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as well as night, than to employ men to put them out in the morning and relight them at night.

Gas buoys are placed to mark the most important channels, or the entrances to harbors, or dangerous shoals, where

lighthouses or light-vessels do not exist. g

The ordinary can buoy, bell buoy, or spar buoy would answer in most places by day, but at night could be distinguished only at short distances, if at all. The gas-buoy light, on the other hand, can be

seen from one to six miles off according RAGGED POINT SPIT Gas Buoy, Mo.-FOURTH DISTRICT. to circumstances. Some are made to flash

automatically every ten seconds, or at

other desired intervals, burning low or for those nearly empty, or to replenish dim for a certain number of seconds, and the supply of gas. In the latter case, gas then flashing out brightly for a certain is pumped into the buoy through a long length of time. These buoys are imhose connected to the supply tank on the ported from Germany, and the gas-reguvessel. It is cheaper to allow the gas- lating and automatic devices are patented. buoy lights to burn continuously, by day Their cost is about $1,700 each.


The World is Growing Better

'HE world is growing better!

Thought takes a wider sweep;
The hands of sturdy labor

The golden harvests reap.
We will not drink the bitter

When so little makes it sweet.

The world is growing richer

In wealth brought from the earth-
But, better far, with treasures found

In mines of sterling worth,
For noble deeds are honored more

Than simple claims of birth.

The world is growing better,

With fewer musty creeds,
With more of human striving

To answer human needs,
With precious harvests garnered

As the growth of precious seeds.


Ta new and most important step

New York's Great Subway A Successful Solution of the Rapid-Transit Problem, an Issue Confronting

All Great American Cities


Staff Correspondent, Chicago Record-Herald
HE opening of the great New lions of people who do not live in or near
York subway in October marked New York at all.

There seems to be no doubt that the in the direction of the solution of subway will be a success. From the two the transportation problems of the great standpoints of speed and protection from cities of America. Though we may not inclement weather alone, its popularity is realize it, the success or failure of this assured at the outset, particularly when vast project means much to many mil- added to these is the fact that the rate of

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fare will be the same as on the surface the unfortunate unevenness of haphazard and elevated roads.

expansion. It has given to Chicago Unfortunately the growth of most of nearly 200 square miles of territory, in our great cities—in the West, especially 172 square miles of which is concen—has been so marvelous that the peo trated the great bulk of its enormous ple have had neither time nor inclination activities. Congestion like this soon beto halt and seek to secure some conditions comes unbearable ; and it is apparent even of order out of the chaos. Chicago and to the casual observer that there is no St. Louis are two notable instances of room for further traffic expansion either

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above ground or on the surface. The ning to reap their reward, not only in only solution of the difficulty is subway vastly improved transportation, but in the or tunnel construction, and to this every knowledge that for the first time in large city in the country must come American history a great public work sooner or later.

has been carried through without a cent To understand, therefore, how they of actual expense to the taxpayers, have conquered the threatened congestion though the title to the property and in New York, becomes of extraordinary equipment rests entirely in the municiinterest and importance, not only to ex pality. perts in engineering and contracting everywhere, but to the great mass of the people as well.

The difficulties that have been surmounted in carrying through this $35,000,000 contract, have taxed to the utmost the abilities of the engineer, the steel and structural iron manufacturer, the contractor, and experts in electricity, waterproofing, power transmission, boiler plants, and construction of cars. Every obstacle has been overcome, though in many instances the invention of a dozen different processes hitherto unknown became necessary before success could be reached. For four years the people of New York have suffered every imaginable inconvenience; but they are now begin



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