kinds, machinery, and tric light pendants, permitting each stu apparatus likely to be met with in prodent to place the lamp, when required, so fessional life. These exercises are conas to avoid shadows. The workshops ducted in the thoroughly equipped new have been entirely overhauled during the Carnegie Laboratory of Engineering. past year, the metal- and wood-working Electrical Laboratory work is conrooms each being large (60 by 40 feet) ducted in two large rooms, each recently and well lighted, and well equipped, equipped with much up-to-date electrical the former with lathes and planers, apparatus. The "Instrument" Laboradrill presses and milling machines, tory is equipped with a large variety of shapers, etc., and the latter with wood measuring instruments and standards. lathes, a wood planer, circular and The Chemical Laboratories include band saws, etc., all of the latest types. two entire floors in the west wing of the main building, and are especially equip- tory school in which there are 309 stuped for carrying on work in Engineering dents in attendance. Boys who can pass Chemistry. Plans are now nearly com- satisfactory examination in geography, plete for a new Laboratory of Chemistry, elements of English grammar, and arithto be named the Morton Memorial Labo metic, may enter the lowest class in ratory of Chemistry, in memory of the the preparatory school and take up a late President Henry Morton.

thorough course not only for Stevens InA large and attractive auditorium, stitute but for any University or College. seating 700 people, was constructed in Complete English, classical, and scientific the central wing of the main building courses are provided. The close relalast summer.

In conducting the course of study at with the Stevens Institute, give the Stevens, advantage is taken of the prox- former peculiar advantages in carrying imity to New York City, and to the great out its courses of study. industrial and manufacturing centers The Institute building and grounds are near by. Classes, or sections of classes, situated on rising land, one block from may be taken conveniently on short half- the river front, and overlooking 1 day or day trips by the instructors, when New York City and New York Bay down such visits fit specially well with any to the Narrows. A large athletic field, particular class-room topic.

situated about eight minutes' walk from The enrollment of students at the In- the Institute, is available to the students. stitute during the current college year is A plot of land, now part of the private 346. The Faculty has steadily grown grounds of Castle Point, two minutes' from the seven original members to walk from the main building, was given twenty-four at the present time.

to the Institute recently by Col. E. A. In connection with the Institute, and and Robert L. Stevens, for dormitory on the same grounds, there is a prepara purposes.

Ignition in the Automobile Engine

A Comparison of the Different Methods Employed in Starting

F THE TWO GENERAL method can be successfully used with VIETHODS OF IGNITION— any of the regular apparatus for furnishthe jump spark and the make ing the electric current—that is, the bat

and break—an observation of the tery, dynamo, or magneto, or combinadifferent motors shows that either tion of dynamo or magneto and battery, method can be successfully used with providing the complete apparatus is coneither the high or low speed, single or sistently designed. multi-cylinder motor. The jump spark It is noticed that the jump spark with method possesses the advantage of me battery is meeting with probably the chanical simplicity and the disadvantage greater favor by American automobile of electrical complication, while the make manufacturers, while the European and break possesses electrical simplicity builders are using the make and break and mechanical complication. Either spark more extensively with the alter

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